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Roy Kelton Orbison (April 23, 1936 – December 6, 1988), nicknamed the Big O, was an American singer-songwriter and musician, known for his distinctive, impassioned voice, complex compositions and dark emotional ballads. The combination led many critics to describe his music as operatic, giving him the sobriquet "the Caruso of Rock". Between 1960 and 1964, 22 of his songs placed on the Billboard Top 40, including "Only the Lonely" (1960), "Crying" (1961), and "Oh, Pretty Woman" (1964).
Orbison grew up in Texas and began singing in a rockabilly and country and western band in high school. He was signed by Sun Records in 1956, but his greatest success came with Monument Records in the early 1960s. His career stagnated in the 1970s, but was revived by several cover versions of his songs and the use of "In Dreams" in David Lynch's film Blue Velvet (1986). In 1988, he was a member of the Traveling Wilburys supergroup, along with George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty and Jeff Lynne. He recorded his last solo album, Mystery Girl, the same year but died of a heart attack shortly thereafter.
While most male rock and roll performers in the 1950s and 1960s projected a defiant masculinity, many of Orbison's songs instead conveyed a quiet, almost desperate, vulnerability. His voice ranged from baritone to tenor, and music scholars have suggested that he had a three- or four-octave range. During performances, he was known for standing still and solitary, and for wearing black clothes and dark sunglasses, which lent an air of mystery to his persona.
His honors include inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987, the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in the same year, and the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1989. Rolling Stone placed him at number 37 on their list of the "Greatest Artists of All Time" and number 13 on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time'. In 2002, Billboard magazine listed Orbison at number 74 in the Top 600 recording artists.
- 1 Early life
- 2 1957–59: Sun Records and Acuff-Rose
- 3 1960–64: Arrival and Monument Records
- 4 1965–69: Career decline and tragedies
- 5 1970s–80s
- 6 Death
- 7 Style and influence
- 8 Discography
- 9 Honors
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 Citations
- 13 Sources
- 14 External links
Roy Kelton Orbison was born in Vernon, Texas, the middle son of Orbie Lee Orbison (1913–1984), an oil well driller and car mechanic, and Nadine Shultz (1914–1992), a nurse. Both of his parents were unemployed during the Great Depression and, searching for work, moved the family to Fort Worth, Texas, when Roy was a child. He attended Denver Avenue Elementary School until a polio scare prompted the family to return to Vernon. Later, they moved to Wink, Texas. Orbison later described life in Wink as "football, oil fields, oil, grease and sand" and expressed relief that he was able to leave the desolate town.[note 1] All the Orbison children were afflicted with poor eyesight; Roy used thick corrective lenses from an early age. He was not confident about his appearance and began dyeing his nearly-white hair black when he was still young. He was quiet and self-effacing, remarkably polite and obliging — a product, biographer Alan Clayson wrote, of his Southern upbringing. He was readily available to sing, however, and often became the focus of attention when he did. He considered his voice memorable, if not great.
On Roy's sixth birthday, his father gave him a guitar. He later recalled that by the age of seven, "I was finished, you know, for anything else"; music would be his life. His major musical influence as a youth was country music. He was particularly moved by Lefty Frizzell's singing, with its slurred syllables. (When he later joined the Anglo-American supergroup The Travelling Wilburys, he adopted the name of 'Lefty' Wilbury for his character). He also enjoyed Hank Williams and Jimmie Rodgers. One of the first musicians he heard in person was Ernest Tubb, who was playing on the back of a flatbed truck in Fort Worth. In West Texas, he was exposed to many forms of music: "sepia" (a euphemism for rhythm and blues), Tex-Mex, the orchestral arrangements of Mantovani and cajun. The cajun favorite "Jole Blon" was one of the first songs he sang in public. Aged eight, he began singing on a local radio show. By the late 1940s, he was the show's host.
In high school, Orbison and some friends formed a band, the Wink Westerners. They played country standards and Glenn Miller songs at local honky-tonks, and had a weekly radio show on KERB in Kermit. When they were offered $400 to play at a dance, Orbison realized that he could make a living in music. After graduating from Wink High School, he enrolled at North Texas State College in Denton, planning to study geology so that he could secure work in the oil fields if music did not pay. After his first year of college, he returned to Wink and continued performing with the Wink Westerners. Three of the five members of the band moved to Odessa, Texas, and two new members were added to the group, which changed its name to the Teen Kings. Orbison enrolled in Odessa Junior College. The Teen Kings performed on local TV stations, played dances on the weekends, and attended college during the day. Orbison heard that his North Texas State classmate Pat Boone had signed a record deal, which further strengthened his resolve to become a professional musician.
While living in Odessa, Orbison saw a performance by Elvis Presley, who was only a year older and a rising star. Johnny Cash toured the area in 1955, playing on the same local radio show as the Teen Kings, and suggested that Orbison approach Sam Phillips at Sun Records, the home of rockabilly artists Presley, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis and Cash. Orbison telephoned Phillips and during their conversation was curtly told, "Johnny Cash doesn't run my record company!"[note 2] While at North Texas State College he was persuaded to listen to a song called "Ooby Dooby", composed by Dick Penner and Wade Moore in mere minutes atop a fraternity house at the college. The Teen Kings recorded the song on the Odessa-based Je–Wel record label. Phillips was impressed and offered the Teen Kings a contract in 1956.
1957–59: Sun Records and Acuff-Rose
Script error: No such module "main". The Teen Kings went to Sun Studio in Memphis, where Phillips wanted to record "Ooby Dooby" again, in his superior studio. Orbison had grown weary of the song and rankled quietly as Phillips dictated what the band would play and how he was to sing it. With Phillips's production, however, the record broke into the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number 59 and selling 200,000 copies. The Teen Kings toured with Sonny James, Johnny Horton, Carl Perkins, and Cash. Much influenced by Elvis Presley, Orbison performed frenetically, doing "everything we could to get applause because we had only one hit record". The Teen Kings also began writing songs in a rockabilly style, including "Go! Go! Go!" and "Rockhouse". The band ultimately split over disputed writing credits and royalties, but Orbison stayed in Memphis and asked his 16-year-old girlfriend, Claudette Frady, to join him there.[note 3] They stayed in Phillips's home, sleeping in separate rooms. In the studio Orbison concentrated on the mechanics of recording. Phillips remembered being much more impressed with Orbison's mastery of the guitar than with his voice. A ballad Orbison wrote - "The Clown" - met with a lukewarm response; after hearing it, Sun Records producer Jack Clement told Orbison that he would never make it as a ballad singer.
Orbison had some success at Sun Records, however, and was introduced to Elvis Presley's social circle, once going to pick up a date for Presley in his purple Cadillac. Orbison sold "Claudette" - a song he wrote about Claudette Frady whom he married in 1957 - to the Everly Brothers and their subsequent recording of it was released as the B-side of their smash hit "All I Have to Do Is Dream". The first, and perhaps only, royalties Orbison earned from Sun Records enabled him to make a down-payment on his own Cadillac. Increasingly frustrated at Sun, he gradually stopped recording. He toured music circuits around Texas, and then quit performing for seven months in 1958. In dire financial straits, his car repossessed, he turned to family and friends for funds.
For a brief period in the late 1950s Orbison made his living at Acuff-Rose, a songwriting firm concentrating mainly on country music. After spending an entire day writing a song, he would make several demo tapes at a time and send them to Wesley Rose, who would try to find musical acts to record them. Orbison attempted to sell to RCA Victor his recordings of songs by other writers, working with, and being in awe of, Chet Atkins, who had played guitar with Presley. One song he tried was "Seems to Me" by Boudleaux Bryant. Bryant's impression of Orbison was of "a timid, shy kid who seemed to be rather befuddled by the whole music scene. I remember the way he sang then — softly, prettily but almost bashfully, as if someone might be disturbed by his efforts and reprimand him."
Playing shows late into the night, and living with his wife and young child in his tiny apartment, Orbison often sought refuge by taking his guitar to his car and writing songs there. Songwriter Joe Melson, an acquaintance of Orbison's, tapped on his car window one day in Texas in 1958, and the two decided to try to write some songs together. In three recording sessions in 1958 and 1959, Orbison and Melson recorded seven songs at RCA Nashville, with Atkins producing, but only two were judged worthy of release by RCA; Wesley Rose brought Orbison to the attention of producer Fred Foster at Monument Records.
1960–64: Arrival and Monument Records
Orbison was one of the first recording artists to popularize the "Nashville sound", doing so with a group of session musicians known as the A-Team: guitarists Grady Martin, Harold Bradley, Fred Carter, Jr., Ray Edenton and bassist Bob Moore; pianists Floyd Cramer or Hargus "Pig" Robbins; drummer Buddy Harman; and backup vocals by the Jordanaires or the Anita Kerr Singers. The Nashville sound was developed by producers Chet Atkins, Owen Bradley (who worked closely with Patsy Cline), Sam Phillips and Fred Foster. In his first session for Monument in Nashville, Orbison recorded a song that RCA had refused, "Paper Boy", backed by "With the Bug", but neither charted.
According to musician and author Albin Zak, the studio (with sound engineer Bill Porter, who experimented with close miking the doo-wop backing singers), the production by Foster, and the accompanying musicians gave Orbison's music a "polished, professional sound ... finally allow[ing] Orbison's stylistic inclinations free rein". To augment the Nashville sound, Orbison requested a string section in the studio. With this combination, he recorded three new songs, the most notable of which was "Uptown", written with Joe Melson. Impressed with the results, Melson later recalled, "We stood in the studio, listening to the playbacks, and thought it was the most beautiful sound in the world." The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll states that the music Orbison made in Nashville "brought a new splendor to rock", and compared the melodramatic effects of the orchestral accompaniment to the musical productions of Phil Spector.
"Uptown" reached only number 72 on the Billboard Top 100, and Orbison set his sights on negotiating a contract with an upscale nightclub somewhere. His initial success came as the careers of many of rock and roll's first generation had stalled or been derailed. Elvis Presley was in the army. Eddie Cochran and fellow Texan Buddy Holly—with both of whom Orbison had previously toured—had, to Orbison's deep astonishment, died. Little Richard had found religion and Chuck Berry was in jail. Orbison's former Sun Records colleague Jerry Lee Lewis had been disgraced when his marriage to his 13-year-old cousin was reported widely in the press. The radio waves were dominated by teen idol crooners, who sang cleansed formulas like those about the twist dance craze and "death discs" like "Teen Angel" (performed by Mark Dinning) and "Endless Sleep" (Jody Reynolds).
Writing for the voice
Influenced by contemporaneous hits such as "Come Back to Me (My Love)" and "Come Softly to Me", Orbison and Joe Melson wrote a song in early 1960 which, using elements from "Uptown", employed strings and the Anita Kerr doo-wop backing singers. It also featured a note hit by Orbison in falsetto that showcased a powerful voice which, according to biographer Clayson, "came not from his throat but deeper within". The song was "Only the Lonely". Orbison and Melson tried to sell it to Elvis Presley and the Everly Brothers but were turned down. They instead recorded the song at RCA's Nashville studio, with sound engineer Bill Porter trying a completely new strategy: building the mix from the top down rather than from the bottom up, beginning with close-miked backing vocals in the foreground, and ending with the rhythm section soft in the background. This combination became Orbison's trademark sound. The single shot to number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and hit number one in the UK and Australia. According to Orbison, the subsequent songs he wrote with Melson during this period were constructed with his voice in mind, specifically to showcase its range and power. He told Rolling Stone in 1988, "I liked the sound of [my voice]. I liked making it sing, making the voice ring, and I just kept doing it. And I think that somewhere between the time of "Ooby Dooby" and "Only the Lonely", it kind of turned into a good voice."
Instantly Orbison was in high demand. He appeared on American Bandstand and toured the U.S. for three months non-stop with Patsy Cline. When Presley heard "Only the Lonely" for the first time, he bought a box of copies to pass to his friends. Melson and Orbison followed it with the more complex "Blue Angel", which peaked at number nine in the U.S. and number 11 in the UK. "I'm Hurtin'", with "I Can't Stop Loving You" as the B-side, rose to number 27 in the U.S. but failed to chart in the UK.
Orbison was now able to move his wife and son to Nashville permanently. Back in the studio, seeking a change from the pop sound of "Only the Lonely" and "I'm Hurtin'", Orbison worked on a new song, "Running Scared", based loosely on the rhythm of Ravel's Boléro; the song was about a man on the lookout for his girlfriend's previous boyfriend, who he feared would try to take her away. Orbison encountered difficulty when he found himself unable to hit the song's highest note without his voice breaking. He was backed by an orchestra in the studio and Porter told him he would have to sing louder than his accompaniment because the orchestra was unable to be softer than his voice. Fred Foster then put Orbison in the corner of the studio and surrounded him with coat racks forming an improvised isolation booth to emphasize his voice. Orbison was unhappy with the first two takes. In the third, however, he abandoned the idea of using falsetto and sang the final high 'A' naturally, so astonishing everyone present that the accompanying musicians stopped playing. On that third take, "Running Scared" was completed. Fred Foster later recalled, "He did it, and everybody looked around in amazement. Nobody had heard anything like it before."
Developing the image
Just weeks later "Running Scared" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and number nine in the UK. The composition of Orbison's following hits reflected "Running Scared": a story about an emotionally vulnerable man facing loss or grief, with a crescendo culminating in a surprise climax that employed Orbison's dynamic voice. "Crying" followed in July 1961 and reached number two; it was coupled with an up-tempo R&B song, "Candy Man", written by Fred Neil and Beverley Ross, which reached the Billboard Top 30, staying on the charts for two months. While Orbison was touring Australia in 1962, an Australian DJ referred to him affectionately as "The Big O", partly based on the big finishes to his dramatic ballads, and the moniker stuck with him thereafter. Orbison's second son was born the same year, and Orbison hit number four in the U.S. and number two in the UK with "Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream?)", an upbeat song by country songwriter Cindy Walker. (Orbison's producer would later form the Candymen quintet, which was Orbison's backing band from 1965 to 1970, while releasing a few singles and two albums of their own). Also in 1962, he charted with "The Crowd", "Leah" and "Workin' For the Man", which he wrote about working one summer in the oil fields near Wink. His relationship with Joe Melson, however, was deteriorating over Melson's growing concerns that his own solo career would never get off the ground.
Lacking the photogenic looks of many of his rock and roll contemporaries, Orbison eventually developed a persona that did not reflect his personality. He had no publicist in the early 1960s, no presence in fan magazines, and his single sleeves did not feature his picture. Life magazine called him an "anonymous celebrity". After leaving his thick eyeglasses on an airplane in 1962 or 1963, Orbison was forced to wear his prescription Wayfarer sunglasses on stage and found that he preferred them. His biographers suggest that although he had a good sense of humor and was never morose, Orbison was very shy and suffered from severe stage fright; wearing sunglasses helped him hide somewhat from the attention. The ever-present sunglasses led some people to assume, then and now, that the stationary performer was blind. The black clothes and desperation in his songs led to an aura of mystery and introversion. Years later Orbison said, "I wasn't trying to be weird, you know? I didn't have a manager who told me to dress or how to present myself or anything. But the image developed of a man of mystery and a quiet man in black somewhat of a recluse, although I never was, really."
His dark and brooding persona, combined with his tremulous voice in lovelorn ballads marketed to teenagers, helped Orbison major in the pop market in the early 1960s. He had a string of hits in 1963 with "In Dreams" (U.S. number 7/UK number 6), "Falling" (22/9), "Mean Woman Blues" (5/3) coupled with "Blue Bayou" (29/3). He finished the year with a Christmas song written by Willie Nelson titled "Pretty Paper" (U.S. number 15 in 1963/UK number 6 in 1964).
As "In Dreams" was released in April 1963, Orbison was asked to replace guitarist Duane Eddy on a tour of the UK in top billing with the Beatles, whose popularity was on the rise. When he arrived in Britain, however, he saw the amount of advertising devoted to the quartet and realized he was no longer the main draw. He had never heard of them and, annoyed, asked hypothetically, "What's a Beatle anyway?" to which John Lennon replied, after tapping his shoulder, "I am". On the opening night, Orbison opted to go onstage first, although he was the more established act. Known for having raucous shows expressing an extraordinary amount of energy, Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr stood dumbfounded backstage as Orbison performed completely still and simply sang through fourteen encores. Finally, when the audience began chanting "We want Roy!" again, Lennon and McCartney prevented Orbison from going on again by physically holding him back. Starr later said, "In Glasgow, we were all backstage listening to the tremendous applause he was getting. He was just standing there, not moving or anything." Through the tour, however, the two acts quickly learned to get along, a process made easier by the fact that the Beatles admired his work. Orbison felt a kinship with Lennon, but it was Harrison with whom he would later form a strong friendship.
Riding the success
Touring in 1963 took a toll on Orbison's personal life. His wife Claudette began having an affair with the contractor who built their home in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Friends and relatives attributed the breakdown of the marriage to her youth and her inability to withstand being alone and bored. When Orbison toured Britain again in the fall of 1963, she joined him. He was immensely popular wherever he went, finishing the tour in Ireland and Canada. Almost immediately he toured Australia and New Zealand with the Beach Boys and returned again to Britain and Ireland, where he was so besieged by teenage girls that the Irish police had to halt his performances to pull the girls off him. He continued to tour, traveling to Australia again, this time with the Rolling Stones. Mick Jagger later remarked, referring to a snapshot he took of Orbison in New Zealand, "a fine figure of a man in the hot springs, he was."
Orbison also began collaborating with Bill Dees, whom he had known in Texas. With Dees, he wrote "It's Over", a number one in the UK, and a song that would be one of his signature pieces for the rest of his career. When Claudette walked in the room where Dees and Orbison were writing to say she was heading for Nashville, Orbison asked if she had any money. Dees said, "A pretty woman never needs any money". Just 40 minutes later, "Oh, Pretty Woman" was completed. A riff-laden masterpiece that employed a playful growl he got from a Bob Hope movie, the epithet "mercy" Orbison uttered when he was unable to hit a note, and a merging of his vulnerable and masculine sides, it rose to number one in the fall of 1964 in the U.S. and stayed on the charts for 14 weeks. It hit number one in the UK as well, spending 18 weeks total on the charts. The single sold over seven million copies. Orbison's success was greater in Britain; as Billboard magazine noted, "In a 68-week period that began on August 8, 1963, Roy Orbison was the only American artist to have a number-one single in Britain. He did it twice, with 'It's Over' on June 25, 1964, and 'Oh, Pretty Woman' on October 8, 1964. The latter song also went to number one in America, making Orbison impervious to the current chart dominance of British artists on both sides of the Atlantic."
1965–69: Career decline and tragedies
"Oh, Pretty Woman" proved the pinnacle of Orbison's career in the 1960s. Following its release, he endured some upheavals. He and Claudette divorced in November 1964 over her infidelities, though they remarried in August 1965. His contract with Monument was expiring in June 1965. Wesley Rose, at this time acting as Orbison's agent, moved him from Monument Records to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) (though in the UK he remained with Decca's London Records) for a million dollars, and the understanding that he would expand into television and films, as Elvis Presley had done. Orbison was a film enthusiast and, when not touring, writing or recording, would dedicate time to seeing up to three films a day.
Rose also became Orbison's producer, Fred Foster later suggesting that Rose's takeover was responsible for the commercial failure of Orbison's work at MGM. Engineer Bill Porter agreed that Orbison's best work could only be achieved with RCA Nashville's A-Team. Orbison's first collection at MGM, an album titled There Is Only One Roy Orbison, sold fewer than 200,000 copies. The British Invasion also occurred at the same time, changing the direction of rock music significantly.
While on tour again in the UK in 1965, Orbison broke his foot falling off a motorcycle in front of thousands of screaming fans at a race track and performed his show that evening in a cast. His reconciliation with Claudette occurred when she went to visit him while he was recuperating from the accident. Orbison was fascinated with machines. He was known to follow a car that he liked and make the driver an offer on the spot. He had a collection worthy of a museum by the late 1960s.
Orbison and Claudette shared a love for motorcycles; she had grown up around them, but he claimed Elvis Presley had introduced him to motorcycles. Tragedy struck on June 6, 1966, however, when Orbison and Claudette were riding home from Bristol, Tennessee. She struck the door of a pickup truck which had pulled out in front of her on South Waters Avenue in Gallatin, Tennessee, and died instantly.
A grieving Orbison threw himself into his work, collaborating with Bill Dees to write music for The Fastest Guitar Alive, a film that MGM had scheduled for him to star in as well. It was initially planned as a dramatic Western but was rewritten as a comedy. Orbison's character was a spy who stole and had to protect and deliver a cache of gold to the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and was outfitted with a guitar that turned into a rifle. The prop allowed him to deliver the line "I could kill you with this and play your funeral march at the same time", with—according to biographer Colin Escott—"zero conviction". Orbison was pleased with the film, although it proved to be a critical and box office flop. While MGM had included five films in his contract, no more were made.
He recorded an album dedicated to the songs of Don Gibson and another of Hank Williams covers, but both sold poorly. As the psychedelic rock movement took hold in the late 1960s, Orbison felt lost, later saying "[I] didn't hear a lot I could relate to so I kind of stood there like a tree where the winds blow and the seasons change, and you're still there and you bloom again." He continued to tour and had previously made some smart real estate investments, so money was never an issue for him again.
During a tour of the Midlands in England on September 16, 1968, he received the news that his home in Hendersonville, Tennessee, had burned down and his two eldest sons had died. The property was sold to Johnny Cash, who planted an orchard on it. On March 25, 1969, Orbison married German teenager Barbara Jakobs, whom he had met several days before his sons' deaths. His youngest son with Claudette (Wesley, born 1965) was raised by Orbison's parents. Orbison and Barbara had a son (Roy Kelton) in 1970 and another (Alexander) in 1975.
Orbison recorded in the 1970s, but his albums performed so poorly that he began to doubt his talents. He left MGM in 1973 after certain albums were not coming out globally. He then signed with Mercury in 1974 and only recorded an album there which only got a US Release. Author Peter Lehman would later observe that his absence was a part of the mystery of his persona: "Since it was never clear where he had come from, no one seemed to pay much mind to where he had gone; he was just gone." His influence was apparent, however, as several artists released covers of his songs, which proved popular. Orbison's version of "Love Hurts", a song composed by Felice and Boudleaux Bryant and first recorded by the Everly Brothers, was remade by Gram Parsons and Emmylou Harris, again by hard rock band Nazareth and by blues adapt Jim Capaldi. Sonny James sent "Only the Lonely" to number 1 on the country music charts. Bruce Springsteen ended his concerts with Orbison songs, and Glen Campbell had a minor hit with a remake of "Dream Baby". A compilation LP of Orbison's greatest hits went to number 1 in the UK in January 1976. The same year he began to open concerts for the Eagles, who started as Linda Ronstadt's backup band. Ronstadt herself covered "Blue Bayou" in 1977, her version reaching number 3 on the Billboard charts and remaining in the charts for 24 weeks. Orbison credited this cover in particular for reviving his memory in the popular mind, if not his career. He signed again with Monument in 1976 recorded "Regeneration" with Fred Foster.
In late 1977 Orbison started feeling unwell and decided to take a holiday in Hawaii to rest. While there he was admitted to hospital, and tests revealed three of his coronary arteries were severely clogged. On January 18, 1978, Orbison underwent a triple coronary bypass. He had suffered from duodenal ulcers as early as 1960 and had been a heavy smoker since adolescence. He felt revitalized following the triple bypass, but he continued to smoke, and his weight fluctuated for the rest of his life. When Orbison felt strong enough to perform again, Scott Mathews took him into the recording studio and produced a version of "Oh, Pretty Woman" for a national radio and television advertising campaign for Tone Soap, a woman's beauty bar. This proved to be a much needed financial windfall for Orbison, as Mathews saw to it that the company paid well to license the use of Orbison's original composition and for Orbison's services.
In 1978, Orbison signed with Asylum and released one album a year later.
In 1980, Don McLean covered "Crying" in a version which unexpectedly went to the top of the charts at first in the Netherlands, afterwards hitting number 5 in the U.S. and staying on the charts for 15 weeks; it was number 1 in the UK for three weeks, and also topped the Irish Charts. Although he was all but forgotten in the U.S., Orbison took a chance and embarked on a tour of Bulgaria. He was astonished to find he was as popular there as he had been in 1964; he was forced to stay in his hotel room because he was mobbed on the streets of Sofia. Later that year, he and Emmylou Harris won a Grammy Award for their duet "That Lovin' You Feelin' Again" (from the comedy film Roadie, in which Orbison also had a cameo role). It was his first such award, and he felt more than ever that the time was ripe for his full return to popular music. However, it would be several more years until this came to fruition.
Van Halen released a hard-rock cover of "Oh, Pretty Woman" on their 1982 album Diver Down, again exposing a younger generation to Orbison's legacy.
Orbison's career was fully revived in 1987. He released an album of his re-recorded hits, titled In Dreams: The Greatest Hits. A song he recorded, "Life Fades Away", written with his friend Glenn Danzig, was featured in the film Less Than Zero. He and k.d. lang performed a duet of "Crying" and released it on the soundtrack to Hiding Out, winning a Grammy for Best Country Collaboration with Vocals.
However, one film in which Orbison refused to allow his music to be used was Blue Velvet. Director David Lynch asked to use "In Dreams", and Orbison turned him down. Lynch used it anyway. The song served as one of several obsessions of a psychopathic character named Frank Booth (played by Dennis Hopper). It was lip-synched by an effeminate drug dealer played by Dean Stockwell, after which Booth demanded the song be played over and over, once beating the protagonist while the song played. During filming, Lynch asked for the song to be played repeatedly to give the set a surreal atmosphere. Orbison was initially shocked at its use: he saw the film in a theater in Malibu and later said, "I was mortified because they were talking about the 'candy colored clown' in relation to a dope deal ... I thought, 'What in the world ...?' But later, when I was touring, we got the video out and I really got to appreciate what David gave to the song, and what the song gave to the movie—how it achieved this otherworldly quality that added a whole new dimension to 'In Dreams'."
Also in 1987, Orbison was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame and initiated into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame by Bruce Springsteen, who concluded his speech with a reference to his own album "Born to Run": "I wanted a record with words like Bob Dylan that sounded like Phil Spector — but, most of all, I wanted to sing like Roy Orbison. Now, everyone knows that no one sings like Roy Orbison." In response, Orbison asked Springsteen for a copy of the speech, and said of his induction that he felt "validated" by the honor. A few months later, Orbison and Springsteen paired again to film a concert at the Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Los Angeles. They were joined by Jackson Browne, T Bone Burnett, Elvis Costello, Tom Waits, Bonnie Raitt, Jennifer Warnes, James Burton and k.d. lang. Lang later recounted how humbled Orbison had been by the show of support from so many talented and busy musicians: "Roy looked at all of us and said, 'If there is anything I can ever do for you, please call on me'. He was very serious. It was his way of thanking us. It was very emotional." The concert was filmed in one take and aired on Cinemax under the title Roy Orbison and Friends: A Black and White Night; it was released on video by Virgin Records, selling 50,000 copies.
Traveling Wilburys and Mystery Girl
In 1987, Orbison had begun collaborating with Electric Light Orchestra frontman Jeff Lynne on a new album. At the same time Lynne was completing production work on George Harrison's Cloud Nine, and all three had lunch one day when Orbison accepted an invitation to sing on a song of Harrison's. They contacted Bob Dylan, who allowed them to use a recording studio in his home. Along the way, Harrison had to stop by Tom Petty's house to pick up his guitar; Petty and his band had backed Dylan on his last tour. By that evening, the group had written "Handle with Care", which led to the concept of recording an entire album. They called themselves the Traveling Wilburys, representing themselves as half-brothers with the same father. They gave themselves stage names; Orbison chose his from his musical hero, calling himself "Lefty Wilbury" after Lefty Frizzell. Expanding on the concept of a traveling band of raucous musicians, Orbison offered a quote about the group's foundation in honor: "Some people say Daddy was a cad and a bounder. I remember him as a Baptist minister."
Lynne later spoke of the recording sessions: "Everybody just sat there going, 'Wow, it's Roy Orbison!'... Even though he's become your pal and you're hanging out and having a laugh and going to dinner, as soon as he gets behind that mike and he's doing his business, suddenly it's shudder time." Orbison was given one solo track, "Not Alone Anymore", on the album. His contributions were highly praised by the press. Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1 spent 53 weeks on the U.S. charts, peaking at number three. It hit number one in Australia and topped out at number 16 in the UK. The album won a Grammy for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group. Rolling Stone included it in the top 100 albums of the decade.
Orbison was in high demand for concerts and interviews once again, and was thrilled about it. He began writing songs and collaborating with many musicians from his past and newer fans, to develop a solo album, Mystery Girl.
Mystery Girl was co-produced by Jeff Lynne, whom Orbison considered the best producer he had ever worked with. Elvis Costello, Orbison's son Wesley and others offered their songs to him. The biggest hit from the album was "You Got It", written with Lynne and Tom Petty. It posthumously rose to number nine in the U.S. and number three in the UK.
In 2014, a demo of Orbison's "The Way Is Love" was released as part of the 25th anniversary deluxe edition of Mystery Girl. The song was originally recorded on a cassette boombox around 1986. Orbison's sons played on the track along with Roy's vocals; it was produced by John Carter Cash.
Although the video for the Wilburys' "Handle with Care" was filmed with Orbison, the video for "End of the Line" was filmed and released posthumously. During Orbison's vocal parts in "End of the Line", the video shows a guitar in a rocking chair, next to Orbison's framed photo.
Orbison determinedly pursued his second chance at stardom, but he expressed amazement at his success: "It's very nice to be wanted again, but I still can't quite believe it." He lost some weight to fit his new image and the constant demand of touring, as well as the newer demands of making videos. In November 1988, Mystery Girl was completed, and Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1 was rising up the charts. Around this time, Orbison confided in Johnny Cash that he was having chest pains and said he would have to do something about his health, but he never did. He went to Europe, was presented with an award there, and played a show in Antwerp, where footage for the video for "You Got It" was filmed. He gave several interviews a day in a hectic schedule. A few days later, a manager at a club in Boston was concerned that he looked ill, but Orbison played the show, to another standing ovation.
Orbison performed at the Front Row Theater in Highland Heights, Ohio, on December 4. Exhausted, he returned to his home in Hendersonville to rest for several days before flying again to London to film two more videos for the Traveling Wilburys. On December 6, he spent the day flying model airplanes with his sons and ate dinner at his mother's home in Hendersonville. Later that day, he died of a heart attack, at the age of 52.
The tabloid National Enquirer suggested on its cover that Orbison had worked himself to death. A memorial was held in Nashville, and another in Los Angeles; he was buried at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery. In January 1989, Orbison became the first musician since Elvis Presley to have two albums in the Top Five at the same time.
Style and influence
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Orbison is counted as a rock and roll pioneer and has been cited by numerous critics as one of the genre's most influential musicians, but his style is notable for how it departed from the norm. Rock and roll in the 1950s was defined by a driving backbeat, heavy guitars, and lyrical themes that glorified youthful rebellion. Few of Orbison's recordings have these characteristics. The structure and themes of his songs defied convention, and his much-praised voice and performance style were unlike any other in rock and roll. Many of his contemporaries compared his music with that of classically trained musicians, although he never mentioned any classical music influences. Author Peter Lehman summarized it, writing, "He achieved what he did not by copying classical music but by creating a unique form of popular music that drew upon a wide variety of music popular during his youth."
Bassist Jerry Scheff, who backed Orbison in his A Black and White Night concert, wrote about him, "Roy Orbison was like an opera singer. His voice melted out of his mouth into the stratosphere and back. He never seemed like he was trying to sing, he just did it."
Music critic Dave Marsh also wrote that these compositions "define a world unto themselves more completely than any other body of work in pop music". Orbison's music, like the man himself, has been described as timeless, diverting from contemporary rock and roll and bordering on the eccentric, within a hair's breadth of being weird. New York Times writer Peter Watrous declared in a concert review: "He has perfected an odd vision of popular music, one in which eccentricity and imagination beat back all the pressures toward conformity".
In the 1960s, Orbison refused to splice edits of songs together, and insisted in recording them in single takes with all the instruments and singers together. The only convention Orbison followed in his most popular songs is the time limit for radio fare in pop songs. Otherwise, each seems to follow a separate structure. Using the standard thirty-two-bar form for verses and choruses, normal pop songs followed the verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-verse-chorus structure. Where A represents the verse, B represents the chorus, and C the bridge, most pop songs can be represented by A-B-A-B-C-A-B, like "Ooby Dooby" and "Claudette". Orbison's "In Dreams" was a song in seven movements that can be represented as Intro-A-B-C-D-E-F; no sections are repeated. In "Running Scared", however, the entire song repeats to build suspense to a final climax, to be represented as A-A-A-A-B. "Crying" is more complex, changing parts toward the end to be represented as A-B-C-D-E-F-A-B'-C'-D'-E'-F'. Although Orbison recorded and wrote standard structure songs before "Only the Lonely", he claimed never to have learned how to write them:
I'm sure we had to study composition or something like that at school, and they'd say 'This is the way you do it,' and that's the way I would have done it, so being blessed again with not knowing what was wrong or what was right, I went on my own way....So the structure sometimes has the chorus at the end of the song, and sometimes there is no chorus, it just goes...But that's always after the fact—as I'm writing, it all sounds natural and in sequence to me."
Elton John's songwriting partner and main lyricist Bernie Taupin wrote that Orbison's songs always made "radical left turns", and k.d. lang declared that good songwriting comes from being constantly surprised, such as how the entirety of "Running Scared" eventually depends on the final note, one word. Some of the musicians who worked with Orbison were confounded by what he asked them to do. Nashville session guitarist Jerry Kennedy stated, "Roy went against the grain. The first time you'd hear something, it wouldn't sound right. But after a few playbacks, it would start to grow on you."
Themes of songs
Critic Dave Marsh categorizes Orbison's ballads into themes reflecting pain and loss, and dreaming. A third category is his uptempo rockabilly songs such as "Go! Go! Go!" and "Mean Woman Blues" that are more thematically simple, addressing his feelings and intentions in a masculine braggadocio. In concert, Orbison placed the uptempo songs between the ballads to keep from being too consistently dark or grim.
In 1990, Colin Escott wrote an introduction to Orbison's biography published in a CD box set: "Orbison was the master of compression. Working the singles era, he could relate a short story, or establish a mood in under three minutes. If you think that's easy—try it. His greatest recordings were quite simply perfect; not a word or note surplus to intention." After attending a show in 1988, Peter Watrous of The New York Times wrote that Orbison's songs are "dreamlike claustrophobically intimate set pieces". Music critic Ken Emerson writes that the "apocalyptic romanticism" in Orbison's music was well-crafted for the films his songs appeared in the 1980s because the music was "so over-the-top that dreams become delusions, and self-pity paranoia", striking "a postmodern nerve". Led Zeppelin singer Robert Plant favored American R&B music as a youth, but beyond the black musicians, he named Elvis and Orbison especially as foreshadowing the emotions he would experience: "The poignancy of the combination of lyric and voice was stunning. [Orbison] used drama to great effect and he wrote dramatically."
The loneliness in Orbison's songs that he became most famous for, he both explained and downplayed: "I don't think I've been any more lonely than anyone else ... Although if you grow up in West Texas, there are a lot of ways to be lonely." His music offered an alternative to the postured masculinity that was pervasive in music and culture. Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees stated, "He made emotion fashionable, that it was all right to talk about and sing about very emotional things. For men to sing about very emotional things... Before that no one would do it." Orbison acknowledged this in looking back on the era in which he became popular: "When ["Crying"] came out I don't think anyone had accepted the fact that a man should cry when he wants to cry." Peter Lehman, on the other hand, considered Orbison's theme of constant vulnerability an element of sexual masochism.
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Orbison admitted that he did not think his voice was put to appropriate use until "Only the Lonely" in 1960, when it was able, in his words, to allow its "flowering". Carl Perkins, however, toured with Orbison while they were both signed with Sun Records and recalled a specific concert when Orbison covered the Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald standard "Indian Love Call", and had the audience completely silenced, in awe. When compared to the Everly Brothers, who often used the same session musicians, Orbison is credited with "a passionate intensity" that, according to The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll, made "his love, his life, and, indeed, the whole world [seem] to be coming to an end—not with a whimper, but an agonized, beautiful bang".
Bruce Springsteen and Billy Joel both commented on the otherworldly quality of Orbison's voice. Dwight Yoakam stated that Orbison's voice sounded like "the cry of an angel falling backward through an open window". Barry Gibb of The Bee Gees went further to say that when he heard "Crying" for the first time, "That was it. To me that was the voice of God." Elvis Presley stated his voice was the greatest and most distinctive he had ever heard. Orbison's music and voice have been compared to opera by Bob Dylan, Tom Waits, and songwriter Will Jennings, among others.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Dylan marked Orbison as a specific influence, remarking that there was nothing like him on radio in the early 1960s:
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With Roy, you didn't know if you were listening to mariachi or opera. He kept you on your toes. With him, it was all about fat and blood. He sounded like he was singing from an Olympian mountaintop. [After "Ooby Dooby"] he was now singing his compositions in three or four octaves that made you want to drive your car over a cliff. He sang like a professional criminal ... His voice could jar a corpse, always leave you muttering to yourself something like, 'Man, I don't believe it'.
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Likewise, Tim Goodwin, who conducted the orchestra that backed Orbison in Bulgaria, had been told that Orbison's voice would be a singular experience to hear. When Orbison started with "Crying" and hit the high notes, Goodwin stated, "The strings were playing and the band had built up and, sure enough, the hair on the back of my neck just all started standing up. It was an incredible physical sensation."
Orbison's severe stage fright was particularly noticeable in the 1970s and early 1980s. During the first few songs in a concert, the vibrato in his voice was almost uncontrollable, but afterwards, it became stronger and more dependable. This also happened with age. Orbison noticed that he was unable to control the tremor in the late afternoon and evenings, and chose to record in the mornings when it was possible.
Orbison often excused his motionless performances by saying that his songs did not allow instrumental sections so he could move or dance on stage, although songs like "Mean Woman Blues" did offer that. He was aware of his unique performance style even in the early 1960s when he commented, "I'm not a super personality—on stage or off. I mean, you could put workers like Chubby Checker or Bobby Rydell in second-rate shows and they'd still shine through, but not me. I'd have to be prepared. People come to hear my music, my songs. That's what I have to give them."
Lang compared Orbison to a tree, with passive but solid beauty. This image of Orbison as immovable was so associated with him it was parodied by John Belushi on Saturday Night Live, as Belushi dressed as Orbison falls over while singing "Oh, Pretty Woman", and continues to play as his bandmates set him upright again. However, Lang quantified this style by saying, "It's so hard to explain what Roy's energy was like because he would fill a room with his energy and presence but not say a word. Being that he was so grounded and so strong and so gentle and quiet. He was just there."
Orbison attributed his own passion during his performances to the period when he grew up in Fort Worth while the U.S. was mobilizing for World War II. His parents worked in a defense plant and his father would bring a guitar in the evenings and their friends and relatives who had just joined the military would gather, and drink and sing heartily. Orbison later reflected, "I guess that level of intensity made a big impression on me, because it's still there. That sense of 'do it for all it's worth and do it now and do it good.' Not to analyze it too much, but I think the verve and gusto that everybody felt and portrayed around me has stayed with me all this time."
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- Best Country Performance Duo or Group (1980), with Emmylou Harris
- Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording (1986), with Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Sam Phillips, Rick Nelson and Chips Moman
- Best Country Vocal Collaboration (1988), with k.d. lang
- Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal (1989), as part of the Traveling Wilburys
- Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male (1990)
- Lifetime Achievement Award (1998)
- Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1987)
- Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame (1987)
- Songwriters Hall of Fame (1989)
- Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (2010)
- America's Pop Music Hall of Fame (2014)
Template:Wikipedia books Video and televised feature performances:
- 1972: Roy Orbison – Live from Australia
- 1982: Live at Austin City Limits
- 1988: Roy Orbison and Friends: A Black and White Night
- 1999: In Dreams: The Roy Orbison Story
- Ellis Amburn argues that Orbison was bullied and ostracized while in Wink and that after he became famous, he gave conflicting reports to local Texas newspapers, claiming it was still home to him while simultaneously maligning the town to Rolling Stone. (Amburn, pp. 11–20.)
- Both Orbison and Cash mentioned this anecdote years later, but Phillips denied that he was so abrupt on the phone with Orbison, or that he hung up on him. One of the Teen Kings later stated that the band did not meet Cash until they were on tour with Cash and other Sun Records artists. (Amburn, pp. 42–43).
- Alan Clayson's biography refers to her as Claudette Hestand.
- Amburn, p. 97.
- O'Grady, Terence J. (February 2000). "Orbison, Roy", American National Biography Online. Retrieved on May 20, 2009
- 100 Greatest Singers of All Time: Roy Orbison, Rolling Stone website (2009). Retrieved on October 3, 2011.
- Whitburn (2002), p. 524.
- Escott, Colin (1990). Biography insert to The Legendary Roy Orbison CD box set, Sony. ASIN: B0000027E2
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- Clayson, Alan, p. 3.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 3, 9.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 7.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 21.
- Amburn, pp. 8, 9.
- History Maker, Roy Orbison website (2012). Retrieved on April 12, 2012.
- Amburn, pp. 29–30.
- Orbison later said that he "couldn't overemphasize how shocking [Presley] looked and seemed to [him] that night". Clayson, Alan, pp. 26–27.
- DeCurtis and Henke, p. 153.
- Clayson, Alan p. 44.
- Amburn, pp. 60–61.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 45.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 56.
- Amburn, pp. 78–79.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 62.
- Clayson, pp. 68–69.
- Zak, p. 32.
- Wolfe and Akenson, p. 24.
- Hoffmann and Ferstler, p. 779.
- Zak, p. 33.
- Lehman, p. 48.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 70–71.
- DeCurtis and Henke, p. 155.
- Lehman, p. 19.
- Zak, p. 35.
- Clayson, p. 77.
- Amburn p. 91.
- Fremer, Michael (January 1, 2006). Recording Elvis and Roy With Legendary Studio Wiz Bill Porter — Part II, MusicAngle.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011.
- Roy Orbison, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2007). Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- Amburn, p. 98.
- Whitburn (2004), p. 470.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 81–82.
- Amburn, p. 32.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 91.
- Lehman, p. 18.
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- Clayson, Alan, pp. 102–103.
- Amburn, p. 108.
- Creswell, p. 600.
- Brown, Kutner, & Warwick, p. 645.
- Amburn, p. 115.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 109–113.
- Amburn, p. 117.
- John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle, 2002. p. 94
- Amburn, pp. 122–123.
- Amburn, p. 125.
- Amburn, p. 134.
- Amburn, p. 127.
- Amburn, p. 128.
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- Clayson, Alan, pp. 130–131.
- Lehman, p. 14
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 135–136.
- Amburn, p. 126.
- Amburn, p. 54.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 139.
- Lehman, pp. 108–109.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 146–147.
- Amburn, pp. 151–153.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 152.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 161–63.
- Amburn, p. 163.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 178.
- Amburn, p. 170.
- Lehman, p. 2.
- Amburn, pp. 167–168.
- Amburn, p. 178.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 3, 183–184.
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- Amburn, p. 182.
- Amburn, p. 183.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 192.
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- Grammy Award Winners (Past winner search=Roy Orbison), Grammy.com. Retrieved on May 30, 2009.
- Amburn, p. 191.
- Amburn, p. 193.
- Clayson, Alan, pp. 202–203.
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- Amburn, p. 207.
- Amburn, p. 205.
- Amburn, p. 218.
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- Amburn, p. 221.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 208.
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- Amburn, p. 213.
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- Amburn, p. 223.
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- Amburn, pp. 233–235.
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- Amburn, p. 235.
- Tuttle, Mike (March 19, 2012). Bruce Springsteen Schools ‘Em At SXSW 2012, WebProNews. Retrieved on March 22, 2012.
- Lehman, p. 8.
- Lehman, p. 58.
- Scheff, Jerry (2012) Way Down: Playing Bass with Elvis, Dylan, the Doors & More. Backbeat Books. Page 33.
- Lehman, p. 20.
- Lehman, p. 9.
- Watrous, Peter (July 31, 1988). "Roy Orbison Mines Some Old Gold", The New York Times, p. 48.
- Lehman, p. 46.
- Lehman, p. 53.
- Roy Orbison, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame (2008). Retrieved on May 30, 2009.
- Lehman, p. 52.
- Lehman, pp. 70–71.
- DeCurtis and Henke, p. 157.
- Hall, Mark. (director) In Dreams: The Roy Orbison Story, Nashmount Productions Inc., 1999.
- Roy Orbison: Songs We Love, NPR (April 27, 2011). Retrieved on April 29, 2011.
- Lehman, p. 50.
- Lehman, p. 49.
- Lehman, p. 22.
- Amburn, pp. 175, 193.
- Dylan, p. 33.
- Amburn, p. 184.
- Lehman, p. 24.
- Lehman, p. 62.
- Clayson, Alan, p. 78.
- Lang, k. d. (April 15, 2004). The Immortals — The Greatest Artists of All Time: 37) Roy Orbison, Rolling Stone. Retrieved on June 2, 2009.
- Amburn, p. 7.
- Roy Orbison, Songwriters Hall of Fame website (2009). Retrieved on May 30, 2009.
- Roy Orbison given Hollywood Walk of Fame star BBC News (January 30, 2010). Retrieved on January 31, 2010.
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- Amburn, Ellis (1990). Dark Star: The Roy Orbison Story, Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8184-0518-X
- Brown, Tony; Kutner, Jon; Warwick, Neil (2000). Complete Book of the British Charts: Singles & Albums, Omnibus. ISBN 0-7119-7670-8
- Clayson, Alan (1989). Only the Lonely: Roy Orbison's Life and Legacy, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-03961-1
- Clayton, Lawrence and Sprecht, Joe, (eds.) (2003). The Roots of Texas Music, Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-997-0
- Creswell, Toby (2006). 1001 Songs: The Greatest Songs of All Time and the Artists, Stories, and Secrets Behind Them, Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-915-9
- DeCurtis, Anthony; Henke, James (eds.) (1992). The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll, Random House. ISBN 0-679-73728-6
- Hoffman, Frank W., Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Volume 1, CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-93835-X
- Lehman, Peter (2003). Roy Orbison: The Invention of An Alternative Rock Masculinity, Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-037-2
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7499-4
- Wolfe, Charles K., Akenson, James (eds.) (2000). Country Music Annual, Issue 1, University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-0989-2
- Zak, Albin (2010). "'Only The Lonely' — Roy Orbison's Sweet West Texas Style", pages 18–41 in John Covach and Mark Spicer Sounding Out Pop: Analytical Essays in Popular Music, University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-03400-6
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- www.royorbison.com — official website
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- CMT's tribute to Orbison Contains a music video section that contains the entire "Diamond Career Awards" from 1988-11-18, and also several rare videos "Heartbreak Radio" and "Walk On"
- Roy Orbison: The Big O life story by Marie Claire Australia magazine
- 1975 Roy Orbison private phone interview with Ronnie Allen (researcher for Casey Kasem)
- Hugo Keesing Collection on Roy Orbison — Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland
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