Culture Wikia

A serving of lutefisk

Lutefisk (Norwegian) or lutfisk (Swedish) (pronounced Template:IPA-no in Northern and Central Norway, Template:IPA-no in Southern Norway, [lʉːtfɪsk] in Sweden and in Finland (Finnish: lipeäkala)) is a traditional dish of some Nordic countries. It is traditionally part of the Swedish and Norwegian julbord.

It is made from aged stockfish (air-dried whitefish) or dried/salted whitefish (klippfisk) and lye (lut). It is gelatinous in texture. Its name literally means "lye fish".



Lutefisk (on the upper left side of the plate) as served in a Norwegian restaurant, with potatoes, mashed peas, and bacon


Norwegian Constitution Day dinner in Minnesota, United States, with lutefisk, lefse, and meatballs


Lutefisk in a Norwegian market

Lutefisk is dried whitefish (normally cod, but ling and burbot is also used) treated with lye. The first step is soaking the stockfish in cold water for five to six days (with the water changed daily). The saturated stockfish is then soaked in an unchanged solution of cold water and lye for an additional two days. The fish swells during this soaking, and its protein content decreases by more than 50 percent, producing a jelly-like consistency.

When this treatment is finished, the fish (saturated with lye) is caustic, with a pH of 11–12. To make the fish edible, a final treatment of yet another four to six days of soaking in cold water (also changed daily) is needed. Eventually, the lutefisk is ready to be cooked.

In Finland, the traditional reagent used is birch ash. It contains high amounts of potassium carbonate and bicarbonate, giving the fish a more mellow treatment than would lye. It is important not to marinate the fish too long in the lye because saponification of the fish fats may occur.


After the preparation, the lutefisk is saturated with water and must therefore be cooked carefully so that it does not fall to pieces.


Cooking pots at a church supper: with this method, the lutefisk was boiled for about five minutes, until translucent, then promptly served.

To create a firm consistency in lutefisk, it is common to spread a layer of salt over the fish half an hour before it is cooked. This will "release" some of the water in the fish meat. The salt must be rinsed off before cooking.

Lutefisk does not need additional water for the cooking; it is sufficient to place it in a pan, salt it, seal the lid tightly, and let it steam cook under a very low heat for 20–25 minutes. An alternative is to wrap in aluminium foil and bake at 225 °C (435 °F) for 40–50 minutes.

Another option is to parboil lutefisk; wrapped in cheesecloth and gently boiled until tender. Lutefisk can also be boiled directly in a pan of water.

Lutefisk sold in North America may also be cooked in a microwave oven. The average cooking time is 8–10 minutes per whole fish (a package of two fish sides) at high power in a covered glass cooking dish, preferably made of heat resistant glass. The cooking time will vary, depending upon the power of the microwave oven.

When cooking and eating lutefisk, it is important to clean the lutefisk and its residue off pans, plates, and utensils immediately. Lutefisk left overnight becomes nearly impossible to remove. Sterling silver should never be used in the cooking, serving or eating of lutefisk, which will permanently ruin silver. Stainless steel utensils are recommended instead.


In Norway, Lutefisk is traditionally served with boiled potatoes, mashed green peas, melted butter, small pieces of fried bacon and sometimes melted geitost (brown goat cheese).

In Sweden and Finland lutefisk is a part of the Christmas tradition and is mostly eaten with boiled potatoes, green peas and white sauce. Regional variations include a sprinkle of freshly ground allspice or black pepper and the addition of coarsely ground mustard in the white sauce (in Scania). In parts of Jämtland it is served on flat bread along with whey cheese.

In the United States lutefisk is often served with a variety of side dishes, including: bacon, green peas, green pea stew, potatoes, lefse, gravy, mashed rutabaga, white sauce, melted or clarified butter, syrup, geitost, or "old" cheese (gammelost). It is sometimes eaten together with meatballs which is not traditional in Scandinavia. Side dishes vary greatly from family to family and region to region, and can be a source of jovial contention when eaters of different "traditions" of lutefisk dine together.

Today, akvavit and beer often accompany the meal due to its use at festive and ceremonial occasions.

Lutefisk prepared from cod is somewhat notorious, even in Scandinavia, for its intensely offensive odor. Conversely, lutefisk prepared from pollock or haddock emits almost no odor.

The taste of well-prepared lutefisk is very mild, and often the white sauce is spiced with pepper or other strong tasting spices. In Minnesota, this method (seasoned with allspice) is common among Swedish-Americans, while Norwegian-Americans often prefer to eat it unseasoned with melted butter or cream sauce.


File:Svolvær fish drying.jpg

Racks for drying fish in Svolvær, Norway

File:Dried fish in Svolvær.jpg

Fish drying in Svolvær, Norway

File:Dried fish in Greenland.JPG

Dried fish

An article in Smithsonian magazine quotes some oft-rendered tall tales regarding the origins of the dish:

<templatestyles src="Template:Blockquote/styles.css" />

No one is quite sure where and when lutefisk originated. Both Swedes and Norwegians claim it was invented in their country. A legend has it that Viking fishermen hung their cod to dry on tall birch racks. When some neighboring Vikings attacked, they burned the racks of fish, but a rainstorm blew in from the North Sea, dousing the fire. The remaining fish soaked in a puddle of rainwater and birch ash for months before some hungry Vikings discovered the cod, reconstituted it and had a feast. Another story tells of St. Patrick's attempt to poison Viking raiders in Ireland with the lye-soaked fish. But rather than kill them, the Vikings relished the fish and declared it a delicacy. It makes for a great story if you don’t mind the fact that Patrick lived centuries before the Vikings attacked Ireland.

The actual reason is probably that the lack of major salt deposits in the area favored the drying process for the preservation of whitefish - a process known for millennia. Stockfish is very nutrient-rich, and one can assume that it was also consumed domestically, although it was during the boom in the stockfish trade in the late Middle Ages, the product became accessible throughout Scandinavia, as well as the rest of Europe. The higher quality stockfish would be soaked in water, then boiled and eaten with melted butter. Lower grade qualities would be harder and more fuel consuming to boil and it has been suggested that adding ash from beech or birch in the boiling water, would break down the protein chains and speed up the process. The introduction of lye in the preparation process might therefore have been incidental.[1]

Modern consumption[]

Lutefisk as a Christmas season meal has gained attention in Norway over the past 20 years.[2][3][4] The Norwegian Seafood Export Council indicated sales of lutefisk to restaurants and catering companies in Norway increased by 72% between 2005 and 2008.[2] A 2005 survey found 20% of Norwegians ate lutefisk during the Christmas holiday season, although only 3% would consider it for their Christmas dinner.[5]

Far more lutefisk is consumed in the United States than in Scandinavia, much of it by Scandinavian Americans in Lutheran churches and fraternal lodges.[1]

Madison, Minnesota has dubbed itself the "lutefisk capital of the world" as well as claiming the largest per capita consumption of lutefisk in Minnesota.[1][6] St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota serves lutefisk during their Christmas Festival concerts. They also host an annual music festival called "Lutefest". Lutefisk, though, is not served at this festival.[7]


The Wisconsin Employees' Right to Know Law specifically exempts lutefisk in defining "toxic substances".[8]


  • Danish: ludfisk or ludefisk
  • Norwegian: lutefisk (earlier [ludefisk] Error: {{Lang}}: text has italic markup (help) spelling still sometimes used in English) or [lutfisk] Error: {{Lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
  • Swedish: lutfisk
  • Finnish: lipeäkala or livekala
  • Template:Lang-sme

See also[]

  • Bacalhau: A Portuguese dish also made of reconstituted dried fish.
  • Baccalà
  • Clipfish: Salted dried fish, usually cod.
  • Fish and brewis
  • Hákarl
  • Hongeohoe
  • Surströmming
  • Þorramatur


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Erica Janik, Scandinavians’ Strange Holiday Lutefisk Tradition, Smithsonian, December 8, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Jan Soppeland (9 October 2008). "Lutefisk til himmels" (in Norwegian). Aftensbladet. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  3. "Lutefisk er trendy – Møre og Romsdal" (in Norwegian). NRK Nyhende. 2 December 2009.
  4. "Trendy med lutefisk" (in Norwegian). 20 December 2005.
  5. Annechen Bahr Bugge, "Helt enkelt jul", Grøstad gård, 24 November 2005
  6. Eric Dregni, Minnesota Marvels: Roadside Attractions in the Land of Lakes, University of Minnesota Press (September 2001), ISBN 978-0-8166-3632-7
  7. Manitou Messenger
  8. "Regulation of Industry, Buildings, and Safety" (PDF), Wisconsin Statutes, Wisconsin Legislature, 101.58 (2f): 45–46, 2007–2008, retrieved 15 August 2009, 2. "Toxic substance" does not include: ¶ [...] f. Lutefisk.

External links[]

Template:Cod topics Template:Seafood