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File:Franz Xaver Gruber (1787-1863).jpg

Franz Xaver Gruber, painted by Sebastian Stief (1846)

"Silent Night" (German: Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht) is a popular Christmas carol, composed in 1818 by Franz Xaver Gruber to lyrics by Joseph Mohr in the small town of Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria. It was declared an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2011.[1] The song has been recorded by a large number of singers from every music genre. The version sung by Bing Crosby is the third best-selling single of all-time.



Silent-Night-Chapel in Oberndorf

The song was first performed on Christmas Eve 1818 at St Nicholas parish church in Oberndorf, a village in the Austrian Empire on the Salzach river in present-day Austria. A young priest, Father Joseph Mohr, had come to Oberndorf the year before. He had already written the lyrics of the song "Stille Nacht" in 1816 at Mariapfarr, the hometown of his father in the Salzburg Lungau region, where Joseph had worked as a co-adjutor.

The melody was composed by Franz Xaver Gruber, schoolmaster and organist in the nearby village of Arnsdorf. Before Christmas Eve, Mohr brought the words to Gruber and asked him to compose a melody and guitar accompaniment for the church service.[2] Both performed the carol during the mass on the night of December 24.

The original manuscript has been lost. However, a manuscript was discovered in 1995 in Mohr's handwriting and dated by researchers at c. 1820. It shows that Mohr wrote the words in 1816 when he was assigned to a pilgrim church in Mariapfarr, Austria, and shows that the music was composed by Gruber in 1818. This is the earliest manuscript that exists and the only one in Mohr's handwriting.

The first edition was published by de [August Robert Friese; Friese] in 1833 in a collection of Four Genuine Tyrolean Songs, with the following musical text:[3] <score vorbis="1"> \relative c {

 \key c \major \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic guitar (nylon)"
 \time 6/8 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 60 \autoBeamOff
g8. [a16] g8 e4. | g8. [a16] g8 e4. | d'4 d16. [b32] b4. | c4 c16. [g32] g4. | a4 a8 c8. b16 a8 | g8. a16 g8 e4. |
a4 a8 c8. b16 a8 | g8. a16 g8 e4. | d'4 d8 f8.-> d16 b8 | c4. (e4) r8 | c8. [g16] e8 g8. f16 d8 | c4.~ c4 r8 \bar "|."

} </score>

The story of the composing of the song was the subject of the fanciful television special Silent Mouse (1988) narrated by Lynn Redgrave.[4] Later films to tell the story include Christian Vuissa's film de [Stille Nacht (2012 film); Stille Nacht] (2012)[5] and the documentary The First Silent Night (2014), narrated by Simon Callow.[6]


In 1859, the Episcopal priest John Freeman Young, then serving at Trinity Church, New York City, published the English translation that is most frequently sung today, using three of Gruber's original six verses.[7] The version of the melody that is generally used today is a slow, meditative lullaby or pastorale, differing slightly (particularly in the final strain) from Gruber's original, which was a "moderato" tune in 6/8 time and siciliana rhythm.[8][9] Today, the lyrics and melody are in the public domain.

The carol has been translated into about 140 languages.[10][11]

The song was sung simultaneously in English and German by troops during the Christmas truce[12] of 1914 during World War I, as it was one carol that soldiers on both sides of the front line knew.


File:Stille nacht.jpg

Autograph (c. 1860) of the carol by Franz Gruber

Mohr's German lyrics Young's English lyrics[13]

Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,
Alles schläft; einsam wacht
Nur das traute hochheilige Paar.
Holder Knabe im lockigen Haar,
Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!
Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!

Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,
Hirten erst kundgemacht
Durch der Engel Halleluja,
Tönt es laut von fern und nah:
Christ, der Retter ist da!
Christ, der Retter ist da!

Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,
Gottes Sohn, o wie lacht
Lieb' aus deinem göttlichen Mund,
Da uns schlägt die rettende Stund'.
Christ, in deiner Geburt!
Christ, in deiner Geburt!

Silent night, holy night,
all is calm, all is bright
round yon virgin mother and child.
Holy infant, so tender and mild,
sleep in heavenly peace,
sleep in heavenly peace.

Silent night, holy night,
shepherds quake at the sight;
glories stream from heaven afar,
heavenly hosts sing Alleluia!
Christ the Savior is born,
Christ the Savior is born!

Silent night, holy night,
Son of God, love's pure light;
radiant beams from thy holy face
with the dawn of redeeming grace,
Jesus, Lord, at thy birth,
Jesus, Lord, at thy birth.


  1. "Österreichische UNESCO-Kommission – Nationalagentur für das Immaterielle Kulturerbe – Austrian Inventory". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  2. "BBC Religion & Ethics". BBC. 2009-08-04. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
  3. "Silent Night" revisited by Norbert Müllemann, G. Henle Verlag, 24 December 2012
  4. "Silent Mouse (1988)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  6. First Silent Night, The, production details
  7. Underwood, Byron Edward, "Bishop John Freeman Young, Translator of 'Stille Nacht'", The Hymn, v. 8, no. 4, October 1957, pp. 123–132.
  8. Meredith Ellis Little (2001). Siciliana. Grove Music Online. ISBN 978-1561592630.
  9. Gerlinde Haid (1994). Siciliano als Typus weihnachtlicher Volksmusik. 175 Jahre "Stille Nacht! Heilige Nacht!" (in German), p.135–146. Salzburg.
  10. Ronald M. Clancy, William E Studwell. Best-Loved Christmas Carols. Christmas Classics Ltd, 2000.
  11. "Silent Night". Silent Night Web.
  12. Stanley Weintraub Silent Night: The Remarkable Christmas Truce of 1914. New York: Free Press, 2001.
  13. "Silent Night, Holy Night", The United Methodist Hymnal, number 239, translated by John F. Young (stanzas 1–3) and anon. (stanza 4),

External links[]


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