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John Lee Hooker
Hooker performing at the Long Beach Blues Festival, Long Beach, California, August 31, 1997
Hooker performing at the Long Beach Blues Festival, Long Beach, California, August 31, 1997
Background information
Bornc. (1912-08-22)August 22, 1912[1][2][3]
Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, U.S.
DiedJune 21, 2001 (believed to have been 88 years old)
Los Altos, California
GenresBlues
Occupation(s)Musician
Instruments
  • Guitar
  • vocals
Years active1943–2001[4]
Labels
  • Modern
  • Vee-Jay
  • Chess
  • Savoy
  • Atlantic
  • Verve
  • Bluesway
  • Atco
  • King
  • Specialty
  • Impulse!
  • Point Blank

John Lee Hooker (c. August 22, 1912[1] – June 21, 2001) was an American blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist. The son of a sharecropper, he rose to prominence performing an electric guitar-style adaptation of Delta blues. Hooker often incorporated other elements, including talking blues and early North Mississippi Hill country blues. He developed his own driving-rhythm boogie style, distinct from the 1930s–1940s piano-derived boogie-woogie.

Some of his best known songs include "Boogie Chillen'" (1948), "Crawling King Snake" (1949), "Dimples" (1956), "Boom Boom" (1962), and "One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer" (1966). Several of his later albums, including The Healer (1989), Mr. Lucky (1991), Chill Out (1995), and Don't Look Back (1997), were album chart successes in the U.S. and U.K., and Don't Look Back won a Grammy Award in 1998.

Early life[]

Hooker's date of birth is a subject of debate.[2][5] It is believed that he was born in Tutwiler, Mississippi, in Tallahatchie County, although some sources say his birthplace was near Clarksdale, in Coahoma County.[6] He was the youngest of the 11 children of William Hooker (born 1871, died after 1923),[7] a sharecropper and Baptist preacher, and Minnie Ramsey (born c. 1880, date of death unknown). In the 1920 federal census,[8] William and Minnie were recorded as being 48 and 39 years old, respectively, which implies that Minnie was born about 1880, not 1875. She was said to have been a "decade or so younger" than her husband (Boogie Man, p. 23), which gives additional credibility to this census record as evidence of Hooker's origins.</ref>

The Hooker children were home-schooled. They were permitted to listen only to religious songs; the spirituals sung in church were their earliest exposure to music. In 1921, their parents separated. The next year, their mother married William Moore, a blues singer, who provided John Lee with an introduction to the guitar (and whom he would later credit for his distinctive playing style).[9] Moore was his first significant blues influence. He was a local blues guitarist who, in Shreveport, Louisiana, learned to play a droning, one-chord blues that was strikingly different from the Delta blues of the time.[6] Another formative influence was Tony Hollins, who dated Hooker's sister Alice, helped teach Hooker to play, and gave him his first guitar. For the rest of his life, Hooker regarded Hollins as a formative influence on his style of playing and his career as a musician. Among the songs that Hollins reputedly taught Hooker were versions of "Crawlin' King Snake" and "Catfish Blues".[10]

At the age of 14, Hooker ran away from home, reportedly never seeing his mother or stepfather again.[11] In the mid-1930s, he lived in Memphis, Tennessee, where he performed on Beale Street, at the New Daisy Theatre and occasionally at house parties.[6]

He worked in factories in various cities during World War II, eventually getting a job with the Ford Motor Company in Detroit in 1943. He frequented the blues clubs and bars on Hastings Street, the heart of the black entertainment district, on Detroit's east side. In a city noted for its pianists, guitar players were scarce. Hooker's popularity grew quickly as he performed in Detroit clubs, and, seeking an instrument louder than his acoustic guitar, he bought his first electric guitar.[12]

Career[]

File:John Lee Hooker two.jpg

Hooker playing Massey Hall, Toronto. Photo: Jean-Luc Ourlin

Hooker's recording career began in 1948, when Modern Records, based in Los Angeles, released a demo he had recorded for Bernie Besman in Detroit. The single, "Boogie Chillen'", became a hit and the best-selling race record of 1949.[6] Despite being illiterate, Hooker was a prolific lyricist. In addition to adapting traditional blues lyrics, he composed original songs. In the 1950s, like many black musicians, Hooker earned little from record sales, and so he often recorded variations of his songs for different studios for an up-front fee. To evade his recording contract, he used various pseudonyms, including John Lee Booker (for Chess Records and Chance Records in 1951–1952), Johnny Lee (for De Luxe Records in 1953–1954), John Lee, John Lee Cooker,[13] Texas Slim, Delta John, Birmingham Sam and his Magic Guitar, Johnny Williams, and the Boogie Man.[14]

His early solo songs were recorded by Bernie Besman. Hooker rarely played with a standard beat, but instead he changed tempo to fit the needs of the song. This often made it difficult to use backing musicians, who were not accustomed to Hooker's musical vagaries. As a result, Besman recorded Hooker playing guitar, singing and stomping on a wooden pallet in time with the music.[15] For much of this period he recorded and toured with Eddie Kirkland. In Hooker's later sessions for Vee-Jay Records in Chicago, studio musicians accompanied him on most of his recordings, including Eddie Taylor, who could handle his musical idiosyncrasies. "Boom Boom" and "Dimples", two popular songs by Hooker, were originally released by Vee-Jay.[16]

Later life and death[]

Template:Refimprove section

File:John Lee Hooker.jpg

Hooker performing in Toronto, August 20, 1978

Hooker performed "Boom Boom" in the role of a street musician in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. In 1989, he recorded the album The Healer with various other notable musicians, including Carlos Santana and Bonnie Raitt.[16]

He recorded several songs with Van Morrison, including "Never Get Out of These Blues Alive", "The Healing Game", and "I Cover the Waterfront". He also appeared on stage with Morrison several times; some of these performances released on the live album A Night in San Francisco. On December 19, 1989, Hooker performed "Boogie Chillen'" with the Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton in Atlantic City, New Jersey. As part of the Rolling Stones' Steel Wheels tour, the show was broadcast live on cable television as a pay-per-view program. His last studio recording on guitar and vocal was "Elizebeth", a song he wrote with Pete Sears, accompanied by members of his Coast to Coast Blues Band, with Sears on piano. It was recorded on January 14, 1998, at Bayview Studios in Richmond, California. The last song Hooker recorded before his death was "Ali d'Oro", a collaboration with the Italian soul singer Zucchero, in which Hooker sang the chorus, "I lay down with an angel."

Hooker spent the last years of his life in Long Beach, California. In 1997, he opened a nightclub in San Francisco's Fillmore District called John Lee Hooker's Boom Boom Room, after one of his hit songs.[16]

Hooker fell ill just before a tour of Europe in 2001 and died in his sleep on June 21, 2001, in Los Altos, California, at around 88 years of age. He was interred at the Chapel of the Chimes in Oakland.[17] He was survived by eight children, 19 grandchildren, and numerous great-grandchildren.[18]

Awards and recognition[]

Among his many awards, Hooker was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame in 1980,[19] the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991 and the Memphis Music Hall of Fame in 2016. Two of his songs, "Boogie Chillen" and "Boom Boom" were included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's list of the "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll".[20] "Boogie Chillen" was also included in the Recording Industry Association of America's list of the "Songs of the Century".[21] He was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2000.[22] He also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Grammy Awards[]

  • Best Traditional Blues Recording, 1990, for I'm in the Mood, with Bonnie Raitt
  • Best Traditional Blues Recording, 1998, for Don't Look Back.
  • Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals, 1998, Don't Look Back, with Van Morrison
  • Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, 2000

Discography[]

Main article: John Lee Hooker discography

Charting singles[]

Year Title
A-side / B-side
Label Peak chart
position
US 100
[23]
US R&B
[23]
UK Singles
[24]
1949 "Boogie Chillen'" / "Sally May" Modern 627 1
"Hobo Blues" / "Hoogie Boogie" Modern 663 5 / 9
"Crawlin' King Snake" / "Drifting from Door to Door" Modern 714 6
1950 "Huckle Up Baby" / "Canal Street Blues" Sensation 26 15
1951 "I’m in the Mood" / "How Can You Do It" Modern 835 30 1
1958 "I Love You Honey" / "You’ve Taken My Woman" Vee-Jay 293 29
1960 "No Shoes" / "Solid Sender" Vee-Jay 349 21
1962 "Boom Boom" / "Drug Store Woman" Vee-Jay 483 60 14
1964 "Dimples" / "I'm Leaving" $tateside SS 297 23
1992 "Boom Boom" / "Homework" Point Blank/
Virgin POB 3
16
1993 "Boogie at Russian Hill" / "The Blues Will Never Die" Point Blank/
Virgin POB 4
53
"Gloria" (remake)[25] / "It Must Be You" Exile VANS 11 31
1995 "Chill Out (Things Gonna Change)" /
"Tupelo" (remake)
Point Blank/
Virgin POB 10
45
1998 "Baby Lee" (remake)[26] / "Cuttin' Out" (remake)[27] /
"No Substitute"
Silvertone ORE CD 21 65
"—" denotes a release that did not chart

Charting albums[]

Year Title Label Peak chart
position
US 200
[28]
US Blues
[28]
UK Albums
[29]
1967 House of the Blues Marble Arch MAL 663 34
1971 Hooker 'n Heat Liberty LST-35002 73
Endless Boogie ABC ABCD-720 126 38[30]
1972 Never Get Out of These Blues Alive ABC ABCX-736 130
1989 The Healer Chameleon D2-74808 62 63
1991 Mr. Lucky Point Blank/
Virgin 91724-2
101 3
1995 Chill Out Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 40107 2 0
136 3 25
1997 Don't Look Back Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 42771 2 3
163 3 63
1998 The Best of Friends Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 46424 2 6
4
2002 Winning Combinations: John Lee Hooker & Muddy Waters Universal 008811264628 6
2004 Face to Face Eagle ER 20023-2 3
2007 Hooker (box set) Shout! Factory 826663-10198 14
2015 Two Sides of John Lee Hooker Concord 888072375970 12
"—" denotes a release that did not chart

Film[]

  • The Blues Brothers on Maxwell Street (Chicago) outside Aretha Franklin's restaurant (1980)
  • John Lee Hooker & Furry Lewis DVD (1995)
  • John Lee Hooker Rare Performances 1960–1984 DVD (2002)
  • Come See About Me DVD (2004)
  • John Lee Hooker – Bits and pieces about … DVD + CD (2006)

Notes[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 He was probably born in 1912, according to Bob Eagle and Eric S. LeBlanc, in Blues: A Regional Experience (Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013, ISBN 978-0-313-34423-7, p. 190), "Hooker was born on August 22, 1912 in Tutwiler".
  2. 2.0 2.1 "John Lee Hooker biography". johnleehooker.com. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  3. In the 1920 federal census, series T625, Roll 895, p. 235, in the city of Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, Supervisor's District 2, Enumeration District 87, Sheet #29 A, line 25, enumerated February 3, 1920, John Hooker is one of nine children living with William and Minnie Hooker. John is listed as 7 years of age at his last birthday. If this is accurate – and if his birthday is August 22, as he claimed – he was born August 22, 1912.
  4. Dahl, Bill. "John Lee Hooker: Overview". AllMusic.com. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  5. The years 1912, 1915, 1917, 1920, and 1923 have been suggested as the year of his birth (Boogie Man, p. 22); 1917 is given by most sources, though at times Hooker stated he was born in 1920, which would have made him "the same age as the recorded blues" (p. 59).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Palmer, Robert (1982). Deep Blues. Penguin Books. pp. 242–243. ISBN 0-14-006223-8.
  7. According to Boogie Man, p. 24, "In 1928, Will Hooker Sr. and Jr. made a profit of twenty-eight dollars" from farming, making his death in 1923 impossible.
  8. U.S. Census, Series T625, Roll 895, p. 235, in the city of Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, Supervisor's District 2, Enumeration District 87, Sheet 29 A, Lines 18–19, enumerated February 3, 1920.
  9. Oliver, Paul. Conversation with the Blues. p. 188. See also Bennett, Joe; Curwen, Trevor; Douse, Cliff. Guitar Facts. p. 76.
  10. Murray, Charles Shaar (2011). Boogie Man: The Adventures of John Lee Hooker in the American Twentieth Century. Canongate Books.]
  11. Boogie Man p. 43.
  12. Wogan, Terry (1984). Shoes Off the Record. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN 0-306-80321-6.
  13. Liner notes. Alternative Boogie: Early Studio Recordings, 1948–1952.
  14. Leadbitter, M.; Slaven, N. (1987). Blues Records 1943–1970: A Selective Discography. London: Record Information Services. pp. 579–595.
  15. Boogie Man, p. 121.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Discovering the Blues of John Lee Hooker. Adapted from Blues for Dummies. August 1998. ISBN 0-7645-5080-2.
  17. "John Lee Hooker". findagrave.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  18. Pareles, Jon (June 22, 2001). "John Lee Hooker, Bluesman, Is Dead at 83". New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  19. Blues Foundation (1980). "1980 Hall of Fame Inductees: John Lee Hooker". Blues Foundation. Retrieved July 13, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  20. "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1995. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2017. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  21. "Songs of the Century". CNN.com. March 7, 2001. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  22. "Lifetime Achievement Award". Grammy.org. 2000. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Whitburn, Joel (1988). Top R&B Singles 1942–1988. Record Research. p. 194. ISBN 0-89820-068-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  24. "John Lee Hooker: Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  25. "Gloria" recorded with Van Morrison
  26. "Baby Lee" recorded with Robert Cray
  27. "Cuttin' Out" recorded with Canned Heat
  28. 28.0 28.1 "John Lee Hooker: Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved June 20, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  29. "John Lee Hooker: Albums". Official Charts. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  30. Endless Boogie appeared in the R&B Albums chart.

References[]

Larkin, Colin, ed. (1995). The Guinness Who's Who of Blues (2nd ed.). Guinness Publishing. ISBN 0-85112-673-1.

Murray, Charles Shaar (1999). Boogie Man: Adventures of John Lee Hooker in the American 20th Century. ISBN 0-14-016890-7.

External links[]

Template:John Lee Hooker Template:1991 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

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