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  2021 (Tuesday)
  2020 (Monday)
  2019 (Saturday)
  2018 (Friday)
  2017 (Thursday)
  2016 (Wednesday)
  2015 (Monday)
  2014 (Sunday)
  2013 (Saturday)
  2012 (Friday)

[[Category:Script error: No such module "pagetype". with short description]]Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Script error: No such module "SDcat".June 8 is the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". day of the year (Script error: No such module "Ordinal". in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 206 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

  • 0218Battle of Antioch: With the support of the Syrian legions, Elagabalus defeats the forces of emperor Macrinus. He flees, but is captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.
  • 0793 – Vikings raid the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, commonly accepted as the beginning of Norse activity in the British Isles.
  • 1042Edward the Confessor becomes King of England - the country's penultimate Anglo-Saxon king.
  • 1191Richard I arrives in Acre, beginning his crusade.
  • 1663 – Portuguese victory at the Battle of Ameixial ensures Portugal's independence from Spain.[1]
  • 1776American Revolutionary War: American attackers are driven back at the Battle of Trois-Rivières.
  • 1783Laki, a volcano in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts a seven-year famine.
  • 1789James Madison introduces twelve proposed amendments to the United States Constitution in Congress.
  • 1794Robespierre inaugurates the French Revolution's new state religion, the Cult of the Supreme Being, with large organized festivals all across France.
  • 1856 – A group of 194 Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the mutineers of Template:HMS, arrives at Norfolk Island, commencing the Third Settlement of the Island.
  • 1861American Civil War: Tennessee secedes from the Union.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Cross Keys: Confederate forces under General Stonewall Jackson save the Army of Northern Virginia from a Union assault on the James Peninsula led by General George B. McClellan.
  • 1867 – Coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Hungary following the Austro-Hungarian compromise (Ausgleich).
  • 1887Herman Hollerith applies for US patent #395,781 for the 'Art of Compiling Statistics', which was his punched card calculator.
  • 1906Theodore Roosevelt signs the Antiquities Act into law, authorizing the President to restrict the use of certain parcels of public land with historical or conservation value.
  • 1912Carl Laemmle incorporates Universal Pictures.
  • 1918 – A solar eclipse is observed at Baker City, Oregon by scientists and an artist hired by the United States Navy.
  • 1928Second Northern Expedition: The National Revolutionary Army captures Peking, whose name is changed to Beijing ("Northern Capital").
  • 1929Margaret Bondfield is appointed Minister of Labour. She is the first woman appointed to the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.[2]
  • 1940World War II: The completion of Operation Alphabet, the evacuation of Allied forces from Narvik at the end of the Norwegian Campaign.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Allies commence the Syria–Lebanon Campaign against the possessions of Vichy France in the Levant.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Japanese imperial submarines I-21 and I-24 shell the Australian cities of Sydney and Newcastle.
  • 1949Helen Keller, Dorothy Parker, Danny Kaye, Fredric March, John Garfield, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson are named in an FBI report as Communist Party members.
  • 1949 – George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is published.
  • 1953An F5 tornado hits Beecher, Michigan, killing 116, injuring 844, and destroying 340 homes.
  • 1953 – The United States Supreme Court rules in District of Columbia v. John R. Thompson Co. that restaurants in Washington, D.C., cannot refuse to serve black patrons.
  • 1959Template:Ship and the United States Postal Service attempt the delivery of mail via Missile Mail.
  • 1966 – An F-104 Starfighter collides with XB-70 Valkyrie prototype no. 2, destroying both aircraft during a photo shoot near Edwards Air Force Base. Joseph A. Walker, a NASA test pilot, and Carl Cross, a United States Air Force test pilot, are both killed.
  • 1966 – Topeka, Kansas, is devastated by a tornado that registers as an "F5" on the Fujita scale: The first to exceed US$100 million in damages. Sixteen people are killed, hundreds more injured, and thousands of homes damaged or destroyed.
  • 1966 – The National Football League and American Football League announced a merger effective in 1970.
  • 1967Six-Day War: The USS Liberty incident occurs, killing 34 and wounding 171.
  • 1972Vietnam War: Nine-year-old Phan Thị Kim Phúc is burned by napalm, an event captured by Associated Press photographer Nick Ut moments later while the young girl is seen running down a road, in what would become an iconic, Pulitzer Prize-winning photo.
  • 1982Bluff Cove Air Attacks during the Falklands War: Fifty-six British servicemen are killed by an Argentine air attack on two landing ships, Template:Ship and Template:Ship.
  • 1984Homosexuality is declared legal in the Australian state of New South Wales.
  • 1987 – New Zealand's Labour government establishes a national nuclear-free zone under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987.
  • 1992 – The first World Oceans Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • 1995 – Downed U.S. Air Force pilot Captain Scott O'Grady is rescued by U.S. Marines in Bosnia.
  • 2001Mamoru Takuma kills eight and injures 15 in a mass stabbing at an elementary school in the Osaka Prefecture of Japan.
  • 2004 – The first Venus Transit in well over a century takes place, the previous one being in 1882.
  • 2007Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia, is hit by the State's worst storms and flooding in 30 years resulting in the death of nine people and the grounding of a trade ship, the Template:MV.
  • 2008 – At least 37 miners go missing after an explosion in a Ukrainian coal mine causes it to collapse.
  • 2008 – At least seven people are killed and ten injured in a stabbing spree in Tokyo, Japan.
  • 2009 – Two American journalists are found guilty of illegally entering North Korea and sentenced to 12 years of penal labour.
  • 2014 – At least 28 people are killed in an attack at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, Pakistan.

Births

  • 0862Emperor Xizong of Tang (d. 888)[3][4]
  • 1508Primož Trubar, Slovenian Protestant reformer (d. 1586)
  • 1552Gabriello Chiabrera, Italian poet and author (d. 1638)
  • 1593George I Rákóczi, prince of Transylvania (d. 1648)
  • 1625Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Italian-French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1712)
  • 1671Tomaso Albinoni, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1751)
  • 1717John Collins, American lawyer and politician, 3rd Governor of Rhode Island (d. 1795)
  • 1724John Smeaton, English engineer, designed the Coldstream Bridge and Perth Bridge (d. 1794)
  • 1745Caspar Wessel, Norwegian-Danish mathematician and cartographer (d. 1818)
  • 1757Ercole Consalvi, Italian cardinal (d. 1824)
  • 1788Charles A. Wickliffe, American politician, 14th Governor of Kentucky (d. 1869)
  • 1810Robert Schumann, German composer and critic (d. 1856)[5]
  • 1829John Everett Millais, English painter and illustrator (d. 1896)[6]
  • 1831Thomas J. Higgins, Canadian-American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1917)
  • 1842John Q. A. Brackett, American lawyer and politician, 36th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1918)
  • 1851Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval, French physician and physicist (d. 1940)
  • 1852Guido Banti, Italian physician and pathologist (d. 1925)
  • 1854Douglas Cameron, Canadian politician, 8th Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba (d. 1921)
  • 1855George Charles Haité, English painter and illustrator (d. 1924)
  • 1858Charlotte Scott, English mathematician (d. 1931)[7]
  • 1859Smith Wigglesworth, English evangelist (d. 1947)
  • 1860Alicia Boole Stott, Irish-English mathematician and theorist (d. 1940)[8]
  • 1867Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect, designed the Price Tower and Fallingwater (d. 1959)
  • 1868Robert Robinson Taylor, American architect (d. 1942)
  • 1872Jan Frans De Boever, Belgian painter and illustrator (d. 1949)
  • 1875Ernst Enno, Estonian poet and author (d. 1934)
  • 1876Alexandre Tuffère, Greek-French triple jumper (d. 1958)
  • 1885Karl Genzken, German physician (d. 1957)
  • 1891William Funnell, Australian public servant (d. 1962)
  • 1893Ernst Marcus, German zoologist (d. 1968)
  • 1893 – Gaby Morlay, French actress (d. 1964)
  • 1894Erwin Schulhoff, Czech composer and pianist (d. 1942)
  • 1895Santiago Bernabéu Yeste, Spanish footballer and manager (d. 1978)
  • 1897John G. Bennett, English mathematician and technologist (d. 1974)
  • 1899Eugène Lapierre, Canadian organist, composer and arts administrator (d. 1970)
  • 1899 – Ernst-Robert Grawitz, German physician (d. 1945)[9]
  • 1900Lena Baker, African-American maid executed for capital murder, later pardoned posthumously (d. 1945) [10]
  • 1903Ralph Yarborough, American colonel and politician (d. 1996)
  • 1903 – Marguerite Yourcenar, Belgian-French author and poet (d. 1987)[11]
  • 1910C. C. Beck, American illustrator (d. 1989)
  • 1910 – John W. Campbell, American journalist and author (d. 1971)
  • 1910 – Fernand Fonssagrives, French-American photographer, sculptor, and painter (d. 2003)
  • 1911Edmundo Rivero, Argentinian singer-songwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1912Wilhelmina Barns-Graham, British abstract painter (d. 2004)
  • 1912 – Maurice Bellemare, Canadian lawyer and politician (d. 1989)
  • 1912 – Harry Holtzman, American painter (d. 1987)
  • 1915Kayyar Kinhanna Rai, Indian journalist, author, and poet (d. 2015)
  • 1916Francis Crick, English biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2004)
  • 1916 – Luigi Comencini, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 2007)
  • 1916 – Richard Pousette-Dart, American painter and educator (d. 1992)
  • 1917Byron White, American football player and judge (d. 2002)
  • 1918George Edward Hughes, Irish-New Zealand philosopher and logician (d. 1994)
  • 1918 – Robert Preston, American captain, actor, and singer (d. 1987)
  • 1918 – John D. Roberts, American chemist and academic (d. 2016)
  • 1918 – John H. Ross, American captain and pilot (d. 2013)
  • 1919John R. Deane, Jr., American general (d. 2013)
  • 1920Gwen Harwood, Australian poet and playwright (d. 1995)
  • 1921Gordon McLendon, American broadcaster and businessman (d. 1986)
  • 1921 – Olga Nardone, American actress (d. 2010)
  • 1921 – LeRoy Neiman, American soldier and painter (d. 2012)
  • 1921 – Alexis Smith, Canadian-born American actress and singer (d. 1993)
  • 1921 – Suharto, Indonesian soldier and politician, 2nd President of Indonesia (d. 2008)
  • 1924Billie Dawe, Canadian ice hockey player and manager (d. 2013)
  • 1924 – Kenneth Waltz, American political scientist and academic (d. 2013)
  • 1925Barbara Bush, American wife of George H. W. Bush, 41st First Lady of the United States (d. 2018)
  • 1927Jerry Stiller, American actor, comedian and producer (d. 2020)
  • 1929Nada Inada, Japanese psychiatrist and author (d. 2013)
  • 1930Robert Aumann, German-American mathematician and economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1930 – Marcel Léger, Canadian lawyer and politician (d. 1993)
  • 1931James Goldstone, American director and screenwriter (d. 1999)
  • 1931 – Dana Wynter, British actress (d. 2011)
  • 1932Ray Illingworth, English cricketer and sportscaster
  • 1932 – Ian Kirkwood, Lord Kirkwood, Scottish lawyer and judge (d. 2017)
  • 1933Rommie Loudd, American football player and coach (d. 1998)
  • 1933 – Joan Rivers, American comedian, actress, and television host (d. 2014)
  • 1933 – Robert Stevens, English lawyer and academic
  • 1934Millicent Martin, English actress and singer
  • 1935Molade Okoya-Thomas, Nigerian businessman and philanthropist (d. 2015)
  • 1936James Darren, American actor
  • 1936 – Kenneth G. Wilson, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
  • 1937Gillian Clarke, Welsh poet and playwright
  • 1938Angelo Amato, Italian cardinal
  • 1939Herb Adderley, American football player
  • 1940Nancy Sinatra, American singer and actress
  • 1941Robert Bradford, Northern Irish politician and activist (d. 1981)
  • 1941 – George Pell, Australian cardinal
  • 1942Nikos Konstantopoulos, Greek politician, Greek Minister of the Interior
  • 1942 – Doug Mountjoy, Welsh snooker player
  • 1943Colin Baker, English actor
  • 1943 – William Calley, American lieutenant
  • 1943 – Willie Davenport, American colonel and hurdler (d. 2002)
  • 1943 – Peter Eggert, German footballer and manager
  • 1943 – Pierre-André Fournier, Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 2015)
  • 1944Mark Belanger, American baseball player (d. 1998)
  • 1944 – Marc Ouellet, Canadian cardinal
  • 1944 – Boz Scaggs, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1945Steven Fromholz, American singer-songwriter, producer, and poet (d. 2014)
  • 1945 – Derek Underwood, English cricketer
  • 1946Graham Henry, New Zealand rugby player and coach
  • 1947Annie Haslam, English singer-songwriter and painter
  • 1947 – Sara Paretsky, American author
  • 1947 – Eric F. Wieschaus, American biologist, geneticist, and academic Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1949Emanuel Ax, Polish-American pianist and educator
  • 1949 – Hildegard Falck, German runner
  • 1950Kathy Baker, American actress
  • 1950 – Sônia Braga, Brazilian actress and producer
  • 1951Bonnie Tyler, Welsh singer-songwriter
  • 1953Billy Hayes, English union leader
  • 1953 – Sandy Nairne, English historian and curator
  • 1953 – Ivo Sanader, Croatian historian and politician, 8th Prime Minister of Croatia
  • 1953 – Olav Stedje, Norwegian singer-songwriter
  • 1954Greg Ginn, American punk rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter (Black Flag)
  • 1954 – Kiril of Varna, Bulgarian metropolitan (d. 2013)
  • 1954 – Sergei Storchak, Ukrainian-Russian politician
  • 1955Tim Berners-Lee, English computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web
  • 1955 – José Antonio Camacho, Spanish footballer and manager
  • 1955 – Griffin Dunne, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1956Udo Bullmann, German politician
  • 1956 – Jonathan Potter, English psychologist, sociolinguist, and academic
  • 1957Scott Adams, American author and illustrator
  • 1957 – Don Robinson, American baseball player and politician
  • 1957 – Sonja Vectomov, Czech/Finnish sculptor
  • 1958Louise Richardson, Irish political scientist and academic
  • 1958 – Keenen Ivory Wayans, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1959Mohsen Kadivar, Iranian philosopher
  • 1960Mick Hucknall, English singer-songwriter
  • 1960 – Terje Gewelt, Norwegian bassist
  • 1960 – Thomas Steen, Swedish ice hockey player and coach
  • 1961Mary Bonauto, American lawyer and gay rights activist[12]
  • 1963Karen Kingsbury, American journalist and author
  • 1964Butch Reynolds, American runner and coach
  • 1965Kevin Farley, American screenwriter
  • 1967Russell E. Morris, Professor of Materials Chemistry at the University of St Andrews
  • 1971Mark Feuerstein, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1977Kanye West, American rapper, producer, director, and fashion designer
  • 1981Rachel Held Evans, American Christian author[13]
  • 1982Nadia Petrova, Russian tennis player
  • 1983Kim Clijsters, Belgian tennis player; winner of six Grand Slam tournament titles.[14]
  • 1984Javier Mascherano, Argentinian footballer
  • 1989Timea Bacsinszky, Swiss tennis player[15]
  • 1997Jeļena Ostapenko, Latvian tennis player[16]

Deaths

  • 0632Muhammad, the central figure of Islam, widely regarded as its founder (b. 570/571)[17]
  • 0696Chlodulf, bishop of Metz (or 697)
  • 0951Zhao Ying, Chinese chancellor (b. 885)
  • 1042Harthacnut, English-Danish king (b. 1018)
  • 1154William of York, English archbishop and saint
  • 1290Beatrice Portinari, object of Dante Alighieri's adoration (b. 1266)
  • 1376Edward, the Black Prince, English son of Edward III of England (b. 1330)
  • 1383Thomas de Ros, 4th Baron de Ros, English politician (b. 1338)
  • 1384Kan'ami, Japanese actor and playwright (b. 1333)
  • 1405Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York (b. c.1350)[18]
  • 1405 – Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk (b. 1385)[18]
  • 1476George Neville, English archbishop and academic (b. 1432)
  • 1492Elizabeth Woodville, Queen consort of England (b. 1437)
  • 1501George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly, Earl of Huntly and Lord Chancellor of Scotland (b. 1440)
  • 1505Hongzhi Emperor of China (b. 1470)
  • 1600Edward Fortunatus, German nobleman (b. 1565)
  • 1611Jean Bertaut, French bishop and poet (b. 1552)
  • 1612Hans Leo Hassler, German organist and composer (b. 1562)
  • 1621Anne de Xainctonge, French saint, founded the Society of the Sisters of Saint Ursula of the Blessed Virgin (b. 1567)
  • 1628Rudolph Goclenius, German lexicographer and philosopher (b. 1547)
  • 1651Tokugawa Iemitsu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1604)
  • 1714Sophia of Hanover (b. 1630)
  • 1716Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, German son of Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1658)
  • 1727August Hermann Francke, German-Lutheran pietist, philanthropist, and scholar (b. 1663)
  • 1768Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German archaeologist and scholar (b. 1717)
  • 1771George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1716)
  • 1795Louis XVII of France (b. 1785)
  • 1809Thomas Paine, English-American theorist and author (b. 1737)
  • 1831Sarah Siddons, Welsh actress (b. 1755)
  • 1835Gian Domenico Romagnosi, Italian economist and jurist (b. 1761)
  • 1845Andrew Jackson, American general, judge, and politician, 7th President of the United States (b. 1767)
  • 1846Rodolphe Töpffer, Swiss teacher, author, painter, cartoonist, and caricaturist (b. 1799)
  • 1857Douglas William Jerrold, English journalist and playwright (b. 1803)
  • 1874Cochise, American tribal chief (b. 1805)
  • 1876George Sand, French author and playwright (b. 1804)
  • 1885Ignace Bourget, Canadian bishop (b. 1799)
  • 1889Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet (b. 1844)
  • 1899Mary of the Divine Heart, German nun and saint (b. 1863)
  • 1924Andrew Irvine, English mountaineer and explorer (b. 1902)
  • 1924 – George Mallory, English lieutenant and mountaineer (b. 1886)
  • 1929Bliss Carman, Canadian-American poet and playwright (b. 1861)
  • 1945Karl Hanke, Polish-German soldier and politician (b. 1903)
  • 1951Eugène Fiset, Canadian physician, general, and politician, 18th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (b. 1874)
  • 1951 – Oswald Pohl, German SS officer (b. 1892)
  • 1956Marie Laurencin, French painter and sculptor (b. 1883)
  • 1959Leslie Johnson, English race car driver (b. 1912)
  • 1965Edmondo Rossoni, Italian politician (b. 1884)
  • 1966Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer and academic (b. 1890)
  • 1968Elizabeth Enright, American author and illustrator (b. 1909)
  • 1968 – Ludovico Scarfiotti, Italian race car driver (b. 1933)
  • 1969Arunachalam Mahadeva, Sri Lankan politician and diplomat (b. 1885)
  • 1969 – Robert Taylor, American actor and singer (b. 1911)
  • 1970Abraham Maslow, American psychologist and academic (b. 1908)
  • 1971J.I. Rodale, American author and playwright (b. 1898)
  • 1976Thorleif Schjelderup-Ebbe, Norwegian zoologist and psychologist (b. 1894)
  • 1982Satchel Paige, American baseball player and coach (b. 1906)
  • 1984Gordon Jacob, English composer and academic (b. 1895)
  • 1987Alexander Iolas, Egyptian-American art collector (b. 1907)
  • 1997George Turner, Australian author and critic (b. 1916)
  • 1997 – Karen Wetterhahn, American chemist and academic (b. 1948)
  • 1998Sani Abacha, Nigerian general and politician, 10th President of Nigeria (b. 1943)
  • 1998 – Maria Reiche, German mathematician and archaeologist (b. 1903)
  • 2000Frédéric Dard, French author and screenwriter (b. 1921)[19]
  • 2000 – Jeff MacNelly, American cartoonist (b. 1948)
  • 2001Alex de Renzy, American director and producer (b. 1935)
  • 2004Charles Hyder, American astrophysicist and academic (b. 1930)
  • 2004 – Mack Jones, American baseball player (b. 1938)
  • 2006Jaxon, American illustrator and publisher, co-founded Rip Off Press (b. 1941)
  • 2006 – Matta El Meskeen, Egyptian monk, theologian, and author (b. 1919)
  • 2008Šaban Bajramović, Serbian singer-songwriter (b. 1936)
  • 2009Omar Bongo, Gabonese captain and politician, President of Gabon (b. 1935)
  • 2010Crispian St. Peters, English singer-songwriter (b. 1939)
  • 2012Pete Brennan, American basketball player (b. 1936)
  • 2012 – Charles E. M. Pearce, New Zealand-Australian mathematician and academic (b. 1940)
  • 2012 – Ghassan Tueni, Lebanese journalist, academic, and politician (b. 1926)
  • 2013Paul Cellucci, American soldier and politician, 69th Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1948)
  • 2013 – Yoram Kaniuk, Israeli painter, journalist, and critic (b. 1930)
  • 2013 – Taufiq Kiemas, Indonesian politician, 5th First Spouse of Indonesia (b. 1942)
  • 2014Alexander Imich, Polish-American chemist, parapsychologist, and academic (b. 1903)
  • 2014 – Yoshihito, Prince Katsura of Japan (b. 1948)
  • 2015Chea Sim, Cambodian commander and politician (b. 1932)
  • 2017Sam Panopoulos, Greek cook (b. 1934)
  • 2019Andre Matos, Brazilian heavy metal musician (b. 1971)[20]

Holidays and observances

  • Christian feast day:
    • Blessed Mariam Thresia Chiramel Mankidiyan
    • Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart (Droste zu Vischering)
    • Chlodulf of Metz
    • Jacques Berthieu, S.J.
    • Jadwiga (Hedwig) of Poland
    • Medard
    • Melania the Elder
    • Roland Allen (Episcopal Church (USA))
    • Thomas Ken (Church of England)
    • William of York
    • June 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Earliest day on which Queen's Birthday can fall, while June 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Monday in June. (Australia, except Western Australia and Queensland)
  • Bounty Day (Norfolk Island)
  • Caribbean American HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
  • Engineer's Day (Peru)
  • Pranav Sivakumar Day (Illinois, United States)
  • Primož Trubar Day (Slovenia)
  • World Brain Tumor Day
  • World Oceans Day

References

  1. Rui Natário, As Grandes Batalhas da História de Portugal, Marcador Editora, Barcarena, 2013 (in Portuguese)
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  3. Academia Sinica Chinese-Western Calendar Converter.
  4. Old Book of Tang, vol. 19, part 2.
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  17. The Last Prophet Script error: No such module "webarchive"., p. 3. Lewis Lord of U.S. News & World Report. 7 April 2008.
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External links

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  • Template:NYT On this day
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