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  2021 (Friday)
  2020 (Thursday)
  2019 (Tuesday)
  2018 (Monday)
  2017 (Sunday)
  2016 (Saturday)
  2015 (Thursday)
  2014 (Wednesday)
  2013 (Tuesday)
  2012 (Monday)

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Events

  • 622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.
  • 997Battle of Spercheios: Bulgarian forces of Tsar Samuel are defeated by a Byzantine army under general Nikephoros Ouranos at the Spercheios River in Greece.
  • 1054 – Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Historians frequently describe the event as the start of the East–West Schism.
  • 1212Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: After Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, thus marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
  • 1232 – The Spanish town of Arjona declares independence and names its native Muhammad ibn Yusuf as ruler. This marks the Muhammad's first rise to prominence; he would later establish the Nasrid Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state in Spain.
  • 1251 – Celebrated by the Carmelite Order–but doubted by modern historians–as the day when Saint Simon Stock had a vision of the Virgin Mary.[1][2][3]
  • 1377 – King Richard II of England is crowned.[4]
  • 1661 – The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.
  • 1683 – Manchu Qing dynasty naval forces under traitorous commander Shi Lang defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands.
  • 1769 – Father Junípero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California.
  • 1779American Revolutionary War: Light infantry of the Continental Army seize a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point.
  • 1790 – The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act.
  • 1809 – The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.
  • 1849Antonio María Claret y Clará founds the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as the Claretians in Vic, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
  • 1861American Civil War: At the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25-mile march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war.[5]
  • 1862 – American Civil War: David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank.
  • 1909Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar.[6]
  • 1910John Robertson Duigan makes the first flight of the Duigan pusher biplane, the first aircraft built in Australia.
  • 1915Henry James becomes a British citizen to highlight his commitment to Britain during the first World War.
  • 1915 – At Treasure Island on the Delaware River in the United States, the First Order of the Arrow ceremony takes place and the Order of the Arrow is founded to honor American Boy Scouts who best exemplify the Scout Oath and Law.[7]
  • 1927Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.
  • 1931Emperor Haile Selassie signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.
  • 1935 – The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
  • 1941Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game, a streak that still stands as an MLB record.
  • 1942Holocaust: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv): The government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Vélodrome d'Hiver in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.
  • 1945 – World War II: The heavy cruiser Template:Ship leaves San Francisco with parts for the atomic bomb "Little Boy" bound for Tinian Island.
  • 1945 – Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
  • 1948 – Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
  • 1948 – The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.
  • 1950Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.
  • 1951 – King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates in favor of his son, Baudouin I of Belgium.
  • 1956Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus closes its last "Big Tent" show in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; due to changing economics, all subsequent circus shows will be held in arenas.
  • 1965 – The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens.
  • 1965 – South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo, a formerly undetected communist spy and double agent, is hunted down and killed by unknown individuals after being sentenced to death in absentia for a February 1965 coup attempt against Nguyễn Khánh.
  • 1969Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.
  • 1979Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.
  • 1983Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.
  • 1990 – The Luzon earthquake strikes the Philippines with an intensity of 7.7, affecting Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, La Union, Aurora, Bataan, Zambales and Tarlac.
  • 1990 – The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.
  • 1999John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, died when the Piper Saratoga PA-32R aircraft he was piloting crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard.
  • 2004Millennium Park, considered Chicago's first and most ambitious early 21st-century architectural project, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.
  • 2007 – An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 and 6.6 aftershock occurs off the Niigata coast of Japan killing eight people, injuring at least 800 and damaging a nuclear power plant.
  • 2013 – As many as 27 children die and 25 others are hospitalized after eating lunch served at their school in eastern India.
  • 2015 – Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
  • 2019 – A 100-year-old building in Mumbai, India, collapses, killing at least 10 people and leaving many others trapped.[8]

Births

  • 1194Clare of Assisi, Italian nun and saint (d. 1253)
  • 1486Andrea del Sarto, Italian painter (d. 1530)
  • 1517Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, English duchess (d. 1559)[9]
  • 1529Petrus Peckius the Elder, Dutch jurist, writer on international maritime law (d. 1589)
  • 1611Cecilia Renata of Austria (d. 1644)
  • 1661Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Canadian captain, explorer, and politician (d. 1706)
  • 1714Marc René, marquis de Montalembert, French engineer and author (d. 1800)
  • 1722Joseph Wilton, English sculptor and academic (d. 1803)
  • 1723Joshua Reynolds, English painter and academic (d. 1792)
  • 1731Samuel Huntington, American jurist and politician, 18th Governor of Connecticut (d. 1796)
  • 1749Cyrus Griffin, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 16th President of the Continental Congress (d. 1810)
  • 1796Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French painter and etcher (d. 1875)
  • 1821Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader and author, founded Christian Science (d. 1910)
  • 1841Nikolai von Glehn, Estonian-German architect and activist (d. 1923)
  • 1858Eugène Ysaÿe, Belgian violinist, composer, and conductor (d. 1931)
  • 1862Ida B. Wells, American journalist and activist (d. 1931)
  • 1863Anderson Dawson, Australian politician, 14th Premier of Queensland (d. 1910)
  • 1870Lambert McKenna, Irish priest, lexicographer, and scholar (d. 1956)
  • 1871John Maxwell, American golfer (d. 1906)
  • 1872Roald Amundsen, Norwegian pilot and explorer (d. 1928)
  • 1872 – Frank Cooper, Australian politician, 25th Premier of Queensland (d. 1949)
  • 1880Kathleen Norris, American journalist and author (d. 1966)
  • 1882Violette Neatley Anderson, American judge (d. 1937)[10]
  • 1883Charles Sheeler, American photographer and painter (d. 1965)
  • 1884Anna Vyrubova, Russian author (d. 1964)
  • 1887Shoeless Joe Jackson, American baseball player and manager (d. 1951)
  • 1888Percy Kilbride, American actor (d. 1964)
  • 1888 – Frits Zernike, Dutch physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1966)
  • 1889Arthur Bowie Chrisman, American author (d. 1953)
  • 1895Wilfrid Hamel, Canadian businessman and politician, 35th Mayor of Quebec City (d. 1968)
  • 1896Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, German biologist and eugenicist (d. 1969)
  • 1896 – Trygve Lie, Norwegian trade union leader and politician, 1st Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 1968)
  • 1902Alexander Luria, Russian psychologist and physician (d. 1977)
  • 1902 – Mary Philbin, American actress (d. 1993)
  • 1903Fritz Bauer, German lawyer and judge (d. 1968)
  • 1903 – Carmen Lombardo, Canadian singer-songwriter (d. 1971)
  • 1903 – Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, German mathematician and engineer (d. 1974)[11]
  • 1904Goffredo Petrassi, Italian composer and conductor (d. 2003)
  • 1906Vincent Sherman, American actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 2006)
  • 1907Frances Horwich, American educator and television host (d. 2001)
  • 1907 – Orville Redenbacher, American farmer and businessman, founded Orville Redenbacher's (d. 1995)
  • 1907 – Barbara Stanwyck, American actress (d. 1990)
  • 1910Stan McCabe, Australian cricketer (d. 1968)
  • 1910 – Gordon Prange, American historian, author, and academic (d. 1980)
  • 1911Ginger Rogers, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. 1995)
  • 1911 – Sonny Tufts, American actor (d. 1970)
  • 1912Milt Bocek, American baseball player (d. 2007)
  • 1912 – Amy Patterson, Argentine composer, singer, poet, and teacher (d. 2019)
  • 1915Barnard Hughes, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1915 – Elaine Barrie, American actress (d. 2003)
  • 1918Denis Edward Arnold, English soldier (d. 2015)
  • 1918 – Paul Farnes, famed World War II Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter pilot and one of "The Few" surviving pilots of the Battle of Britain (d. 2020)
  • 1918 – Samuel Victor Perry, English biochemist and rugby player (d. 2009)
  • 1919Hermine Braunsteiner, Austrian SS officer (d. 1999)
  • 1919 – Choi Kyu-hah, South Korean politician, 4th President of South Korea (d. 2006)
  • 1920Anatole Broyard, American critic and editor (d. 1990)
  • 1923Chris Argyris, American psychologist, theorist, and academic (d. 2013)
  • 1923 – Bola Sete, Brazilian guitarist (d. 1987)
  • 1924James L. Greenfield, American journalist and politician
  • 1924 – Bess Myerson, American model, actress, game show panelist, and politician, Miss America 1945 (d. 2014)
  • 1924 – Rupert Deese, Northern Mariana Islander ceramic artist (d. 2010)
  • 1925Frank Jobe, American sergeant and surgeon (d. 2014)
  • 1925 – Rosita Quintana, Argentine actress
  • 1925 – Cal Tjader, American jazz musician (d. 1982)
  • 1926Ivica Horvat, Croatian footballer and manager (d. 2012)
  • 1926 – Irwin Rose, American biologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2015)
  • 1927Pierre F. Côté, Canadian lawyer and civil servant (d. 2013)
  • 1927 – Shirley Hughes, English author and illustrator
  • 1927 – Derek Hawksworth, English footballer
  • 1928Anita Brookner, English novelist and art historian (d. 2016)
  • 1928 – Bella Davidovich, Soviet-American pianist
  • 1928 – Robert Sheckley, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Jim Rathmann, American race car driver (d. 2011)
  • 1928 – Dave Treen, American lawyer and politician, 51st Governor of Louisiana (d. 2009)
  • 1928 – Andrzej Zawada, Polish mountaineer and author (d. 2000)
  • 1929Charles Ray Hatcher, American serial killer (d. 1984)
  • 1929 – Sheri S. Tepper, American author and poet (d. 2016)
  • 1929 – Gaby Tanguy, French swimmer
  • 1930Guy Béart, Egyptian-French singer-songwriter (d. 2015)
  • 1930 – Michael Bilirakis, American lawyer and politician
  • 1930 – Bert Rechichar, American football defensive back and kicker (d. 2019)
  • 1931Fergus Gordon Kerr, Scottish Roman Catholic priest of the English Dominican Province
  • 1931 – Norm Sherry, American former catcher, manager, and coach in Major League Baseball
  • 1932John Chilton, English trumpet player and composer (d. 2016)
  • 1932 – Max McGee, American football player and sportscaster (d. 2007)
  • 1932 – Dick Thornburgh, American lawyer and politician, 76th United States Attorney General
  • 1933Julian A. Brodsky, American businessman
  • 1934Tomás Eloy Martínez, Argentine journalist (d. 2010)[12]
  • 1934 – Katherine D. Ortega, 38th Treasurer of the United States
  • 1934 – Donald M. Payne, American educator and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1935Carl Epting Mundy Jr., American general (d. 2014)
  • 1935 – Lynn Wyatt, American socialite and philanthropist
  • 1936Yasuo Fukuda, Japanese politician, 91st Prime Minister of Japan
  • 1936 – Buddy Merrill, American guitarist
  • 1936 – Jerry Norman, American sinologist and linguist (d. 2012)
  • 1936 – Venkataraman Subramanya, Indian-Australian cricketer
  • 1937Richard Bryan, American lawyer and politician, 25th Governor of Nevada
  • 1937 – John Daly, English director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2008)
  • 1938Cynthia Enloe, American author and academic
  • 1938 – Tony Jackson, English singer and bass player (d. 2003)
  • 1939William Bell, American singer-songwriter
  • 1939 – Ali Khamenei, Iranian cleric and politician, 2nd Supreme Leader of Iran
  • 1939 – Lido Vieri, Italian football manager and football player
  • 1939 – Denise LaSalle, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. 2018)
  • 1939 – Ruth Perry, president of Liberia (d. 2017)[13]
  • 1939 – Shringar Nagaraj, Indian actor and producer (d. 2013)
  • 1939 – Corin Redgrave, English actor and activist (d. 2010)
  • 1939 – Mariele Ventre, Italian singer and conductor (d. 1995)
  • 1941Desmond Dekker, Jamaican singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Dag Solstad, Norwegian author and playwright
  • 1941 – Hans Wiegel, Dutch journalist and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands
  • 1941 – Sir George Young, 6th Baronet, English banker and politician, Secretary of State for Transport
  • 1942Margaret Court, Australian tennis player and minister
  • 1943Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban-American author, poet, and playwright (d. 1990)
  • 1943 – Vernon Bogdanor, English political scientist and academic
  • 1943 – Jimmy Johnson, American football player and coach
  • 1944Angharad Rees, English-Welsh actress and jewellery designer (d. 2012)
  • 1946Louise Fréchette, Canadian civil servant and diplomat, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations
  • 1946 – Barbara Lee, American politician
  • 1946 – Ron Yary, American football player
  • 1947Don Burke, Australian television host and producer
  • 1947 – Alexis Herman, American businesswoman and politician, 23rd United States Secretary of Labor
  • 1947 – Assata Shakur, American-Cuban criminal and activist
  • 1948Rubén Blades, Panamanian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
  • 1948 – Lars Lagerbäck, Swedish footballer and manager
  • 1948 – Kevin McKenzie, South African cricketer
  • 1948 – Pinchas Zukerman, Israeli violinist and conductor
  • 1949Alan Fitzgerald, American guitarist and keyboardist
  • 1950Pierre Paradis, Canadian lawyer and politician
  • 1950 – Dennis Priestley, English darts player
  • 1950 – Frances Spalding, English historian and academic
  • 1950 – Tom Terrell, American journalist and photographer (d. 2007)
  • 1951Jean-Luc Mongrain, Canadian journalist
  • 1951 – Che Rosli, Malaysian politician
  • 1952Stewart Copeland, American drummer and songwriter
  • 1952 – Richard Egielski, American author and illustrator
  • 1952 – Marc Esposito, French director and screenwriter
  • 1952 – Ken McEwan, South African cricketer
  • 1953Douglas J. Feith, American lawyer and politician, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
  • 1954Jeanette Mott Oxford, American politician
  • 1955Susan Wheeler, American poet and academic
  • 1955 – Saw Swee Leong, Malaysian badminton player
  • 1956Tony Kushner, American playwright and screenwriter
  • 1957Faye Grant, American actress
  • 1957 – Alexandra Marinina, Ukrainian-Russian colonel and author
  • 1958Mick Cornett, American politician, and former mayor of Oklahoma City.[14]
  • 1958 – Michael Flatley, American-Irish dancer and choreographer
  • 1958 – Mike Rogers, American politician
  • 1959Gary Anderson, South African-American football player
  • 1959 – James MacMillan, Scottish composer and conductor
  • 1959 – Zoran Jolevski, Macedonian economist, politician, and diplomat, Macedonian Ambassador to the United States
  • 1959 – Jürgen Ligi, Estonian economist and politician, 25th Estonian Minister of Defence
  • 1960Terry Pendleton, American baseball player and coach
  • 1962Grigory Leps, Russian singer-songwriter
  • 1963Phoebe Cates, American actress
  • 1963 – Srečko Katanec, Slovenian footballer and coach
  • 1963 – Mikael Pernfors, Swedish tennis player
  • 1964Phil Hellmuth, American poker player
  • 1964 – Miguel Induráin, Spanish cyclist
  • 1965Michel Desjoyeaux, French sailor
  • 1965 – Claude Lemieux, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Sherri Stoner, American actress, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1966Jyrki Lumme, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1967Will Ferrell, American actor, comedian, and producer
  • 1968Dhanraj Pillay, Indian field hockey player and manager
  • 1968 – Barry Sanders, American football player
  • 1968 – Larry Sanger, American philosopher and businessman, co-founded Wikipedia and Citizendium
  • 1968 – Michael Searle, Australian rugby league player and businessman
  • 1968 – Robert Sherman, American songwriter and businessman
  • 1968 – Olga Souza, Brazilian singer and dancer
  • 1969Jules De Martino, English singer-songwriter and bass player
  • 1969 – Kathryn Harby-Williams, Australian netball player and sportscaster
  • 1970Raimonds Miglinieks, Latvian basketball player and coach
  • 1970 – Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Thai director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1971Corey Feldman, American actor
  • 1971 – Ed Kowalczyk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Live)
  • 1972Ben Cahoon, American-Canadian football player and coach
  • 1972 – François Drolet, Canadian speed skater
  • 1973Shaun Pollock, South African cricketer
  • 1973 – Graham Robertson, American director and producer
  • 1973 – Tim Ryan, American politician
  • 1974Jeremy Enigk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1974 – Maret Maripuu, Estonian politician, Estonian Minister of Social Affairs
  • 1974 – Ryan McCombs, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1974 – Wendell Sailor, Australian rugby player
  • 1975Bas Leinders, Belgian race car driver
  • 1976Tomasz Kuchar, Polish race car driver
  • 1976 – Carlos Humberto Paredes, Paraguayan footballer
  • 1976 – Anna Smashnova, Belarusian-Israeli tennis player
  • 1977Bryan Budd, Northern Ireland-born English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 2006)
  • 1979Chris Mihm, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Mai Nakamura, Japanese swimmer
  • 1979 – Kim Rhode, American sport shooter
  • 1979 – Nathan Rogers, Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1979 – Konstantin Skrylnikov, Russian footballer
  • 1980Adam Scott, Australian golfer
  • 1981Giuseppe Di Masi, Italian footballer
  • 1981 – Robert Kranjec, Slovenian ski jumper
  • 1981 – Zach Randolph, American basketball player
  • 1981 – Vicente Rodríguez, Spanish footballer
  • 1982André Greipel, German cyclist
  • 1982 – Carli Lloyd, American soccer player
  • 1982 – Michael Umaña, Costa Rican footballer
  • 1983Duncan Keith, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1984Hayanari Shimoda, Japanese race car driver
  • 1984 – Attila Szabó, Hungarian decathlete
  • 1985Mārtiņš Kravčenko, Latvian basketball player
  • 1986Dustin Boyd, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1986 – Misako Uno, Japanese actress, singer, and fashion designer
  • 1987Mousa Dembélé, Belgian footballer
  • 1987 – AnnaLynne McCord, American actress and producer[15]
  • 1987 – Knowshon Moreno, American football player[16]
  • 1988Sergio Busquets, Spanish footballer
  • 1989Gareth Bale, Welsh footballer
  • 1990Bureta Faraimo, New Zealand rugby league player
  • 1990 – Wizkid, Nigerian singer and songwriter
  • 1990 – Johann Zarco, French motorcycle racer
  • 1991Nate Schmidt, American ice hockey player[17]
  • 1991 – Andros Townsend, English footballer
  • 1996Daniel Pearson, English actor and presenter

Deaths

  • 784Fulrad, Frankish diplomat and saint (b. 710)
  • 866Irmgard, Frankish abbess
  • 1212William de Brus, 3rd Lord of Annandale
  • 1216Pope Innocent III (b. 1160)
  • 1324Emperor Go-Uda of Japan (b. 1267)
  • 1342Charles I of Hungary (b. 1288)
  • 1344An-Nasir Ahmad, Sultan of Egypt (b. 1316)
  • 1509João da Nova, Portuguese explorer (b. 1460)
  • 1546Anne Askew, English author and poet (b. 1520)
  • 1557Anne of Cleves (b. 1515)
  • 1576Isabella de' Medici, Italian noble (b. 1542)
  • 1647Masaniello, Italian rebel (b. 1622)
  • 1664Andreas Gryphius, German poet and playwright (b. 1616)
  • 1686John Pearson, English bishop and scholar (b. 1612)
  • 1691François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, French politician, French Secretary of State for War (b. 1641)
  • 1729Johann David Heinichen, German composer and theorist (b. 1683)
  • 1747Giuseppe Crespi, Italian painter (b. 1665)
  • 1770Francis Cotes, English painter and academic (b. 1726)
  • 1796George Howard, English field marshal and politician (b. 1718)
  • 1831Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, French-Russian general (b. 1763)
  • 1849Sarah Allen, African-American missionary for the African Methodist Episcopal Church (b. 1764)[18]
  • 1868Dmitry Pisarev, Russian author and critic (b. 1840)
  • 1879Edward Deas Thomson, Scottish-Australian politician, 3rd Chief Secretary of New South Wales (b. 1800)
  • 1882Mary Todd Lincoln, First Lady of the United States 1861-1865 (b. 1818)
  • 1886Ned Buntline, American journalist and author (b. 1823)
  • 1896Edmond de Goncourt, French critic and publisher, founded Académie Goncourt (b. 1822)
  • 1915Ellen G. White, American theologian and author (b. 1827)
  • 1917Philipp Scharwenka, German composer and educator (b. 1847)
  • 1939Bartholomeus Roodenburch, Dutch swimmer (b. 1866)
  • 1949Vyacheslav Ivanov, Russian poet and playwright (b. 1866)
  • 1953Hilaire Belloc, French-born British writer and historian (b. 1870)
  • 1954Herms Niel, German soldier, trombonist, and composer (b. 1888)
  • 1960Albert Kesselring, German field marshal (b. 1881)
  • 1960 – John P. Marquand, American author (b. 1893)
  • 1964Rauf Orbay, Turkish colonel and politician, Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1881)
  • 1965Boris Artzybasheff, Ukrainian-American illustrator (b.1899)
  • 1969James Scott Douglas, English-born Scottish race car driver and 6th Baronet Douglas (b. 1930)
  • 1981Harry Chapin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1942)
  • 1982Charles Robberts Swart, South African lawyer and politician, 1st State President of South Africa (b. 1894)
  • 1985Heinrich Böll, German novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1917)
  • 1985 – Wayne King, American saxophonist, songwriter, and bandleader (b. 1901)
  • 1989Herbert von Karajan, Austrian conductor and manager (b. 1908)
  • 1990Robert Blackburn, Irish educator (b. 1927)
  • 1990 – Miguel Muñoz, Spanish footballer and manager (b. 1922)
  • 1991Meindert DeJong, Dutch-American soldier and author (b. 1906)
  • 1991 – Robert Motherwell, American painter and academic (b. 1915)
  • 1991 – Frank Rizzo, American police officer and politician, 93rd Mayor of Philadelphia (b. 1920)
  • 1992Buck Buchanan, American football player and coach (b. 1940)
  • 1994Julian Schwinger, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
  • 1995May Sarton, American playwright and novelist (b. 1912)
  • 1995 – Stephen Spender, English author and poet (b. 1909)
  • 1996Adolf von Thadden, German lieutenant and politician (b. 1921)
  • 1998John Henrik Clarke, American historian and scholar (b. 1915)
  • 1999John F. Kennedy Jr., American lawyer and publisher (b. 1960)
  • 1999 – Alan Macnaughton, Canadian lawyer and politician, Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons (b. 1903)
  • 2001Morris, Belgian cartoonist (b. 1923)
  • 2002John Cocke, American computer scientist and engineer (b. 1925)
  • 2003Celia Cruz, Cuban-American singer and actress (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Carol Shields, American-Canadian novelist and short story writer (b. 1935)
  • 2004George Busbee, American lawyer and politician, 77th Governor of Georgia (b. 1927)
  • 2004 – Charles Sweeney, American general and pilot (b. 1919)
  • 2005Pietro Consagra, Italian sculptor (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Camillo Felgen, Luxembourgian singer-songwriter and radio host (b. 1920)
  • 2006Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, American businessman and politician, 13th Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas (b. 1948)
  • 2007Caterina Bueno, Italian singer and historian (b. 1943)
  • 2008Jo Stafford, American singer (b. 1917)
  • 2008 – Lindsay Thompson, Australian politician, 40th Premier of Victoria (b. 1923)
  • 2011Forrest Blue, American football player (b. 1944)
  • 2012William Asher, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
  • 2012 – Stephen Covey, American businessman and author (b. 1932)
  • 2012 – Gilbert Esau, American businessman and politician (b. 1919)
  • 2012 – Ed Lincoln, Brazilian bassist, pianist, and composer (b. 1932)
  • 2012 – Masaharu Matsushita, Japanese businessman (b. 1913)
  • 2012 – Kitty Wells, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1919)
  • 2013Alex Colville, Canadian painter and academic (b. 1920)
  • 2013 – Marv Rotblatt, American baseball player (1927)
  • 2014Karl Albrecht, German businessman, co-founded Aldi (b. 1920)
  • 2014 – Mary Ellen Otremba, American educator and politician (b. 1950)
  • 2014 – Johnny Winter, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (b. 1944)
  • 2014 – Heinz Zemanek, Austrian computer scientist and academic (b. 1920)
  • 2015Denis Avey, English soldier, engineer, and author (b. 1919)
  • 2015 – Evelyn Ebsworth, English chemist and academic (b. 1933)
  • 2015 – Alcides Ghiggia, Uruguayan footballer and manager (b. 1926)
  • 2015 – Jack Goody, English anthropologist, author, and academic (b. 1919)
  • 2017George Romero, American filmmaker (b. 1940)
  • 2019John Paul Stevens, American lawyer and jurist, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (b. 1920)[19]
  • 2020Tony Taylor, Cuban baseball player (b. 1935)[20]

Holidays and observances

  • Christian feast day:
    • Gondulphus of Tongeren
    • Helier
    • Our Lady of Mount Carmel
      • Fiesta de La Tirana (Tarapacá Region, Chile)
    • Reineldis
    • July 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Engineer's Day (Honduras)
  • Holocaust Memorial Day (France)

References

  1. Carmel, Its History, Spirit, and Saints. New York: P.J. Kennedy & Sons, 1927. pp 218-226. The Brown Scapular -- Book excerpt found at the web link contains extensive quotes from the 17th century forged letter purportedly written in the 13th century by Saint Simon Stock's secretary "Peter Swanington". Many older sources surprisingly accepted the Swanington letter without question.
  2. Herbert Thurston, S.J., "The Origin of the Scapular -- A Criticism." The Irish Ecclesiastical Record Vol XVI July–December 1904. pp. 59-75. Dublin: Browne & Nolan, Limited. -- well researched 1904 journal article demonstrates the falsity of the Swanington letter as well as the forged papal bull that was the basis of the "Sabbatine privilege", discusses Carmelite history and the facts about the evolution of the scapular devotion etc.
  3. Fr. Paul D'Souza, OCD. The Carmelite Scapular: History and Devotion
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  19. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/us/john-paul-stevens-dead.html
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External links

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  • Template:NYT On this day
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