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Official logo of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg

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Hamburg, seen from the International Space Station

Hamburg (English pronunciation: Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".; German pronunciation: [ˈhambʊʁk] (Script error: No such module "Error".Script error: No such module "Category handler".), local pronunciation Template:IPA-dedia; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg Template:IPA-dedia), officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg[1] (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union.[2] It is the second smallest German state by area. Its population is over 1.7 million people, and the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (including parts of the neighbouring Federal States of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) has more than 5 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe.

The official name reflects its history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten.

Hamburg is a transport hub, being the 2nd largest port in Europe, and is an affluent city in Europe. It has become a media and industrial centre, with plants and facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm + Voss and Aurubis. The radio and television broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk and publishers such as Gruner + Jahr and Spiegel-Verlag are pillars of the important media industry in Hamburg. Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries, and is the seat of the world's second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank.

The city is a notable tourist destination for both domestic and overseas visitors; it ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015.[3]

The ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in July 2015.[4]

Geography

Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The island of Neuwerk and two small neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of Hamburg.[5]

The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at Script error: No such module "convert". AMSL.[6]

Climate

Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. Snowfall differs a lot in the past decades: While in the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy snowfall occurred,[7] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall on several days per year.[8][9]

The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert".. The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert"..[10]

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History

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The Limes Saxoniae border between the Saxons and the Slavic Obotrites, established about 810.

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Hamburg in 1150

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Origins

Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century CE) reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva.

The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain,[11] as does the exact location of the castle.[12]

Medieval Hamburg

In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric. The first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen.[13]

Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants.[13] In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. The Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350.[14] Hamburg experienced several great fires, most notably in 1284.

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Seal of 1241 (Replica)

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Hamburg in 1320

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Hamburg ca. 1600

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Hamburg in 1811

In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access upTemplate:Clarify the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg.[15] This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League.[16] In 1270, the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence).[17] On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg.[18] In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France.

Modern times

When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" (Neustadt) whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced.[19]

Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1804–1814/1815). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–1866).

In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years.

After periodic political unrest, particularly in 1848, Hamburg adopted in 1860 a democratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire (1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. The Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin as its director, became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there.

A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.

Second World War

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Hamburg after the 1943 bombing

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Flakturm on the Heiligengeistfeld in Hamburg – one of four enormous fortress-like bunkers which were built of reinforced concrete between 1942 and 1944 and equipped with anti-aircraft artillery for air defense

In the Third Reich (1933–1945), Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. During the Second World War, Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, RAF firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook and Hamm-south. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook are nowadays purely commercial districts with almost no residential population. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids.

The Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery is in the greater Ohlsdorf Cemetery in the north of Hamburg.

At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished[20] in the Neuengamme concentration camp (about Script error: No such module "convert". outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the Royal Air Force at the end of the war.

Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. Systematic deportations of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (District Northwest). On 10 June 1943 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree.[21] The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished.

Post-war history

Hamburg surrendered without a fight to British Forces on 3 May 1945.[22] After the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the British Zone of Occupation; it became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. From 1960 to 1962, the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs in the city. On 16 February 1962, a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.

The Inner German border — only Script error: No such module "convert". east of Hamburg — separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since German reunification in 1990, and the accession of several Central European and Baltic States into the European Union in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.

Demographics

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10 Largest Migrant Communities[23]
Nationality Population (2015)
23x15px Turkey 92,745
23x15px Poland 74,234
Template:Country data Afghanistan 35,805
23x15px Russia 32,388
Template:Country data Iran 20,429
Template:Country data Kazakhstan 20,419
23x15px Portugal 12,239
Template:Country data Ghana 11,956
23x15px Italy 11,652
Template:Country data Romania 10,942

On 31 December 2006, there were 1,754,182 people registered as living in Hamburg (up by 6.2% from 1,652,363 in 1990) in an area of Script error: No such module "convert".. The population density was Script error: No such module "convert"..[24] The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to about 4.3 million, living on Script error: No such module "convert"..[25]

There were 898,050 women and 856,132 men in Hamburg. For every 1,000 males, there were 1,049 females. In 2006, there were 16,089 births in Hamburg (of which 33.1% were to unmarried women); 6,921 marriages and 4,583 divorces. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.7% under the age of 18, and 18.8% were 65 years of age or older.[24]

According to the Statistical Office of the State of Hamburg, the number of people with a migrant background is at about 33% (596.711).[26] Immigrants come from 180 different countries.

In 1999, there were 910,304 households, of which 18.9% had children under the age of 18; 47.9% of all households were made up of singles. The average household size was 1.9.[27]

Ancestry of Hamburg residents

The ancestry of Hamburg residents as of 31 December 2010 is as follows:[26]

Ancestry Number
German 71% (1 231 993)
Other European 14% (240 052)
Asian 6% (109 933)
Turkish 5% (92 766)
African 2% (34 847)
Hispanic and Caribbean 1% (16 224)
Other/Unknown 1% (20 958)

Language

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Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low German, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation.[28] All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.[29]

Religion

In late 2009, 30% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 10% to the Roman Catholic Church.[30]

According to one 2011 estimate based on ethnic origin, there are 200,000[31] Muslims of whom 50,000 are Alevis.[31]

Hamburg is seat of one of the three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. There are several mosques, including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city,[32] the Islamic Centre Hamburg, and a Jewish community.[33]

Government

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Hamburg City Hall (front view)

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.

Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus, with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament.[34] From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust,[35] who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance '90/The Greens party.[36] Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010.[37] On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz (SPD) became mayor.

Boroughs

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Boroughs of Hamburg

Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: Stadtteile). There are 181 localities (German: Ortsteile). The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws.[1][38] Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg.[39] The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality.[40] Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times.

Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter). The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate.[38] The quarters have no governing bodies of their own.

File:Germany (2), Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn.jpg

The part of the North Sea in this aerial picture is called the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park and belongs administratively to the borough of Hamburg-Mitte. Some 39 people live here on the island Neuwerk (visible just above the centre).

In 2008, the boroughs were Hamburg-Mitte, Altona, Eimsbüttel, Hamburg-Nord, Wandsbek, Bergedorf and Harburg.[41]

Hamburg-Mitte ("Hamburg Centre") covers mostly the urban centre of the city and consists of the quarters Billbrook, Billstedt, Borgfelde, Finkenwerder, HafenCity, Hamm, Hammerbrook, Horn, Kleiner Grasbrook, Neuwerk, Rothenburgsort, St. Georg, St. Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel, Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg.[41] The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt ("old town") and Neustadt ("new town") are the historical origin of Hamburg.

Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze.[41]

Bergedorf consists of the quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf—the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Neuallermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland and Tatenberg.[41]

Eimsbüttel is split into nine quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen.[41] Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel.

Hamburg-Nord contains the quarters Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf, Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf with Ohlsdorf cemetery, Uhlenhorst and Winterhude.[41]

Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf.[41]

Wandsbek is divided into the quarters Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek, Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt, Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Volksdorf, Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.[41]

Cityscape

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Architecture

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Neoclassical Palmaille, Altona

Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and only a few skyscrapers. Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. The skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (Hauptkirchen) St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St Peter's, St James's (St. Jacobi) and St. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible).

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The Chilehaus with a typical brick expressionist façade.

The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam and Venice put together.[42][43] Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world and more canals than Amsterdam and Venice combined.[44] The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways.

The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. The tower is Script error: No such module "convert". high. Its façade, Script error: No such module "convert". long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor.[45] The Chilehaus, a brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner.

Europe's largest inner-city development in 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. The Elbe Philharmonic Hall (Elbphilharmonie), expected to be completed by December 2016, will house concerts in a building on top of an old warehouse, designed by the Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron.[46][47]

The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. The biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen. The Stadtpark, Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria. The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s.

Parks and gardens

Script error: No such module "Labelled list hatnote". The Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a historic botanical garden, located in the Planten un Blomen park, which now consists primarily of greenhouses. The Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Besides these, there are many more big and small parks. In 2010 Hamburg was voted "greenest city of Europe" by the EU commission.[48] In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October.

Culture and contemporary life

Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London).[49] Hamburg has entered the European Green Capital Award scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011.

Theatres

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Deutsches Schauspielhaus in the quarter St. Georg.

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The Script error: No such module "convert". Elbe Philharmonic Hall

The state-owned Deutsches Schauspielhaus, the Thalia Theatre, "Ohnsorg Theatre", "Schmidts Tivoli" and the Kampnagel are well-known theatres.[50]

The English Theatre of Hamburg[51] near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.

Museums

Script error: No such module "Labelled list hatnote". Hamburg has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg with its contemporary art gallery (Galerie der Gegenwart), the Museum for Art and Industry (Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe) and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg (Archäologisches Museum Hamburg) in Hamburg-Harburg, the Museum of Labour (Museum der Arbeit), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum (Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg). Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship era (Rickmer Rickmers).[52] The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland with Script error: No such module "convert". total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken in a former warehouse.

BallinStadt Emigration City is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals.

Music

Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The city's other well-known orchestra is the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra. The main concert venue is the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg, pending completion of the new Elbe Philharmonic Hall. The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. György Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg.[53][54]

Since the German premiere of Cats in 1986, there have always been musicals running, including The Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King, Dirty Dancing and Dance of the Vampires. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city.

Hamburg is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz.

Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the Beatles from 1960 to 1962. Hamburg has nurtured a number of pop musicians. Identical twins Bill Kaulitz and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer 483 and Humanoid. Singer Nena also lives in Hamburg. There are German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Beginner and Fettes Brot. There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze. Hamburg is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule ("Hamburg School"), a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte or Kante.

The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Helloween, Gamma Ray, Running Wild and Grave Digger started in Hamburg.[55] The industrial rock band KMFDM was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal.

Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone.[56]

Festivals and regular events

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Annual Port of Hamburg-birthday

Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events. Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival[57] or the Alster fair,[58] held at the Binnenalster. The Hamburger DOM is northern Germany's biggest fun fair, held three times a year.[59] Hafengeburtstag is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship parade.[60] The biker's service in Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers.[61] Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus square, among other places.[62] The long night of museums offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight.[63] The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life.[64] The Filmfest Hamburg — a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days (German: Film Tage) — presents a wide range of films.[65] The Hamburg Messe and Congress offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show.[66] Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin,[67] the tennis tournament Hamburg Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby. Since 2007, Hamburg has the Dockville music and art festival. It takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg.[68]

Cuisine

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Fried plaice, Finkenwerder style

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Original Hamburg dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck (green beans cooked with pears and bacon),[69] Aalsuppe (Hamburgisch Oolsupp) is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool translated ‘eel’), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [aˑlns], meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners.[70] There is Bratkartoffeln (pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce),[71] Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde)[72] and Labskaus (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas).[73]

Alsterwasser (in reference to the city's river, the Alster) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer.[74]

There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a "French roll." Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Schrippe (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück ("round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot "bread"),[75] a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish.

The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America.[76] The name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries.

There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity, which started to be built in 2008 with Script error: No such module "convert". and 13 quarters. This district increases the city centre by about 40%, with restaurants and apartments.[77]

Main sights

English culture

There are several English-speaking communities, such as Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club e.V.,[78] Professional Women's Forum,[79] The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg. There is also a thriving 400-year-old Anglican church community worshiping at St Thomas Becket Church.[80] Further The Hamburg Players e. V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg Exiles Rugby Club, The Hamburger Cricket Verein e. V., The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. 850 [81] within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany[82] under the United Grand Lodges of Germany [83] works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership.

American and international English-speaking organisations are The American Club of Hamburg e.V.,[84] the American Women's Club of Hamburg,[85] the English Speaking Union, and the German-American Women's Club.,[86] The International Women's Club of Hamburg e. V.. Business themes are dealt with by The American Chamber of Commerce.[87] The International School of Hamburg serves school children.

A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger den Schirm auf." ... "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg open their umbrellas.".

Memorials

A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.

In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" (Stolpersteine) were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.[88]

Economy

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078953-0003, Hamburg, Börse.jpg

Hamburg Stock Exchange

The 2007 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled €85.9 billion. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 120,000 businesses.The average income of employees was €30,937.[89]

Banking

File:JohannHinrichGossler.jpg

Prominent 18th century banker Johann Hinrich Gossler

Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. The city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank, the Berenberg Bank, M.M.Warburg & CO and HSH Nordbank.

Port

The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks second only to Rotterdam in Europe and ninth worldwide with transshipments of Template:TEU of cargo and 134 million tons of goods in 2007.[90] After German reunification, Hamburg recovered the eastern portion of its hinterland, becoming by far the fastest-growing port in Europe.Script error: No such module "Unsubst". International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated Script error: No such module "convert". up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels.[91] Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. Airbus, which has an assembly plant in Finkenwerder, employs over 13,000 people.[92]

Heavy industry includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and shipyards such as Blohm + Voss.[93][94][95][96]

HafenCity

The HafenCity is a new large urban development project in the Hamburg-Mitte district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort. The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers.

HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg.

Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the HafenCity project. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.

Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents such as the CaptainTravel GmbH many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.

Tourism

File:Hamburg logo.jpg

Hamburg city logo

In 2007, more than 3,985,105 visitors with 7,402,423 overnight stays visited the city.[97] The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania +33%).[98]

A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. As Hamburg is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Major destinations also include museums.

The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Pauli is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures.[99]

In 2005, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg.Script error: No such module "Unsubst". The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from the United Kingdom (171,000 overnight stays), Switzerland (about 143,000 overnight stays), Austria (about 137,000 overnight stays) and the Netherlands (about 80,000 overnight stays). The largest group from outside Europe comes from the United States (129,000 overnight stays).[100][101]

The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards.[102]

Media

File:2013-06-08 Highflyer HP L4673.JPG

Der Spiegel headquarters

Media businesses employ over 70,000 people.[103] The Norddeutscher Rundfunk which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, as are the commercial television station Hamburg 1, the Christian television station Bibel TV and the civil media outlet Tide TV. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland. Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records Germany, and ICT firms such as Adobe Systems and Google Germany. The Internet and telecommunications company HanseNet, which sells DSL Internet access under the Alice brand, has its headquarters in Hamburg.

Hamburg was one of the locations for the James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies. The Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat.[104] The film A Most Wanted Man was set in and filmed in Hamburg.

Infrastructure

Health systems

Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,450 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals. On 1 January 2011 there were about 11,350 hospital beds.[105] The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010.[106]

Transport

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File:CTB-CTW Port of Hamburg-Waltershof.jpg

The Port of Hamburg on the river Elbe

File:HafenCity U-Bahn Hamburg U4 - 3889-d3.jpg

HafenCity Universität station of Hamburg U-Bahn

File:Hamburg.NorderElbbrücken.2.wmt.jpg

Neue and Freihafen-Elbbrücke

Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia.

Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway.[107]

Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation.[108][109] There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus. Some airlines market Lübeck Airport in Lübeck as serving Hamburg.[110]

Hamburg's license plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg; English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. "H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover since 1956);[111]

Public transport

Public transport by rail, bus and ship is organised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund ("Hamburg transit authority") (HVV). Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide.[112]

Ten mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport. The S-Bahn (heavy railway system) comprises six lines and the U-Bahn four lines – U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Approximately Script error: No such module "convert". of Script error: No such module "convert". of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn. The AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional metronom trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof, Dammtor, Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. The tram network was opened in 1865 and shut down in 1978.Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 600 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has no trams or trolley-buses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses operating pilot services. The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. (MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.)

There are six ferry lines along the River Elbe, operated by HADAG, that fall under the aegis of the HVV. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours.

File:A321 final assembly (9351765668).jpg

An Airbus A321 on final assembly line 3 in the Airbus plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport.

The international airport at Hamburg Fuhlsbüttel, official name "Hamburg Airport" (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about Script error: No such module "convert". from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines, Dubai on Emirates, and Tehran on Iran Air; Lufthansa is the hub carrier, with the most flights, followed by Air Berlin, and Lufthansa operates one of its biggest maintenance facilities at the Hamburg airport. The second airport is Hamburg-Finkenwerder (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI). It is about Script error: No such module "convert". from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus plant. It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and A380 aircraft.[113]

Utilities

File:Kraftwerk HafenCity01.jpg

Fuel cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter.

Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is provided by Vattenfall Europe, formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Vattenfall Europe operates three nuclear power plants near Hamburg: Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant, Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant.[114] All are scheduled to be taken out of service.[115] There are also the coal-fired Wedel and Moorburg Power Stations, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant; the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a biomass power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße.Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

Sport

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File:Hamburg City Man 2007.jpg

Hamburg City Man 2007 at the Binnenalster

File:Color Line Arena.JPG

Barclaycard Arena

File:Volksparkstadion.jpg

Volksparkstadion

Hamburg is sometimes called Germany's capital of sport since no other city has more first-league teams and international sports events.

Hamburger SV is a football team in the Bundesliga. The HSV is the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: in 2000/2001 and in 2006/2007. They play at the Volksparkstadion (average attendance in the 12/13 season was 52,916). In addition, FC St. Pauli was a second division football club that came in second place in the 2009/2010 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the first division for the first time since the 2001–02 season. St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion.

The Hamburg Freezers represented Hamburg until 2016 in the DEL, the premier ice hockey league in Germany.

HSV Handball represented Hamburg until 2016 in the German handball league. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. The Club won the league in the 2010/11 season and had an average attandence of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg the same year. The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013. Since 2014 the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the license in the last minute. On 20 January 2016 however, their license was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016–17 they are not allowed to play in the first or second league.

The BCJ Hamburg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 1999 to 2001. Since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Hamburg Towers have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg.

Hamburg is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster.

The Hamburg Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs.[116] The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. The Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC).[117]

There are also the Hamburg Dockers, an Australian rules football club.[118] The FC St. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg (Volleyball), Hamburger Polo Club, and Hamburg Blue Devils (American Football).[119] There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs.

File:Centre Court Am Rothenbaum Sliding Roof.jpg

Am Rothenbaum is the main tennis stadium of the International German Open

The Centre Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum venue, with a capacity of 13,200 people, is the largest in Germany.[120]

Hamburg also hosts equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn (Deutsches Derby flat racing).[121] Besides Hamburg owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld".The Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered.[122] World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon ITU World Cup event Hamburg City Man are also held in here.[123]

Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the 2006 World Cup. In 2010 UEFA held the final of the UEFA Europa League in the arena.[124]

Hamburg was applying for 2024 Olympic Games. However 51.7 percent of those participating in the referendum (only Hamburg's residents) in November 2015 had decided against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the 2024 Olympics. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel voted in favor of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds.

Education

Script error: No such module "Labelled list hatnote". The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung). The system had approximately 160,000 students in 245 primary schools and 195 secondary schools in 2006.[125] There are 33 public libraries in Hamburg proper.[126]

Seventeen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 70,000 university students in total, including 9,000 resident aliens. Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Centre of Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg and the Hamburg University of Technology. Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School and the Hamburg School of Business Administration. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg).[127] Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg.

Twin towns and sister cities

Hamburg has nine twin towns and sister cities around the world. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania became its newest sister city in 2010.Template:De icon[128]

People from Hamburg

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See also

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References

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  98. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  99. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  100. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  101. Ulrich Gaßdorf: Engländer wollen in den Hafen, Amerikaner in gute Restaurants. In: Hamburger Abendblatt from 24 October 2009, page 17
  102. Hamburg wird heimlicher Heimathafen der "Queen Mary 2" (in English: Hamburg nearly a home port for "Queen Mary 2"). In: Hamburger Abendblatt from 15 January 2010, p. 13
  103. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  104. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  105. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  106. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  107. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  108. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  109. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  110. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  111. other prefixes used between 1945 and 1956 were "MGH" (Military Government, Hamburg: 1945 only), "HG" (1947 only) and "BH" (British Zone, Hamburg) between 1948 and 1956.
  112. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  113. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  114. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  115. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  116. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  117. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  118. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  119. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  120. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  121. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  122. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  123. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  124. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  125. Selectable data base: Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  126. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  127. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  128. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  129. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  130. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  131. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".

Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

External links

Template:Sister project links


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Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

Script error: No such module "navboxes". Template:Hamburg Template:Boroughs of Hamburg Template:States of the Federal Republic of Germany Template:Capitals of the states of the Federal Republic of Germany Template:Cities in Germany Template:Hamburg railScript error: No such module "navboxes".Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters". Script error: No such module "navboxes". Template:Hanseatic League Template:Free Imperial Cities Template:Lower Saxon Circle Template:States of the German Confederation Template:States of the North German Confederation Template:States of the German Empire Template:States of the Weimar Republic Template:Nazi Gaue Template:WWII city bombingScript error: No such module "navboxes".Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

Script error: No such module "Authority control".Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

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