380 – Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople.
1190 – Conrad of Montferrat becomes King of Jerusalem upon his marriage to Isabella I of Jerusalem.
1227 – Gąsawa massacre: At an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa, Polish Prince Leszek the White, Duke Henry the Bearded and others are attacked by assassins while bathing.
1248 – An overnight landslide on the north side of Mont Granier, one of the largest historical rockslope failures ever recorded in Europe, destroys five villages.
1359 – Peter I of Cyprus ascends the throne of Cyprus after his father, Hugh IV of Cyprus, abdicates.
1429 – Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc unsuccessfully besieges La Charité.
1542 – Battle of Solway Moss: An English army defeats a much larger Scottish force near the River Esk in Dumfries and Galloway.
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes the first European to discover the island Van Diemen's Land (later renamed Tasmania).
1750 – Tarabai, regent of the Maratha Empire, imprisons Rajaram II of Satara for refusing to remove Balaji Baji Rao from the post of peshwa.
1832 – South Carolina passes the Ordinance of Nullification, declaring that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were null and void in the state, beginning the Nullification Crisis.
1835 – The Texas Provincial Government authorizes the creation of a horse-mounted police force called the Texas Rangers (which is now the Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety).
1850 – Danish troops defeat a Schleswig-Holstein force in the town of Lottorf, Schleswig-Holstein.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Lookout Mountain: Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg.
1877 – Anna Sewell's animal welfare novel Black Beauty is published.
1906 – A 13–6 victory by the Massillon Tigers over their rivals, the Canton Bulldogs, for the "Ohio League" Championship, leads to accusations that the championship series was fixed and results in the first major scandal in professional American football.
1917 – In Milwaukee, nine members of the Milwaukee Police Department are killed by a bomb, the most deaths in a single event in U.S. police history until the September 11 attacks in 2001.
1922 – Nine Irish Republican Army members are executed by an Irish Free State firing squad. Among them is author Erskine Childers, who had been arrested for illegally carrying a revolver.
1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.
1935 – The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its second congress.
1940 – World War II: The First Slovak Republic becomes a signatory to the Tripartite Pact, officially joining the Axis powers.
1941 – World War II: The United States grants Lend-Lease to the Free French Forces.
1943 – World War II: At the battle of Makin the Template:Ship is torpedoed near Tarawa and sinks, killing 650 men.
1965 – Joseph-Désiré Mobutu seizes power in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and becomes President; he rules the country (which he renames Zaire in 1971) for over 30 years, until being overthrown by rebels in 1997.
1966 – Bulgarian TABSO Flight 101 crashes near Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, killing all 82 people on board.
1969 – Apollo program: The Apollo 12 command module splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second manned mission to land on the Moon.
1971 – During a severe thunderstorm over Washington state, a hijacker calling himself Dan Cooper (aka D. B. Cooper) parachutes from a Northwest Orient Airlines plane with $200,000 in ransom money. He has never been found.
1973 – A national speed limit is imposed on the Autobahn in Germany because of the 1973 oil crisis. The speed limit lasts only four months.
1974 – Donald Johanson and Tom Gray discover the 40% complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, nicknamed "Lucy" (after The Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"), in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression.
1976 – The Çaldıran–Muradiye earthquake in eastern Turkey kills between 4,000 and 5,000 people.
1992 – China Southern Airlines Flight 3943 crashes on approach to Guilin Qifengling Airport in Guilin, China, killing all 141 people on board.
2012 – A fire at a clothing factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh, kills at least 112 people.
2013 – Iran signs an interim agreement with the P5+1 countries, limiting its nuclear program in exchange for reduced sanctions.
2015 – A Russian Air ForceSukhoi Su-24 fighter jet is shot down by the Turkish Air Force over the Syria–Turkey border, killing one of the two pilots; a Russian marine is also killed during a subsequent rescue effort.
2015 – A terrorist attack on a hotel in Al-Arish, Egypt, kills at least seven people and injures 12 others.
2015 – An explosion on a bus carrying Tunisian Presidential Guard personnel in Tunisia's capital Tunis leaves at least 14 people dead.
2016 – The government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army sign a revised peace deal, bringing an end to the country's more than 50-year-long civil war.
1273 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester (d. 1284)
1394 – Charles, Duke of Orléans (d. 1465)
1427 – John Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, English nobleman (d. 1473)
1472 – Pietro Torrigiano, Italian sculptor (d. 1528)
1583 – Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar, Spanish poet and painter (d. 1641)
1583 – Philip Massinger, English dramatist (d. 1640)
1594 – Henry Grey, 10th Earl of Kent, English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire (d. 1651)
1603 – John, Count of Nassau-Idstein (1629–1677) (d. 1677)
1615 – Philip William, Elector Palatine (d. 1690)
1630 – Étienne Baluze, French scholar and academic (d. 1718)
1632 – Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher and scholar (d. 1677)
1655 – Charles XI of Sweden (d. 1697)
1690 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German organist and composer (d. 1750)
1712 – Charles-Michel de l'Épée, French priest and educator (d. 1789)
1712 – Ali II ibn Hussein, Tunisian ruler (d. 1782)
1713 – Junípero Serra, Spanish priest and missionary (d. 1784)
1713 – Laurence Sterne, Irish novelist and clergyman (d. 1768)
1724 – Maria Amalia of Saxony (d. 1760)
1729 – Alexander Suvorov, Russian field marshal (d. 1800)
1745 – Maria Luisa of Spain (d. 1792)
1774 – Thomas Dick, Scottish minister, author, and educator (d. 1857)
1784 – Zachary Taylor, American general and politician, 12th President of the United States (d. 1850)
1801 – Ludwig Bechstein, German author and poet (d. 1860)
1806 – William Webb Ellis, English priest, created Rugby football (d. 1872)
1811 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, Swiss lawyer and politician, President of the Swiss National Council (d. 1890)
1812 – Xavier Hommaire de Hell, French geographer and engineer (d. 1848)
1826 – Carlo Collodi, Italian journalist and author (d. 1890)
1840 – John Alfred Brashear, American scientist, telescope maker and educator (d. 1920)
1849 – Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-American novelist and playwright (d. 1924)
1851 – John Indermaur, British lawyer (d. 1925)
1857 – Miklós Kovács, Hungarian-Slovene poet and songwriter (d. 1937)
1859 – Cass Gilbert, American architect, designed the United States Supreme Court Building and Woolworth Building (d. 1934)
1864 – Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter and illustrator (d. 1901)
1868 – Scott Joplin, American pianist and composer (d. 1917)
1869 – Óscar Carmona, Portuguese field marshal and politician, 11th President of Portugal (d. 1951)
1873 – Julius Martov, Russian politician (d. 1923)
1873 – Herbert Roper Barrett, English tennis player (d. 1943)
1874 – Charles William Miller, Brazilian footballer and referee (d. 1953)
1876 – Walter Burley Griffin, American architect and urban planner, designed Canberra (d. 1937)
1877 – Alben W. Barkley, American lawyer and politician, 35th Vice President of the United States (d. 1956)
1877 – Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian police officer (d. 1941)
1879 – Wylie Cameron Grant, American tennis player (d. 1968)
1881 – Al Christie, Canadian-American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1951)
1882 – Nikolai Janson, Russian politician (d. 1938)
1884 – Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Ukrainian-Israeli historian and politician, 2nd President of Israel (d. 1963)
1885 – Theodor Altermann, Estonian actor, director, and producer (d. 1915)
1885 – Christian Wirth, German SS officer (d. 1944)
1886 – Margaret Caroline Anderson, American publisher, founded The Little Review (d. 1973)
1887 – Raoul Paoli, French boxer and rower (d. 1960)
1887 – Erich von Manstein, German field marshal (d. 1973)
1888 – Dale Carnegie, American author and educator (d. 1955)
1888 – Fredrick Willius, American cardiologist and author (d. 1972)
1891 – Vasil Gendov, Bulgarian actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 1970)
1893 – Charles F. Hurley, American soldier and politician, 54th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1946)
1894 – Herbert Sutcliffe, English cricketer and businessman (d. 1978)
1895 – Esther Applin, American geologist and paleontologist (d. 1972)
1897 – Lucky Luciano, Italian-American mob boss (d. 1962)
1897 – Dorothy Shepherd-Barron, English tennis player (d. 1953)
1899 – Ward Morehouse, American author, playwright, and critic (d. 1966)
1904 – Albert Ross Tilley, Canadian captain and surgeon (d. 1988)
1908 – Libertad Lamarque, Argentinian actress and singer (d. 2000)
1910 – Larry Siemering, American football player and coach (d. 2009)