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2021

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  2011 (Wednesday)

[[Category:Script error: No such module "pagetype". with short description]]Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Script error: No such module "SDcat".December 21 is the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". day of the year (Script error: No such module "Ordinal". in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 10 days remain until the end of the year.

In the Northern Hemisphere, December 21 is usually the shortest day of the year and is sometimes regarded as the first day of winter. In the Southern Hemisphere, December 21 is usually the longest day of the year and occurs during the southern summer.

Events

  • AD 69 – The Roman Senate declares Vespasian emperor of Rome, the last in the Year of the Four Emperors.[1]
  • 1124Pope Honorius II is consecrated, having been elected after the controversial dethroning of Pope Celestine II.[2]
  • 1140Conrad III of Germany besieges Weinsberg.
  • 1237 – The city of Ryazan is sacked by the Mongol army of Batu Khan.[3]
  • 1361 – The Battle of Linuesa is fought in the context of the Spanish Reconquista between the forces of the Emirate of Granada and the combined army of the Kingdom of Castile and of Jaén resulting in a Castilian victory.
  • 1598Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelentaru, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile.
  • 1620Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
  • 1826 – American settlers in Nacogdoches, Mexican Texas, declare their independence, starting the Fredonian Rebellion.
  • 1832Egyptian–Ottoman War: Egyptian forces decisively defeat Ottoman troops at the Battle of Konya.
  • 1844 – The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers commences business at its cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
  • 1861Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
  • 1872Challenger expedition: Template:HMS, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth, England.
  • 1879 – World premiere of Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 1883The Royal Canadian Dragoons and The Royal Canadian Regiment, the first Permanent Force cavalry and infantry regiments of the Canadian Army, are formed.
  • 1907 – The Chilean Army commits a massacre of at least 2,000 striking saltpeter miners in Iquique, Chile.
  • 1910An underground explosion at the Hulton Bank Colliery No. 3 Pit in Over Hulton, Westhoughton, England, kills 344 miners.
  • 1913Arthur Wynne's "word-cross", the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
  • 1919 – American anarchist Emma Goldman is deported to Russia.
  • 1923 – United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, called the Nepal–Britain Treaty of 1923, which superseded the Treaty of Sugauli signed in 1816.
  • 1936 – First flight of the Junkers Ju 88 multi-role combat aircraft.
  • 1937Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world's first full-length animated feature, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre.
  • 1941World War II: A formal treaty of alliance between Thailand and Japan is signed in the presence of the Emerald Buddha in Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand.
  • 1946 – An 8.1 Mw earthquake and subsequent tsunami in Nankaidō, Japan, kills over 1,300 people and destroys over 38,000 homes.
  • 1963"Bloody Christmas" begins in Cyprus, ultimately resulting in the displacement of 25,000–30,000 Turkish Cypriots and destruction of more than 100 villages.
  • 1965International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is adopted.
  • 1967Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a human-to-human heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, having lived for 18 days after the transplant.
  • 1968Apollo program: Apollo 8 is launched from the Kennedy Space Center, placing its crew on a lunar trajectory for the first visit to another celestial body by humans.
  • 1970 – First flight of F-14 multi-role combat aircraft.
  • 1973 – The Geneva Conference on the Arab–Israeli conflict opens.
  • 1979Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and S.C. Mundawarara.
  • 1988 – A bomb explodes on board Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, killing 270. This is to date the deadliest air disaster to occur in British soil.
  • 1988 – The first flight of Antonov An-225 Mriya, the largest aircraft in the world.
  • 1992 – A Dutch DC-10, flight Martinair MP 495, crashes at Faro Airport, killing 56.
  • 1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.
  • 1999 – The Spanish Civil Guard intercepts a van loaded with 950 kg of explosives that ETA intended to use to blow up Torre Picasso in Madrid, Spain.
  • 1999 – Cubana de Aviación Flight 1216 overshoots the runway at La Aurora International Airport, killing 18.[4]
  • 2004Iraq War: A suicide bomber killed 22 at the forward operating base next to the main U.S. military airfield at Mosul, Iraq, the single deadliest suicide attack on American soldiers.

Births

  • 968Minamoto no Yorinobu, Japanese samurai (d. 1048)
  • 1401Masaccio, Italian painter (d. 1428)[5]
  • 1468William Conyers, 1st Baron Conyers, English baron (d. 1524)
  • 1505Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, English politician (d. 1550)[6]
  • 1538Luigi d'Este, Catholic cardinal (d. 1586)
  • 1542Thomas Allen, English mathematician and astrologer (d. 1632)
  • 1550Man Singh I, Mughal noble (d. 1614)[7]
  • 1596Peter Mohyla, Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan and saint (d. 1646)
  • 1603Roger Williams, English minister, theologian, and politician, 9th President of the Colony of Rhode Island (d. 1684)
  • 1615Benedict Arnold, Rhode Island colonial governor (d. 1678)[8]
  • 1672Benjamin Schmolck, German pastor and composer (d. 1737)
  • 1714John Bradstreet, Canadian-English general (d. 1774)
  • 1728Hermann Raupach, German harpsichord player and composer (d. 1778)
  • 1778Anders Sandøe Ørsted, Danish jurist and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1860)
  • 1795Jack Russell, English priest, hunter, and dog breeder (d. 1883)
  • 1795 – Leopold von Ranke, German historian, author, and academic (d. 1886)[9]
  • 1803Achille Vianelli, Italian painter and academic (d. 1894)
  • 1804Benjamin Disraeli, English lawyer and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1881)[10]
  • 1805Thomas Graham, Scottish chemist and academic (d. 1869)
  • 1811Archibald Tait, Scottish-English archbishop (d. 1882)
  • 1815Thomas Couture, French painter and educator (d. 1879)
  • 1820William H. Osborn, American businessman (d. 1894)
  • 1830Bartolomé Masó, Cuban soldier and politician (d. 1907)
  • 1832John H. Ketcham, American general and politician (d. 1906)
  • 1840Namık Kemal, Turkish journalist, playwright, and activist (d. 1888)
  • 1843Thomas Bracken, Irish-New Zealander journalist, poet, and politician (d. 1898)
  • 1850Zdeněk Fibich, Czech composer and poet (d. 1900)
  • 1851Thomas Chipman McRae, American lawyer and politician, 26th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1929)
  • 1857Joseph Carruthers, Australian politician, 16th Premier of New South Wales (d. 1932)
  • 1859Gustave Kahn, French poet and critic (d. 1936)
  • 1866Maud Gonne, Irish nationalist and political activist (d. 1953)[11]
  • 1868George W. Fuller, American chemist and engineer (d. 1934)
  • 1872Trevor Kincaid, Canadian-American zoologist and academic (d. 1970)
  • 1872 – Lorenzo Perosi, Italian priest and composer (d. 1956)
  • 1872 – Albert Payson Terhune, American journalist and author (d. 1942)
  • 1876Jack Lang, Australian lawyer and politician, 23rd Premier of New South Wales (d. 1975)
  • 1877Jaan Sarv, Estonian mathematician and scholar (d. 1954)
  • 1878Jan Łukasiewicz, Polish-Irish mathematician and philosopher (d. 1956)
  • 1884María Cadilla, Puerto Rican writer, educator, women's rights activist (d. 1951)[12]
  • 1885Frank Patrick, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1960)
  • 1888Jean Bouin, French runner and rugby player (d. 1914)
  • 1889Sewall Wright, American geneticist and biologist (d. 1988)
  • 1890Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist and biologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
  • 1891John William McCormack, American lawyer and politician, 53rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. 1980)
  • 1892Walter Hagen, American golfer (d. 1969)
  • 1892 – Rebecca West, English journalist and author (d. 1983)
  • 1896Konstantin Rokossovsky, Marshal of the Soviet Union during World War II (d. 1968)
  • 1900Luis Arturo González López, Guatemalan supreme court judge and briefly acting president (d. 1965)
  • 1905Anthony Powell, English author (d. 2000)
  • 1905 – Käte Fenchel, German mathematician (d. 1983)[13]
  • 1909Seichō Matsumoto, Japanese journalist and author (d. 1992)
  • 1911Josh Gibson, American baseball player (d. 1947)
  • 1913Arnold Friberg, American illustrator and painter (d. 2010)
  • 1914Frank Fenner, Australian microbiologist and virologist (d. 2010)
  • 1915Werner von Trapp, Austrian-American singer (d. 2007)
  • 1917Heinrich Böll, German novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1985)
  • 1918Donald Regan, American colonel and politician, 11th White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003)
  • 1918 – Kurt Waldheim, Austrian colonel, war criminal, and politician; 9th President of Austria (d. 2007)
  • 1919Doug Young, American voice actor (d. 2018)
  • 1920Alicia Alonso, Cuban ballerina and choreographer, founded the Cuban National Ballet (d. 2019)
  • 1920 – Adele Goldstine, American computer programmer (d. 1964)[14]
  • 1922Itubwa Amram, Nauruan pastor and politician (d. 1989)
  • 1922 – Paul Winchell, American actor, voice artist, and ventriloquist (d. 2005)
  • 1922 – Cécile DeWitt-Morette, French mathematician and physicist (d. 2017)[15]
  • 1923Wataru Misaka, American basketball player (d. 2019)[16]
  • 1926Arnošt Lustig, Czech author and playwright (d. 2011)
  • 1926 – Joe Paterno, American football player and coach (d. 2012)
  • 1932U. R. Ananthamurthy, Indian author, poet, and critic (d. 2014)
  • 1932 – Edward Hoagland, American author and critic
  • 1933Jackie Hendriks, Jamaican cricketer
  • 1933 – Robert Worcester, American businessman and academic, founded MORI
  • 1934Giuseppina Leone, Italian sprinter
  • 1934 – Hanif Mohammad, Pakistani cricketer (d. 2016)
  • 1935John G. Avildsen, American director, producer, and cinematographer (d. 2017)
  • 1935 – Lorenzo Bandini, Italian racing driver (d. 1967)
  • 1935 – Phil Donahue, American talk show host and producer
  • 1935 – Edward Schreyer, Canadian academic and politician, 22nd Governor General of Canada
  • 1935 – Stela Popescu, Romanian actress (d. 2017)
  • 1937Jane Fonda, American actress, producer, and activist
  • 1939Lloyd Axworthy, Canadian academic and politician, 2nd Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • 1939 – Wafic Saïd, Syrian-Saudi Arabian financier, businessman and philanthropist
  • 1940Frank Zappa, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 1993)
  • 1942Hu Jintao, Chinese engineer and politician, 5th Paramount leader of China
  • 1943Albert Lee, English guitarist and songwriter
  • 1943 – Walter Spanghero, French rugby player
  • 1944Michael Tilson Thomas, American pianist, composer, and conductor
  • 1944 – Zheng Xiaoyu, Chinese diplomat (d. 2007)
  • 1945Doug Walters, Australian cricketer
  • 1946Roy Karch, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1946 – Carl Wilson, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1998)
  • 1947Paco de Lucía, Spanish guitarist, songwriter, and producer (d. 2014)
  • 1948Barry Gordon, American actor and voice artist; longest-serving president of the Screen Actors Guild (1988–95)
  • 1948 – Samuel L. Jackson, American actor and producer
  • 1948 – Dave Kingman, American baseball player
  • 1949Thomas Sankara, Burkinabé captain and politician, 5th President of Burkina Faso (d. 1987)
  • 1949 – Nikolaos Sifounakis, Greek lawyer and politician
  • 1950Jeffrey Katzenberg, American screenwriter and producer, co-founded DreamWorks Animation
  • 1950 – Lillebjørn Nilsen, Norwegian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1950 – Max Maven, American magician and mentalist
  • 1951Steve Perryman, English footballer and manager
  • 1952Joaquín Andújar, Dominican baseball player (d. 2015)
  • 1952 – Steve Furniss, American swimmer
  • 1953András Schiff, Hungarian-English pianist and conductor
  • 1953 – Betty Wright, American singer-songwriter
  • 1954Chris Evert, American tennis player and coach
  • 1955Jane Kaczmarek, American actress
  • 1955 – Kazuyuki Sekiguchi, Japanese singer-songwriter and bass player
  • 1956Dave Laut, American shot putter (d. 2009)
  • 1957Ray Romano, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1958Tamara Bykova, Russian high jumper
  • 1959Florence Griffith Joyner, American sprinter and actress (d. 1998)
  • 1959 – Krishnamachari Srikkanth, Indian cricketer
  • 1960Sherry Rehman, Pakistani journalist, politician, and diplomat, 25th Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
  • 1961Ryuji Sasai, Japanese bass player and composer
  • 1963Govinda, Indian actor, singer, and politician
  • 1964Joe Kocur, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1964 – Kunihiko Ikuhara, Japanese director and illustrator
  • 1965Glenn Coleman, Australian rugby league player
  • 1965 – Andy Dick, American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1965 – Anke Engelke, Canadian-German actress, director, and screenwriter
  • 1966William Ruto, Kenyan politician, Deputy President of Kenya
  • 1966 – Kiefer Sutherland, British-Canadian actor, director, and producer[17]
  • 1967Terry Mills, American basketball player and coach
  • 1967 – Mikheil Saakashvili, Georgian lawyer and politician, 3rd President of Georgia[18]
  • 1969Julie Delpy, French model, actress, director, and screenwriter
  • 1969 – Mihails Zemļinskis, Latvian footballer, coach, and manager
  • 1971Matthieu Chedid, French singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1972Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy, Indian Politician, 17th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
  • 1973Irakli Alasania, Georgian colonel and politician, Georgian Minister of Defense
  • 1973 – Matías Almeyda, Argentine footballer and manager
  • 1974Karrie Webb, Australian golfer
  • 1975Paloma Herrera, Argentinian ballerina
  • 1977Emmanuel Macron, President of France[19]
  • 1977 – Leon MacDonald, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1978Emiliano Brembilla, Italian swimmer
  • 1978 – Charles Dera, American pornographic actor, dancer, model, and mixed martial arts fighter
  • 1978 – Shaun Morgan, South African musician, singer, and guitarist
  • 1979Steve Montador, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015)
  • 1981Cristian Zaccardo, Italian footballer
  • 1982Philip Humber, American baseball player
  • 1983Steven Yeun, American actor
  • 1985Tom Sturridge, English actor
  • 1988Perri Shakes-Drayton, English sprinter and hurdler
  • 1989Mark Ingram Jr., American football player
  • 1989 – Tamannaah, South Indian actress
  • 1991Riccardo Saponara, Italian footballer
  • 1995Ronnie Bassett Jr., American race car driver[20]
  • Kelly Smith, English rugby union player[21]

Deaths

  • AD 72Thomas the Apostle, Roman martyr and saint (b. 1 AD)
  • 882Hincmar, French archbishop and historian (b. 806)
  • 956Sun Sheng, Chinese chancellor
  • 975Al-Mu'izz, Fatimid caliph (b. 932)
  • 1001Hugh of Tuscany, Italian margrave (b. 950)
  • 1215Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Walid, Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq of Tayyibi Isma'ilism (b. c. 1128)[22]
  • 1308Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1244)
  • 1338Thomas Hemenhale, bishop of Worcester
  • 1362Constantine III, king of Armenia (b. 1313)
  • 1375Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian author and poet (b. 1313)
  • 1504Berthold von Henneberg, German archbishop (b. 1442)
  • 1536John Seymour, English courtier (b. 1474)
  • 1549Marguerite de Navarre, queen of Henry II of Navarre (b. 1492)
  • 1581Jean de la Cassière, 51st Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1502)
  • 1597Peter Canisius, Dutch priest and saint (b. 1521)
  • 1608William Davison, secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England (b. c. 1541)
  • 1610Catherine Vasa, Swedish princess (b. 1539)
  • 1701Sir Hugh Paterson, Baronet of Bannockburn (b. 1659)
  • 1807John Newton, English soldier and minister (b. 1725)
  • 1824James Parkinson, English physician and paleontologist (b. 1755)
  • 1869Friedrich Ernst Scheller, German jurist and politician (b. 1791)
  • 1873Francis Garnier, French admiral and explorer (b. 1839)
  • 1889Friedrich August von Quenstedt, German geologist and palaeontologist (b. 1809)
  • 1920Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, Somalian general, founded the Dervish movement (b. 1856)
  • 1929I. L. Patterson, American politician, 18th Governor of Oregon (b. 1859)
  • 1933Knud Rasmussen, Greenlandic anthropologist and explorer (b. 1879)
  • 1935Ted Birnie, English footballer and manager (b. 1878)
  • 1935 – Kurt Tucholsky, German-Swedish journalist and author (b. 1890)
  • 1937Violette Neatley Anderson, American judge (b. 1882)[23]
  • 1937 – Ted Healy, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)
  • 1937 – Frank B. Kellogg, American lawyer and politician, 45th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1856)
  • 1940F. Scott Fitzgerald, American novelist and short story writer (b. 1896)
  • 1945George S. Patton, American general (b. 1885)
  • 1948Władysław Witwicki, Polish psychologist, philosopher, translator, historian (of philosophy and art) and artist (b. 1878)[24]
  • 1952Kenneth Edwards, American golfer (b. 1886)
  • 1953Kaarlo Koskelo, Finnish-American wrestler and businessman (b. 1888)
  • 1957Eric Coates, English-American viola player and composer (b. 1886)
  • 1958H.B. Warner, English actor (b. 1875)
  • 1958 – Lion Feuchtwanger, German-American author and playwright (b. 1884)
  • 1959Rosanjin, Japanese calligrapher, engraver, and painter (b. 1883)
  • 1963Jack Hobbs, English cricketer and journalist (b. 1882)
  • 1964Carl Van Vechten, American author and photographer (b. 1880)
  • 1965Claude Champagne, Canadian violinist, pianist, and composer (b. 1891)
  • 1968Vittorio Pozzo, Italian footballer, coach, and manager (b. 1886)
  • 1974Richard Long, American actor and director (b. 1927)
  • 1982Abu Al-Asar Hafeez Jullundhri, Pakistani poet and composer (b. 1900)
  • 1983Paul de Man, Belgian-born philosopher, literary critic and theorist (b. 1919)
  • 1988Nikolaas Tinbergen, Dutch-English ethologist and ornithologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907)
  • 1992Stella Adler, American actress and educator (b. 1901)
  • 1992 – Albert King, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (b. 1924)
  • 1992 – Nathan Milstein, Russian-American violinist and composer (b. 1903)
  • 1998Ernst-Günther Schenck, German colonel and physician (b. 1904)
  • 2004Autar Singh Paintal, Indian physiologist and neurologist (b. 1925)
  • 2006Saparmurat Niyazov, Turkmen engineer and politician, 1st President of Turkmenistan (b. 1940)
  • 2009Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
  • 2009 – Christos Lambrakis, Greek journalist and businessman (b. 1934)
  • 2010Enzo Bearzot, Italian footballer and manager (b. 1927)
  • 2013Edgar Bronfman, Sr., Canadian-American businessman and philanthropist (b. 1929)
  • 2013 – John Eisenhower, American historian, general, and diplomat, 45th United States Ambassador to Belgium (b. 1922)
  • 2014Udo Jürgens, Austrian-Swiss singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1934)
  • 2014 – Sitor Situmorang, Indonesian poet and author (b. 1923)
  • 2014 – Billie Whitelaw, English actress (b. 1932)[25]
  • 2017Bruce McCandless II, US astronaut who conducted the first untethered spacewalk (b. 1937)

Holidays and observances

  • Armed Forces Day (Philippines)
  • Christian feast day:
    • O Oriens
    • Peter Canisius
    • Thomas the Apostle (Anglicanism)
    • December 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Earliest date for the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, and its related observances:
    • Blue Christmas (some modern American liberal Protestant groups)
    • Dongzhi Festival (Asia)
    • Sanghamitta Day (Theravada Buddhism)
    • Yule in the Northern Hemisphere (Neopagan Wheel of the Year)
    • Ziemassvētki (ancient Latvia)
  • Forefathers' Day (Plymouth, Massachusetts)
  • São Tomé Day (São Tomé and Príncipe)
  • The first day of Pancha Ganapati, celebrated until December 25 (Saiva Siddhanta Church)

References

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External links

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