John Alvin "Johnnie" Ray (January 10, 1927 – February 24, 1990) was an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. Extremely popular for most of the 1950s, Ray has been cited by critics as a major precursor of what would become rock and roll, for his jazz and blues-influenced music and his animated stage personality. Tony Bennett credits Ray as being the true father of rock and roll.
British Hit Singles & Albums noted that Ray was "a sensation in the 1950s, the heart-wrenching vocal delivery of 'Cry' ... influenced many acts including Elvis and was the prime target for teen hysteria in the pre-Presley days."
In 1952, Ray rose very quickly from obscurity to stardom in the United States. He became a major star in the United Kingdom by performing and releasing recordings there in 1953 and shared billing there with many acts including Frank Holder. He matched these achievements in Australia the following year. His career in his native United States began to decline in the late 1950s, and his American record label dropped him in 1960. He never regained a strong following there and very rarely appeared on American television after 1973. His fan base in other countries, however, remained strong until his last year of performing, which was 1989. His recordings never stopped selling outside the United States.
Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 2.1 Later career 3 Personal life 4 Later years and death 5 In popular culture 6 Selected discography 6.1 Chart hits 6.2 Studio albums 6.3 Live albums 6.4 Compilations 6.5 Songs 7 Filmography 8 Quotation 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links
Early life[edit | edit source]
Johnnie Ray was born January 10, 1927, in Hopewell, Oregon, to parents Elmer and Hazel (Simkins) Ray. Along with older sister Elma, Ray spent part of his childhood on a farm in Dallas, Oregon and attended grade school there. The family later moved to Portland, Oregon, where Ray attended high school.
At age 13, Ray became deaf in his left ear following a mishap that occurred during a Boy Scout "blanket toss." In later years, Ray performed wearing a hearing aid. Surgery performed in 1958 left him almost completely deaf in both ears, although hearing aids helped his condition.
Career[edit | edit source]
Inspired by rhythm singers like Kay Starr, LaVern Baker and Ivory Joe Hunter, Ray developed a unique rhythm-based singing style, described as alternating between pre-rock R&B and a more conventional classic pop approach. He began singing professionally on a Portland, Oregon, radio station at age 15.
Ray first attracted the attention of Bernie Lang, a song plugger, who was taken to the Flame Showbar nightclub in Detroit, Michigan by local DJ, Robin Seymour of WKMH. Lang went to New York to sell the singer to Danny Kessler of the Okeh label, a subsidiary of Columbia Records. Kessler came over from New York, and he, Lang and Seymour went to the Flame. According to Seymour, Kessler's reaction was, "Well, I don't know. This kid looks well on the stand, but he will never go on records."
It was Seymour and Lowell Worley of the local office of Columbia who persuaded Kessler to have a test record made of Ray. Worley arranged for a record to be cut at the United Sound Studios in Detroit. Seymour told reporter Dick Osgood that there was a verbal agreement that he would be cut in on the three-way deal in the management of Ray. But the deal mysteriously evaporated, and so did Seymour's friendship with Kessler.
Ray's first record, the self-penned R&B number for OKeh Records, "Whiskey and Gin," was a minor hit in 1951. The following year he dominated the charts with the double-sided hit single of "Cry" and "The Little White Cloud That Cried". Selling over two million copies of the 78rpm single, Ray's delivery struck a chord with teenagers and he quickly became a teen idol. When executives of Columbia Records, the parent company of OKeh, realized that the Caucasian Ray had developed a fan base of white listeners, he was moved over to the Columbia label.
Ray in There's No Business Like Show Business (1954)
20th Century Fox capitalized on his stardom by including him in the ensemble cast of the movie There's No Business Like Show Business (1954) alongside Ethel Merman as his mother, Dan Dailey as his father, Donald O'Connor as his brother and Marilyn Monroe as his sister-in-law.
Ray's performing style included theatrics later associated with rock and roll, including tearing at his hair, falling to the floor, and crying. Ray quickly earned the nicknames "Mr. Emotion", "The Nabob of Sob", and "The Prince of Wails", and several others.
More hits followed, including "Please Mr. Sun," "Such a Night," "Walkin' My Baby Back Home," "A Sinner Am I" and "Yes Tonight Josephine." He had a United Kingdom number 1 hit with "Just Walkin' in the Rain" (which Ray initially disliked) during the Christmas season in 1956. He hit again in 1957 with "You Don't Owe Me a Thing," which reached number 10 in the Billboard charts. Though his American popularity was declining in 1957, he remained popular in the United Kingdom, breaking the record at the London Palladium formerly set by fellow Columbia Records artist Frankie Laine. In later years, he retained a loyal fan base overseas, particularly in Australia.
Ray had a close relationship with journalist and television game show panelist Dorothy Kilgallen. They became acquainted soon after his sudden rise to stardom in the United States. They remained close as his American career declined. Two months before Kilgallen's death in 1965, her newspaper column plugged Ray's engagements at the Latin Quarter in New York and the Tropicana Resort & Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. He began his engagement at the Latin Quarter immediately after an eight-month vacation in Spain during which he and new manager Bill Franklin had extricated themselves from contracts with Bernie Lang, who had managed Ray from 1951 to 1963. Ray and Franklin believed that a dishonest Lang had been responsible for the end of Ray's stardom in the United States and for large debts that he owed the Internal Revenue Service.
In early 1969, Ray befriended Judy Garland, performing as her opening act during her last concerts in Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden. Ray was also the best man during Garland's wedding to nightclub manager Mickey Deans in London.
In the early 1970s, Ray's American career revived to a limited extent, as he had not released a record album or single for more than ten years. He made network television appearances on The Andy Williams Show in 1970 and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson three times during 1972 and 1973. His personal manager Bill Franklin resigned in 1976 and cut off contact with the singer a few years later. His American revival turned out to be short-lived as Ray's career had already begun to decline as the 1980s approached. Speculation why has been attributed to booking agents and songwriters not knowing who he was or what his "sound" was like, thus ignoring him as a commercial talent.
In 1981, Ray hired Alan Eichler as his manager and resumed performing with an instrumental quartet rather than with the large orchestras he and his audiences had been accustomed to for the first 25 years of his career. When Ray and the quartet performed at a New York club called Marty's on Third Avenue and East 73rd Street in 1981, The New York Times stated, "The fact that Mr. Ray, in the years since his first blush of success, has been seen and heard so infrequently in the United States is somewhat ironic because it was his rhythm and blues style of singing that help lay the groundwork for the rock-and-roll that turned Mr. Ray's entertainment world around. Recently, Ringo Starr of the Beatles pointed out that the three singers that the Beatles listened to in their fledgling days were Chuck Berry, Little Richard and Johnnie Ray."
In 1986, Ray appeared as a Los Angeles taxicab driver in Billy Idol's "Don't Need a Gun" video and is name-checked in the lyrics of the song. During this time period, Ray was generally playing small venues in the United States such as Citrus College in Los Angeles County, California. He performed there in 1987 "with a big-band group," according to a Los Angeles Times profile of him during that year.
While his popularity continued to wane in the United States, Australian, English and Scottish promoters booked him for large venues as late as 1989, his last year of performing.
Personal life[edit | edit source]
In 1951, when Ray was obscure and not yet signed to a record label, he was arrested in Detroit for accosting and soliciting an undercover vice squad police officer in the restroom of the Stone Theatre, a burlesque house. When he appeared in court, he pleaded guilty. He paid a fine and was released. Because of his obscurity at the time, the Detroit newspapers did not report the story. After his sudden rise to fame the following year, rumors about his sexuality began to spread.
Despite her knowledge of the solicitation arrest, Marilyn Morrison, daughter of the owner of West Hollywood's Mocambo nightclub, married Ray at the peak of his American fame. The wedding ceremony took place in New York a short time after he gave his first New York concert, which was at the Copacabana. The New York Daily News made the wedding its cover story for May 26, 1952, and it reported that guests included Mayor Vincent R. Impellitteri. Aware of Ray's sexuality, Morrison told a friend she would "straighten it out." The couple separated in 1953 and divorced in 1954. Several writers have noted that the Ray-Morrison marriage occurred under false pretenses, and that Ray had a long-term relationship with his manager, Bill Franklin. (A biography of Ray points out, however, that Franklin was 13 years younger than Ray and that both their personal and business relationships began in 1963, many years after the Ray-Morrison divorce.) In a 1953 newspaper interview with James Bacon, Ray blamed rumors about his sexuality for the breakup of his marriage to Morrison.
In 1959, Ray was arrested again in Detroit for soliciting an undercover officer at the Brass Rail, a bar that was described many years later by one biographer as a haven for musicians and by another biographer as a gay bar. Ray went to trial following this second arrest and was found not guilty.
During the era of Johnnie Ray's stardom in the United States, journalists did not ask performers about their sexuality, and what the performers said offstage was often truncated for publication. In the 1970s, when performers gave long magazine interviews that included their revelations of sexual preferences, Ray was not among them. His career had declined and information about him was no longer newsworthy in the United States. Two years after his death, several friends shared with biographer Jonny Whiteside their knowledge of his homosexuality.
January 12, 1954 Los Angeles Examiner photo and caption announcing Ray's 1954 divorce.
Later years and death[edit | edit source]
In 1960, Ray was hospitalized after contracting tuberculosis. In 1965, he was 38 years old when he was emotionally devastated by the death of close friend Dorothy Kilgallen. Biographer Jonny Whiteside claimed that Ray managed to stay sober despite his grief. He began to regain his health. Shortly after he returned to the United States from a European concert tour that he headlined with Judy Garland, an American doctor informed him that he was well enough to drink an occasional glass of wine. Ray resumed drinking heavily and his health quickly began to decline. He continued touring until he gave his final concert, a benefit for the Grand Theater in Salem, Oregon, on October 6, 1989. In early 1990, poor health forced him to check into Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. On February 24, 1990, he died of liver failure at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles. He is buried at Hopewell Cemetery near Hopewell, Oregon.
For his contribution to the recording industry, Johnnie Ray was honored with a star in 1960 on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6201 Hollywood Boulevard.
In 1999, Bear Family Records issued two five CD sets of his entire body of work, each containing an 84-page book on his career. Companies like Sony and Collectables have kept his large catalogue of recordings in continual release worldwide.
In popular culture[edit | edit source]
Archival footage of Ray arriving at London Heathrow Airport in 1954 was featured in the 1982 music video for Dexys Midnight Runners' single "Come On Eileen". The lyrics of the song also mention him: "Poor old Johnnie Ray sounded sad upon the radio / He moved a million hearts in mono."
Ray is one of the cultural touchstones mentioned in the first verse (concerning events from the late 1940s and early 1950s) of Billy Joel's 1989 hit single "We Didn't Start the Fire", between Red China and South Pacific.
Ray was name-checked by Van Morrison in his duet with Tom Jones titled "Sometimes We Cry" that was released in 1997.
Selected discography[edit | edit source]
1951 "Cry" (w/ Four Lads) 1 — 1 — "The Little White Cloud That Cried" (w/ Four Lads) 2 — 6 — 1952 "Please, Mr. Sun" (w/ Four Lads) 6 — — — "Here Am I-Broken Hearted" (w/ Four Lads) 8 — — — "What's the Use?" (w/ Four Lads) 13 — — — "Walkin' My Baby Back Home" 4 6 — 12 "All of Me" 12 — — — "A Sinner Am I" (w/ Four Lads) 20 — — — "Love Me (Baby Can't You Love Me)" 25 — — — "Faith Can Move Mountains" — 20 — 7 "Gee, But I'm Lonesome" — 37 — — "A Full-Time Job" (w/ Doris Day) 20 21 — 11 "Ma Says, Pa Says" (w/ Doris Day) 23 28 — 12 1953 "I'm Gonna Walk and Talk With My Lord" (w/ Four Lads) 24 — — — "Somebody Stole My Gal" 8 24 — 6 "Candy Lips" (w/ Doris Day) 17 18 — — "Let's Walk That-a-Way" (w/ Doris Day) — 31 — 4 "With These Hands" (w/ Four Lads) 29 — — — "All I Do Is Dream of You" 27 — — — "Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone" 29 — — — 1954 "You'd Be Surprised" 25 — — — "Such a Night" 19 18 — 1 "Hey There" 27 — — 5 "Hernando's Hideaway" 14 20 — 11 "To Ev'ry Girl-To Ev'ry Boy" 26 40 — — 1955 "As Time Goes By" — 35 — — "If You Believe" — — — 7 "Paths of Paradise" — 42 — 20 "Song of the Dreamer" — 10 — 10 "Johnnie's Comin' Home" 100 — — — 1956 "Who's Sorry Now" — — — 17 "Ain't Misbehavin'" — — — 17 "Just Walkin' in the Rain" 2 3 — 1 1957 "You Don't Owe Me a Thing" 10 10 — 12 "Look Homeward, Angel" 36 42 — 7 "Yes Tonight Josephine" 12 24 — 1 "Build Your Love (On a Strong Foundation)" 58 31 — 17 "Up Above My Head" (w/ Frankie Laine) — — — 25 "Good Evening Friends" (w/ Frankie Laine) — — — flip 1958 "Up Until Now" 81 87 — — 1959 "I'll Never Fall In Love Again" 75 76 — 26
Studio albums[ Johnnie Ray (Columbia, 1952) I Cry For You (Columbia, 1955) The Big Beat (Columbia, 1957) At the Desert Inn in Las Vegas (Columbia, 1958) 'Till Morning (Columbia, 1958) On The Trail (Columbia, 1959) A Sinner Am I (Philips Records, United Kingdom, 1959) High Drama: The Real Johnnie Ray (Columbia/Legacy, 1997)
Live albums Johnnie Ray At The Palladium (Philips Records, United Kingdom, 1954)
Compilations Johnny Ray's Greatest Hits (Columbia Records, CL 1227) 20 Golden Greats (Columbia Records & Warwick Records, UK PR 5065 - 1979) Cry (Bear Family Records, 1999) Yes Tonight, Josephine (Bear Family Records, 1999)
1951 "Cry" (with The Four Lads) "(Here Am I) Brokenhearted" (with The Four Lads) "The Little White Cloud That Cried" (with The Four Lads) "She Didn't Say Nothin' At All" "Tell The Lady I Said Goodbye" "Whiskey And Gin"
1952 "All of Me" "A Sinner Am I" "Candy Lips" (with Doris Day) "Coffee and Cigarettes (Think It Over)" (with The Four Lads) "Don't Blame Me" "Faith Can Move Mountains" (with The Four Lads) "Let's Walk That-A-Way" (with Doris Day) "Mountains in the Moonlight" "Out in the Cold Again" "Please Mr. Sun" (with The Four Lads) "The Lady Drinks Champagne" "Walkin' My Baby Back Home" "Don't Take Your Love From Me" "Somebody Stole My Gal"
1953 "Full Time Job" (with Doris Day) "Ma Says, Pa Says" (with Doris Day)
1954 "Alexander's Ragtime Band" "As Time Goes By" "Going-Going-Gone" "Hernando's Hideaway" "Hey There" "If You Believe" "Johnnie's Comin' Home" "Such a Night"
1955 "Flip, Flop and Fly" "I've Got So Many Million Years" "Paths of Paradise" "Song of the Dreamer"
1956 "Ain't Misbehavin'" "Everyday I Have The Blues" "How Long, How Long Blues" "I Want to Be Loved (But Only by You)" "I'll Never Be Free" "I'm Gonna Move to the Outskirts of Town" "Just Walkin' in the Rain" "Lotus Blossom" "Sent For You Yesterday" "Shake A Hand" "Who's Sorry Now"
1957 "Build Your Love (On a Strong Foundation)" "Good Evening Friends" (with Frankie Laine) "Look Homeward Angel" "Should I?" "Soliloquy Of a Fool" "Street Of Memories" "Up Above My Head" (with Frankie Laine) "You Don't Owe Me a Thing" "Yes Tonight Josephine"
1958 "I'm Beginning To See the Light" "I'm Confessin'" "The Lonely Ones" "Up Until Now"
1959 "Cool Water" "Empty Saddles" "I'll Never Fall in Love Again" "It's All in the Game" "Red River Valley" "Twilight On the Trail" "Wagon Wheels" "When It's Springtime in the Rockies"
1960 "I'll Make You Mine"
1961 "Lookout Chattanooga" "Shop Around"
Filmography[edit | edit source]
1954 There's No Business Like Show Business Steve Donahue 1968 Rogues' Gallery Police officer
1953 The Jack Benny Program Johnnie Ray Episode: "Johnnie Ray Show" 1953–1959 Toast of the Town Himself 7 episodes 1954-1955 The Colgate Comedy Hour Himself – singer 2 episodes 1954-1957 What's My Line? Himself (Mystery guest) 2 episodes 1955 The Martha Raye Show Himself Episode #3.4 1955 General Electric Theater Johnny Pulaski Episode: "The Big Shot" 1955 Shower of Stars Himself Episode: "That's Life" 1955-1960 Val Parnell's Sunday Night at the London Palladium Himself 2 episodes 1955-1957 The Jackie Gleason Show Guest Host 4 episodes 1956 The Jimmy Durante Show Himself – singer Episode #2.23
Credited as Johnny Ray
1956 Frankie Laine Time Himself Episode #2.5 1957 A Santa for Christmas Television movie 1957 The Big Record Himself Episode #1.11 1957 Spectacular Himself 3 episodes 1958 The Dick Clark Show Himself Episode #1.1 1958 The Garry Moore Show Himself Episode #1.8 1959 The Patti Page Oldsmobile Show Himself Episode #1.16 1959 Johnnie Ray Sings Himself – Singer/Host Television special 1962 The Jack Paar Tonight Show Himself Episode #5.194 1963 American Bandstand Himself Episode #6.121 1967 The Woody Woodbury Show Himself Episode #1.16 1968 The Hollywood Palace Himself Episode #5.16 1968 Frost on Sunday Himself Episode #1.19 1968-1969 The Joey Bishop Show Himself 3 episodes 1970 The David Frost Show Himself Episode #2.129 1970 Della Himself Episode #1.192 1970 The Andy Williams Show Himself October 10, 1970 episode 1970-1973 The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson Himself 3 episodes 1972 The ABC Comedy Hour Himself Episode: "The Twentieth Century Follies" 1974 The Wheeltappers and Shunters Social Club Himself Episode #1.11 1975 Dinah! Himself Episode #1.61 1977 Sha Na Na Himself Episode #1.17 1977 American Bandstand's 25th Anniversary Himself Television special 1977 All You Need Is Love Himself Episode: "Good Times: Rhythm and Blues" 1977 Fall In, the Stars Himself Television special 1977 The Merv Griffin Show Himself September 21, 1977 episode 1979 Juke Box Saturday Night Himself Television special 1979–1980 CHiPs Himself 2 episodes
1987 Royal Variety Performance 1987 Himself Television special
Quotation[edit | edit source]
“ The mambo craze is passing and rhythm and blues will pass away too – the sooner the better as far as I'm concerned. ”
NME – June 1955
References[edit | edit source]
1.^ Jump up to: a b Ruhlmann, William. "High Drama: The Real Johnnie Ray". Allmusic.com. Retrieved March 4, 2008. 2.Jump up ^ Henderson, Tom. "The tracks of his tears". Oregon Magazine. 3.Jump up ^ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums. Guinness World Records Limited. p. 451. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. 4.^ Jump up to: a b c d Whiteside, Jonny (1994). Cry: The Johnnie Ray Story. New York: Barricade. ISBN 1-56980-013-8. 5.^ Jump up to: a b c d Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 2 – Play A Simple Melody: American pop music in the early fifties. [Part 2] : UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Johnnie Ray was to become ... the overnight success, as soon the press stepped in with its bouquet of clever, clever epithets: he was the Cry Guy and the Prince of Wails." 6.Jump up ^ "Johnnie Ray Rocked Music World". St. Petersburg Times. September 2, 1956. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 7.Jump up ^ Osgood, Dick (1958). "WKMH's Seymour Can Cry About Ray Deal, Too". Detroit News. 8.^ Jump up to: a b Holden, Steven (February 26, 1990). "Johnnie Ray, 63, 50s Singer Who Hit No. 1 With a Sob in His Voice". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 9.^ Jump up to: a b Beyond the Marquee: Johnnie Ray - Tad Mann - Google Books. Retrieved December 5, 2013. 10.^ Jump up to: a b Fox, James. "Johnnie Ray (1927–1990)". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2015. 11.Jump up ^ Rapp, Linda. "Ray, Johnnie (1927–1990)". Retrieved February 27, 2008. 12.Jump up ^ "Johnnie Doesn't Like His Own Voice". The Sydney Morning Herald. September 12, 1954. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 13.Jump up ^ Israel, Lee (1979). Kilgallen. New York: Delacorte Press. pp. 404–5. ISBN 0-440-04522-3. 14.Jump up ^ "Mickey Deans: Drinking to Judy". Jamd. Getty Images. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 15.Jump up ^ Baker, Glenn A; Coupe, Stuart (1984). The New Rock 'n Roll. Toronto: Sound & Vision. ISBN 0-920151-00-0. 16.^ Jump up to: a b Wilson, John S. (May 22, 1981). "Pop Jazz - Johnnie Ray Is Back At East Side Club". NYTimes.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014. 17.Jump up ^ 1986 music video for Billy Idol's Don't Need a Gun 18.Jump up ^ "Spins". Spin. SPIN Media LLC. 2 (10): 28. January 1987. ISSN 0886-3032. 19.^ Jump up to: a b Hawn, Jack. No Slowing Down For 'Mr. Emotion', Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1987, accessed October 30, 2014. 20.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i "Cry: The Johnnie Ray Story: Jonny Whiteside: 9781569800133: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014. 21.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Rapp, Linda. "Ray, Johnnie (1927–1990)". glbtq.com. Retrieved March 4, 2008. 22.Jump up ^ "Johnnie Ray Says 'I Do' In New York". Schenectady Gazette. May 26, 1952. p. 5. 23.Jump up ^ "Johnny Ray Gets Married, Then 'Cries'". The Milwaukee Sentinel. May 26, 1952. p. 6. 24.Jump up ^ Di Lorenzo, Josephine (May 26, 1952). "Johnnie Ray Weds – Bride Cries". New York Daily News. 25.Jump up ^ "Johnny Ray To Get Mexican Divorce". Reading Eagle. January 12, 1954. p. 13. 26.Jump up ^ "Johnny Ray To Get Divorce Thursday". The Lewiston Daily Sun. January 12, 1954. p. 7. 27.Jump up ^ Stephens, Vincent Lamar, PhD. (2005). Queering the Textures of Rock and Roll History (PDF). College Park: University of Maryland. OCLC 76833219. 28.Jump up ^ Bacon, James (September 11, 1953). "Cryin' Crooner Ray By-Passes Hollywood". Ottawa Citizen. p. 28. 29.^ Jump up to: a b Rolling Stone article from 2011 on history of famous singers coming out as gay or bisexual 30.^ Jump up to: a b Reynolds, Barrett (June 2004). "Johnnie Ray: Why I Cry for the Legend Who Should Have Been". The Halcyon Weekly Press. Retrieved March 4, 2008. 31.Jump up ^ Stanton, Scott (2003). The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Simon and Schuster. p. 423. ISBN 0-743-46330-7. 32.Jump up ^ "Ray, Johnnie - Ray, Johnnie Cry 5-CD-Box & 84-Page Book - Bear Family Records Store". Bear-family.de. Retrieved 2014-06-13. 33.Jump up ^ "Johnnie Ray ~ Vocals". OLDIES.com. Retrieved 2014-06-13. 34.Jump up ^ Mann, Brent (2003). 99 Red Balloons: And 100 Other All Time Great One-Hit Wonders. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 185. ISBN 0-806-52516-9. 35.Jump up ^ DeMain, Bill (2004). In Their Own Words: Songwriters Talk about the Creative Process. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 119. ISBN 0-275-98402-8. 36.Jump up ^ Hage, Erik (2009). The Words and Music of Van Morrison. ABC-CLIO. p. 125. ISBN 0-313-35862-1. 37.Jump up ^ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 523. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. 38.Jump up ^ Tobler, John (1992). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books Ltd. p. 15. CN 5585.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Guinness Book of British Hit Singles (16th ed.). London: Gullane. 2003. ISBN 0-85112-190-X. Herr, Cheryl (2009) 'Roll-over-Beethoven: Johnnie Ray in context'. Popular Music vol. 28: 3, pp. 323–340. Special issue of journal on popular music and disability. Rice, Jo (1982). The Guinness Book of 500 Number One Hits. Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 0-85112-250-7.
[edit | edit source]
Biography portal The Johnnie Ray International Fan Club Biography Johnnie Ray at the Internet Movie Database "Johnnie Ray". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Johnnie Ray interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)