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Conan the Barbarian is a 1982 American epic fantasy film co-written and directed by John Milius. It is based on stories by Robert E. Howard, a pulp fiction writer of the 1930s, about the adventures of the eponymous character in a fictional pre-historic world of dark magic and savagery. The film stars Arnold Schwarzenegger and James Earl Jones, and tells the story of a young barbarian (Schwarzenegger) who seeks vengeance for the death of his parents at the hands of Thulsa Doom (Jones), the leader of a snake cult. Buzz Feitshans and Raffaella De Laurentiis produced the film for her father Dino De Laurentiis. Basil Poledouris composed the music.

Ideas for a Conan film were proposed as early as 1970. A concerted effort by executive producer Edward R. Pressman and associate producer Edward Summer to produce the film started in 1975. It took them two years to obtain the film rights, after which they recruited Schwarzenegger for the lead role and Oliver Stone to draft a script. Pressman lacked capital for the endeavor, and in 1979, after having his proposals for investments rejected by the major studios, he sold the project to Dino De Laurentiis. Milius was appointed as director and he rewrote Stone's script. The final screenplay integrated scenes from Howard's stories and from films such as Kwaidan and Seven Samurai.

Filming took place in Spain over five months, in the regions around Madrid and Almería. The sets, designed by Ron Cobb, were based on Dark Age cultures and Frank Frazetta's paintings of Conan. Milius eschewed optical effects, preferring to realize his ideas with mechanical constructs and optical illusions. Schwarzenegger performed most of his own stunts, and two types of swords, costing $10,000 each, were forged for his character. The editing process took over a year and several violent scenes were cut.

Conan was a commercial success for its backers, grossing more than $100 million at box-offices around the world, although the revenue fell short of the level that would qualify the film as a blockbuster. Academics and critics interpreted the film as advancing the themes of fascism or individualism, and the fascist angle featured in most of the criticisms of the film. Critics also negatively reviewed Schwarzenegger's acting and the film's violent scenes. Despite the criticisms, Conan was popular with young males. The film earned Schwarzenegger worldwide recognition. Conan has been frequently released on home media, the sales of which had increased the film's gross to more than $300 million by 2007. The film's success led to the 1984 sequel Conan the Destroyer.

Plot

A sword is forged by a blacksmith, who then shows it to his young son, Conan, as he tells him of the "Riddle of Steel", an aphorism on the importance of the metal to their people,Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the Cimmerians.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". One day, the Cimmerians are massacred by a band of warriors led by Thulsa Doom; Conan's father is killed by dogs, and his sword is taken by Doom to decapitate Conan's mother. The children are taken into slavery and then chained to a large mill, the Wheel of Pain. Conan survives into adulthood, building his muscles after years of pushing the heavy grindstone. His master eventually trains him to be a gladiator; after winning many pit fights and receiving training and education in the East, Conan is freed. He soon stumbles upon a warrior's tomb and retrieves a fine sword. He then encounters a prophetic witch and befriends Subotai, a thief and archer.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Following the witch's advice, Conan and Subotai go to the city of Zamora to seek out Doom.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". There they meet Valeria, a female brigand. They burgle the Tower of Serpents, stealing jewels and other valuables from a shrine, slaying a giant snake in the process. After escaping with their loot, the thieves celebrate, and Conan and Valeria become lovers. The city guards capture the trio and bring them to King Osric, who requests they rescue his daughter — now a zealot in Doom's cult — for a handsome reward. Subotai and Valeria refuse to take up the quest; Conan, motivated by his hatred for Doom, sets off alone to the villain's Temple of Set.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Disguised as a priest, Conan infiltrates the temple, but he is discovered, captured, and tortured. Doom lectures him on the power of flesh, which he demonstrates by compelling a girl to leap to her death. He then orders Conan crucified on the Tree of Woe. The barbarian is on the verge of death when he is discovered by Subotai and brought to the Wizard of the Mounds, who lives on a burial site for warriors and kings.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The wizard summons spirits to heal ConanScript error: No such module "Footnotes". and warns that they will "extract a heavy toll", which Valeria is willing to pay. These spirits also try to abduct Conan, but he is restored to health after Valeria and Subotai fend them off.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Subotai and Valeria agree to help Conan complete Osric's quest and infiltrate the Temple of Set. As the cult indulges in a cannibalistic orgy, the thieves attack and flee with the princess. Valeria is mortally wounded by Doom after he shoots a stiffened snake at her. She dies in Conan's arms and is cremated at the Mounds, where Conan prepares with Subotai and the wizard to battle Doom. By using booby-traps and exploiting the terrain, they manage to slay Doom's warriors when they arrive. Valeria reappears for a brief moment as a Valkyrie to save Conan from a mortal blow.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". After losing his men, Doom shoots a stiffened snake at the princess, but Subotai blocks the shot with his shield and the villain flees to his temple.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Conan sneaks back to the temple where Doom is addressing the members of his cult. He confronts Doom, who attempts to mesmerize him, but the barbarian resists and uses his father's recovered sword to behead his nemesis. After the disillusioned cultists disperse, Conan burns down the templeScript error: No such module "Footnotes". and returns the princess.

Characters

File:Hugh Rankin - Queen of the Black Coast.jpg

The death and supernatural return of Bêlit in "Queen of the Black Coast" (as illustrated by Hugh Rankin in Weird Tales) is mirrored by the fate of Valeria in the film.

The character, Conan, and the world of Hyboria were based on the creations of pulp-fiction writer Robert E. Howard from the 1930s. Published in Weird Tales, his series about the barbarian was popular with the readership; the barbarian's adventures in a savage and mystical world, replete with gore and brutal slayings, satisfied the reader's fantasies of being a "powerful giant who lives by no rules but his own".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". From the 1960s, Conan gained a wider audience as novels about him, written in imitation of Howard's style by L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, were published. Frank Frazetta's cover art for these novels cemented Conan's image as a "virile, axe-wielding, fur-bearing, cranium-smashing barbarian".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". John Milius, the film's director, intended the film's Conan to be "a Northern European mythic hero".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Danny Peary described Conan as "muscular, majestic, brainy, yet with ambivalent scruples".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Don Herron, a scholar on Howard and his stories, disagreed, noting that the personality of Conan in the film differs greatly from that of the literature. The Conan in the books detests restrictions to his freedom and would have resisted slavery in a violent fashion, whereas the film version accepts his fate and has to be freed.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Robert Garcia's review of the film in his American Fantasy magazine states that "this Conan is less powerful, less talkative, and less educated than Howard's".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The female lead, Valeria, has her roots in two strong female characters from Howard's Conan stories.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Her namesake was Conan's companion in "Red Nails", while her personality and fate were based on those of Bêlit, the pirate queen in "Queen of the Black Coast".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Kristina Passman, an assistant professor of classical languages and literature, the film's Valeria is a perfect archetype of the "good" Amazon character, a fierce but domesticated female warrior, in cinema.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Rikke Schubart, a film scholar, said Valeria is a "good" Amazon because she is tamed by love and not because of any altruistic tendencies.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Valeria's prowess in battle matches that of Conan and she is also depicted as his equal in behavior and status. The loyalty and love she displays for Conan makes her more than a dear companion to him;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". she represents his "possibilities of human happiness".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Her sacrifice for Conan and her brief return from death act out the heroic code, illustrating that self-sacrificing heroism brings "undying fame".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Valeria's name is not spoken in the film; the only scene where she was named, her self-introduction, was cut.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Milius based Conan's other companion, Subotai, on Genghis Khan's main general, Subotai, rather than on any of Howard's characters.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to film critic Roger Ebert, Subotai fulfills the role of a "classic literary type—the Best Pal."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He helps the barbarian to kill a giant snake and cuts him down from crucifixion; the thief also cries for his companion during Valeria's cremation, with the explanation that "(h)e is Conan, a Cimmerian. He won't cry, so I cry for him."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Conan's enemy, Thulsa Doom, is an amalgamation of two of Howard's creations. He takes his name from the villain in Howard's Kull of Atlantis series of stories, but is closer in character to Thoth-Amon, a Stygian sorcerer in "The Phoenix on the Sword".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The Doom in the film reminded critics of Jim Jones, a cult leader whose hold on his followers was such that hundreds of them obeyed his orders to commit suicide.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius said his research on the ancient orders of the Hashishim and the Thuggee was the inspiration for Doom's snake cult.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". It is noteworthy that in the original Howard stories the worship of Set, though all too fearsome, is no sect; rather, it is the centuries-old formalized state religion of Stygia (which is virtually a Theocracy).

Production

From the 1970s, licensing issues had stood in the way of producing film versions of the Conan stories. Lancer Books, which had acquired the rights in 1966,Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". went into receivership, and there were legal disputes over their disposition of the publishing rights, which ultimately led to them being frozen under injunction.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Edward Summer suggested Conan as a potential project to executive producer Edward R. Pressman in 1975, and after being shown the comics and Frazetta's artwork, Pressman was convinced.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". It took two years to secure the film rights.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The two main parties involved in the lawsuit, Glenn Lord and de Camp, formed Conan Properties Incorporated to handle all licensing of Conan-related material, and Pressman was awarded the film rights shortly afterwards.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He spent more than $100,000 in legal fees to help resolve the lawsuit, and the rights cost him another $7,500.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The success of Star Wars in 1977 increased Hollywood's interest in producing films that portray "heroic adventures in supernatural lands of fables".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film industry's attention was drawn to the popularity of Conan among young male Americans, who were buying reprints of the stories with Frazetta's art and adaptations by Marvel Comics.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". John Milius first expressed interest in directing a film about Conan in 1978 after completing the filming of Big Wednesday, according to Buzz Feitshans, a producer who frequently worked with Milius.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". (Milius had long been an admirer of films like The Vikings (1958)[3]). Milius and Feitshans approached Pressman, but differences over several issues stopped discussions from going further.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Oliver Stone 01.jpg

Oliver Stone (1987 photograph) was brought on to the project as a "name screenwriter".

Oliver Stone joined the Conan project after Paramount Pictures offered to fund the film's initial $2.5 million budget if a "name screenwriter" was on the team.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". After securing Stone's services, Pressman approached Frank Frazetta to be a "visual consultant" but they failed to come to terms.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The producer then engaged Ron Cobb, who had just completed a set design job on Alien (1979).Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Cobb made a series of paintings and drawings for Pressman before leaving to join Milius on another project.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The estimates to realize Stone's finished script ran to $40 million; Pressman, Summer, and Stone could not convince a studio to finance their project.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Pressman's production company was in financial difficulties and to keep it afloat, he borrowed money from the bank.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The failure to find a suitable director was also a problem for the project. Stone and Joe Alves, who was the second unit director on Jaws 2, were considered as possible co-directors, but Pressman said it "was a pretty crazy idea and [they] didn't get anywhere with it".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Stone also said that he asked Ridley Scott, who had finished directing Alien, to take up the task but was rejected.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Cobb showed Milius his work for Conan and Stone's script which, according to him, re-ignited Milius's interest; the director contacted Pressman,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and they came to an agreement: Milius would direct the film if he was allowed to modify the script.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius was known in the film industry for his macho screenplays for Dirty Harry (1971) and Magnum Force (1973).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He was, however, contracted to direct his next film for Dino De Laurentiis,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". an influential producer in the fantasy film industry.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius raised the idea of taking on Conan with De Laurentiis,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and, after a year of negotiations, Pressman and De Laurentiis agreed to co-produce.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". De Laurentiis took over the financing and production and Pressman gave up all claims to the film's profits, though he retained approval over changes to the script, cast and director.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Dino De Laurentiis assigned the responsibility for production to his daughter, Raffaella, and Feitshans.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius was formally appointed as director in early 1979, and Cobb was named as the production designer.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". De Laurentiis convinced Universal Pictures to become the film's distributor for the United States.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The studio also contributed to the production budget of $17.5 million and prepared $12 million to advertise the film.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Casting

Actor Role
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Arnold Schwarzenegger     <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Conan the Barbarian
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Gerry Lopez <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Subotai
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Sandahl Bergman <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Valeria
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James Earl Jones <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Thulsa Doom
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Max von Sydow <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">King Osric
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Mako Iwamatsu <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Wizard of the Mounds
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Smith <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Conan's Father
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Sven-Ole Thorsen <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Thorgrim
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Ben Davidson <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Rexor
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Cassandra Gava <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Witch
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Valerie Quennessen <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Osric's Daughter
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Jorge Sanz <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Young Conan
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Nadiuska <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> Conan's Mother
File:Schwarzenegger 1984.jpg

Ed Pressman and his associates considered Arnold Schwarzenegger (1984 photograph) the embodiment of Conan the Barbarian.

While they were working to secure the film rights, Pressman and Summer were also contemplating the lead role. Summer said they considered Charles Bronson, Sylvester Stallone, and William Smith—all of whom had played tough figures,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". but in 1976, the two producers watched a rough cut of the bodybuilding film Pumping Iron, and agreed Arnold Schwarzenegger was perfect for the role of Conan.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Schwarzenegger, Pressman's "low-key" approach and "great inner strength" convinced him to join the project.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Paul Sammon, writer for Cinefantastique, said that the former champion bodybuilder was practically the "living incarnation of one of Frazetta's paperback illustrations".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schwarzenegger was paid $250,000 and placed on retainer;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the terms of the contract restricted him from starring in other sword and sorcery films.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schwarzenegger said Conan was his biggest opportunity to establish himself in the entertainment industry.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Thanks to Pressman's firm belief in him, Schwarzenegger retained the role of Conan even after the project was effectively sold to De Laurentiis.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius wanted a more athletic look on his lead actor, so Schwarzenegger undertook an 18-month training regime before shooting began; aside from running and lifting weights, his routines included rope climbing, horseback riding, and swimming. He slimmed down from Script error: No such module "convert"..Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Aside from Conan, two other substantial roles were also played by novice actors. Subotai was Gerry Lopez, a champion surfer, whose only major acting experience was playing himself in Milius's Big Wednesday.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schwarzenegger stayed at Lopez's home for over a month before the start of filming so they could rehearse their roles and build a rapport.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Sandahl Bergman, a dancer who had bit parts in several theater productions and films, played Valeria. She was recommended to Milius by Bob Fosse, who had directed her in All That Jazz (1979), and was accepted after reading for the part.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Milius said the actors were chosen because their appearances and personae fitted their roles.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He wanted actors who would not have any preconceived notions to project into their roles.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Although Milius had reservations when he witnessed the first few takes of the novices at work, he put faith in them improving their skills on the job and altered the script to fit their abilities.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schwarzenegger had studied for weeks in 1980 under Robert Easton, a voice coach for several Hollywood stars, to improve his speech.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". His first line in the film was a paraphrasing of Mongol emperor Genghis Khan's speech about the good things in life and the actor delivered it with a heavy Austrian accent; critics later described what they heard as "to crush your enemies—see dem [them] driven before you, and to hear the lamentations of dair vimen [their women]".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".[nb 1] Subsequently, Schwarzenegger underwent intensive speech training with Milius. Each of his later longer speeches was rehearsed at least forty times.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Lopez's lines were also an issue: although Milius was satisfied with Lopez's work, the surfer's lines were redubbed by stage actor Sab Shimono for the final cut. A source close to the production said this was done because Lopez failed to "[maintain] a certain quality to his voice."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

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Sean Connery and John Huston were considered for the other roles.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". James Earl Jones and Max von Sydow were, according to Milius, hired with the hope that they would inspire Schwarzenegger, Bergman, and Lopez.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Jones was an award-winning veteran of numerous theater and cinema productions.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Von Sydow was a Swedish actor of international renown.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The role of Thulsa Doom was offered to Jones while he was considering applying for the role of Grendel in an upcoming feature based on John Gardner's eponymous novel; after learning it was an animation, Jones read Conan's script and accepted the part of Doom.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". When filming started, Jones was also starring in a Broadway play - Athol Fugard's A Lesson to Aloes. He and the film crew coordinated their schedules to allow him to join the play's remaining performances.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Jones took an interest in Schwarzenegger's acting, often giving him pointers on how to deliver his lines.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The Japanese-American actor Mako Iwamatsu, known professionally as "Mako", was brought onto the project by Milius for his experience;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". he had played roles in many plays and films and had been nominated for an Academy and a Tony Award.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". In Conan, Mako played the Wizard of the Mounds and voiced the film's opening speech.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". William Smith, although passed over for the lead role, was hired to play the barbarian's father.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Doom's two lieutenants Thorgrim and Rexor were respectively played by Sven-Ole Thorsen, a Danish bodybuilder and karate master, and Ben Davidson, a former American-football player with the Oakland Raiders.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Cassandra Gava played the witch. Milius hired more than 1,500 extras in Spain.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Professional actors from the European film industry were also hired: Valerie Quennessen was chosen to play Osric's daughter, Jorge Sanz acted as the nine-year-old version of Conan, and Nadiuska played his mother.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Script writing

The drafting of a story for a Conan film started in 1976; Summer conceived a script with the help of Roy Thomas,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". a comic book writer and Conan expert who had been writing the character's adventures for years for Marvel Comics.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Summer and Thomas's tale, in which Conan would be employed by a "dodgy priest to kill an evil wizard", was largely based on Howard's "Rogues in the House". Their script was abandoned when Oliver Stone joined the project.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Stone was, at this time, going through a period of addiction to cocaine and depressants. His screenplay was written under the influence of the drugsScript error: No such module "Footnotes". and the result was what Milius called a "total drug fever dream", albeit an inspired one.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Schwarzenegger, Stone completed a draft by early 1978.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Taking inspiration from Howard's "Black Colossus" and "A Witch Shall be Born", Stone proposed a story, four hours long,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". in which the hero champions the defense of a princess's kingdom. Instead of taking place in the distant past, Stone's story is set in a post-apocalyptic future where Conan leads an army in a massive battle against a horde of 10,000 mutants.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:耳なし芳一(神戸市・須磨寺)武者365a.JPG

The idea of painting symbols onto Conan's body to help ward off spirits is taken from a Japanese story, "Hoichi the Earless" (theatrical enactment pictured).

When Milius was appointed as director, he took over the task of writing the screenplay.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Although listed as a co-writer, Stone said Milius did not incorporate any of his suggestions into the final story.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius discarded the latter half of Stone's story.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He retained several scenes from the first half, such as Conan's crucifixion ordeal, which was taken straight out of "A Witch Shall be Born", and the climbing of the Tower of Serpents, which was derived from "The Tower of the Elephant".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". One of Milius' original changes was to extend Stone's brief exposition of Conan's youth—the raid on the Cimmerian village—into his teens with the barbarian's enslavement at the Wheel of Pain and training as a gladiator.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius also added ideas gleaned from other films. The Japanese supernatural tale of "Hoichi the Earless", as portrayed in Masaki Kobayashi's Kwaidan (1965), inspired the painting of symbols on Conan's body and the swarm of ghosts during the barbarian's resurrection,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai (1954) influenced Milius's vision of Conan's final battle against Doom's men.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius also included scenes from post-Howard stories about Conan; the barbarian's discovery of a tomb during his initial wanderings and acquisition of a sword within were based on de Camp and Carter's "The Thing in the Crypt".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Derek Elley, Variety's resident film critic, Milius's script, with its original ideas and references to the pulp stories, was faithful to Howard's ideals of Conan.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Milius felt ""all the basic emotions [in the script] are always accessible to audiences. All of the things that Conan does we all feel ourselves. He just acts on them with more intensity than we do. He is a character who relies on the animal. And I always believe that the animal instincts are often the worst part of them. All you do when you evolve is corrupt yourself sooner or later." [4]

Filming

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Original introduction in the film
Know, O Prince; that between the years when the oceans drank Atlantis and the rise of the Sons of Aryas, there was an Age undreamed of ... Hither came I, Conan, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, to tread jeweled thrones of the earth beneath my feet. But now my eyes are dim. Sit on the ground with me, for you are but the leavings of my age. Let me tell you of the days of high adventure.

King ConanScript error: No such module "Footnotes".

Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

Filming started at England's Shepperton Studios in October 1980, with Schwarzenegger, made up to look like Conan as a king in his old age, reading an excerpt from "The Nemedian Chronicles", which Howard had penned to introduce his Conan stories. This footage was initially intended to be a trailer but Milius decided to use it as the opening sequence of the film instead.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Cobb, Laurentiis and Universal Pictures were concerned about Schwarzenegger's accent, so Milius compromised by moving the sequence to the end.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The initial location for principal photography was Yugoslavia, but because of concerns over the country's stability after the death of its head of state, Josip Broz Tito, and the fact that the Yugoslavian film industry proved ill-equipped for large-scale film production, the producers elected to move the project to Spain, which was cheaper and where resources were more easily available. It took several months to relocate;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the crew and equipment arrived in September,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and filming started on January 7, 1981.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The producers allocated $11 million for production in Spain,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". of which approximately $3 million was spent on building 49 sets.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The construction workforce numbered from 50 to 200; artists from England, Italy, and Spain were also recruited.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

A large warehouse Script error: No such module "convert". outside Madrid served as the production's headquarters,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and it also housed most of the interior sets for the Tower of Serpents and Doom's temple;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". a smaller warehouse was leased for other interior sets.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The remaining interiors for the Tower of Serpents were constructed in an abandoned hangar at Torrejón Air Base.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". A full-scale, Script error: No such module "convert". version of the tower was built in the hangar; this model was used to film Conan and his companion's climb up the structure.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Ciudad encantada 1.JPG

The rock formations of Ciudad Encantada provided the setting for a supernatural encounter in Conan.

The crew filmed several exterior scenes in the countryside near Madrid;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the Cimmerian village was built in a forest near the Valsaín ski resort, south of Segovia. Approximately one million pesetas ($12,084)[nb 2] worth of marble shavings were scattered on the ground to simulate snow.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The Wheel of Pain scene took place in the province of Ávila.[nb 3] Conan's encounter with the witch and Subotai was shot among the Ciudad Encantada rock formations in the province of Cuenca.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Most outdoor scenes were shot in the province of Almería,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". which offered a semi-arid climate, diverse terrain (deserts, beaches, mountains), and Roman and Moorish structures that could be adapted for many settings.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Conan's crucifixion was filmed in March 1981 among the sand dunes on the southeastern coast of Almería. The Tree of Woe was layers of plaster and Styrofoam applied onto a skeleton of wood and steel. It was mounted on a turntable, allowing it to be rotated to ensure the angle of the shadows remained consistent throughout three days of filming. Schwarzenegger sat on a bicycle seat mounted in the tree while fake nails were affixed to his wrists and feet.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The scene in which Valeria and Subotai fought off ghosts to save Conan and the final battle with Doom's forces were filmed in the salt marshes of Almerimar. "Stonehenge-like ruins" were erected and sand piled into mounds that reached Script error: No such module "convert"..Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The changes to the landscape attracted protests from environmentalists and the producers promised to restore the site after filming was completed.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Wall of the Alcazaba of Almeria.jpg

The walls of the Alcazaba in Almería provided the locale for a bazaar in the movie.

The Temple of Set was built in the mountains, about Script error: No such module "convert". west of the city of Almería. The structure was Script error: No such module "convert". long and Script error: No such module "convert". high. It was the most expensive of the sets, costing $350,000, and built out of various woods, lacquers, and tons of concrete. Its stairway had 120 steps.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius and his crew also filmed at historical sites and on sets from previous films. Scenes of a bazaar were filmed at the Moorish Alcazaba of Almería, which was dressed to give it a fictional Hyborian look.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Shadizar was realized at a pre-existing film set in the Almerían desert; the fort used for the filming of El Condor (1970) refurbished as an ancient city.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

It was expensive to build large sets,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Milius did not want to rely on optical effects and matte paintings (painted landscapes). The crew instead adopted miniature effect techniques (playing on perspective) to achieve the illusion of size and grandeur for several scenes. Scale models of structures were constructed by Emilio Ruiz and positioned in front of the cameras so that they appeared as full-sized structures on film; using this technique the Shadizar set was extended to appear more than double its size.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Ruiz built eight major miniature models,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". including a Script error: No such module "convert". high palace and a representation of the entire city of Shadizar that spanned Script error: No such module "convert"..Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Josef Hoffman - Die Walküre.jpg

An academic commented that the Tree of Woe resembled a prop from an 1876 staging of Richard Wagner's Die Walküre.

Cobb's direction for the sets was to "undo history", "to invent [their] own fantasy history", and yet maintain a "realistic, historical look".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Eschewing the Greco-Roman imagery used heavily in the sword-and-sandal films of the 1960s,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". he realized a world that was an amalgamation of Dark Age cultures, such as the Mongols and the Vikings.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Several scenarios paid homage to Frazetta's paintings of Conan, such as the "half-naked slave girl chained to a pillar, with a snarling leopard at her feet," at the snake cult's orgy.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". David Huckvale, a lecturer at the Open University and broadcaster for BBC Radio, said the designs of the Tree of Woe and the costumes appeared very similar to those used in Richard Wagner's Ring of the Nibelung operas at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus in 1876.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Principal photography was completed in the middle of May 1981.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film crews burned down the Cimmerian village and the Temple of Set after completing filming on each set.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Stunts and swords

Several action scenes in Conan were filmed with a "mini-jib" (a remote-controlled electronic camera mounted on a motorized lightweight crane) that Nick Allder, the special effects supervisor, had devised when he worked on Dragonslayer (1981).Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The stunts were co-ordinated by Terry Leonard, who had worked on many films, including Milius' previous projects and Steven Spielberg's Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Leonard said that Schwarzenegger, Bergman, and Lopez performed most of their own stunts, including the fights.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The three actors were given martial arts training ahead of filming. From August 1980,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". they were tutored by Kiyoshi Yamazaki, a karate black belt and master swordsman,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". who drilled them in sword-fighting styles that were meant to make them look proficient in using their weapons.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". They practiced each move in a fight at least 15 times before filming.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Yamazaki advised Leonard on the choreography of the sword fights and had a cameo role as one of Conan's instructors.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Tim Huchthausen, the prop maker, worked with swordsmith Jody Samson to create the sturdy weapons Milius thought necessary.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Particular attention was paid to two swords wielded by Conan: his father's sword ("Master's sword") and the blade he finds in a tomb ("Atlantean sword"). Both weapons were realized from Cobb's drawings. Their blades were hand ground from carbon steel and heat treated and left unsharpened.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The hilts and pommels were sculpted and cast through the lost-wax process; inscriptions were added to the blades via electrical discharge machining.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Samson and Huchthausen made four Master's and four Atlantean swords, at a cost of $10,000 per weapon.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Copies of the Atlantean sword were struck and given to members of the production.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Samson and Huchthausen agreed the weapons were heavy and unbalanced, and thus unsuitable for actual combat;Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Lighter versions made of aluminum, fiberglass, and steel were struck in Madrid; these Script error: No such module "convert". copies were used in the fight scenes.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Schwarzenegger, the heavy swords were used in close-up shots.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The other weapons used in the film were not as elaborate; Valeria's talwar was ground out from an aluminum sheet.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The copious amounts of blood spilled in the fight scenes came from bags of fake blood strapped to the performers' bodies. Animal blood gathered from slaughterhouses was poured onto the floor to simulate puddles of human blood.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Most of the times trick swords made from fiberglass were used when the scene called for a killing blow.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Designed by Allder, these swords could also retract their blades, and several sprayed blood from their tips.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Although the swords were intended to be safer alternatives to metal weapons, they could still be dangerous: in one of the fights, Bergman sparred with an extra who failed to follow the choreography and sliced open her finger.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Accidents also happened in stunts that did not involve weapons. A stuntman smashed his face into a camera while riding a horse at full gallop,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Schwarzenegger was attacked by one of the trained dogs.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The use of live animals also raised concerns about cruelty; the American Humane Association placed the film on its "unacceptable list".[6] The transgressions listed by the association included the kicking of a dog, the striking of a camel, and the tripping of horses.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Mechanical effects

File:Vulture Culture...Living of the fat of the Land....jpg

A dummy with parts from a dead vulture was provided for the shot in which Schwarzenegger bites through the bird's neck.

Carlo De Marchis, the special make-up effects supervisor, and Colin Arthur, former Studio Head of Madame Tussaud's, were responsible for the human dummies and fake body parts used in the film.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The dummies inflated crowd numbers and stood in as dead bodies,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". while the body parts were used in scenes showing the aftermath of fights and the cult's cannibalistic feast.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". In Thulsa Doom's beheading scene Schwarzenegger hacked at a dummy and pulled a concealed chain to detach its head.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The decapitation of Conan's mother was more complex: a Plexiglas shield between Jones and Nadiuska stopped his sword as he swung at her and an artificial head then dropped into the camera's view. A more elaborate head was used for the close-up shots; this prop spurted blood and the movements of its eyes, mouth, and tongue were controlled by cables hidden beneath the snow.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Allder created a $20,000 Script error: No such module "convert". mechanical snake for the fight scene in the Tower of Serpents. The snake's body had a diameter of Script error: No such module "convert"., and its head was Script error: No such module "convert". long and Script error: No such module "convert". wide. Its skeleton was made from duralumin (an alloy used in aircraft frames) and its skin was vulcanized foam rubber. Controlled by steel cables and hydraulics, the snake could exert a force between 3.5 and 9 tons. Another two snakes of the same dimensions were made: one for stationary shots and one for decapitation by Schwarzenegger.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". To create the scene at the Tree of Woe the crew tethered live vultures to the branches, and created a mechanical bird for Schwarzenegger to bite. The dummy bird's feathers and wings were from a dead vulture, and its control mechanisms were routed inside the false tree.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

According to Sammon, "one of the greatest special effects in the film [was] Thulsa Doom's onscreen transformation into a giant snake".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". It involved footage of fake body parts, live and dummy snakes, miniatures, and other camera tricks combined into a flowing sequence with lap dissolve. After Jones was filmed in position, he was replaced by a hollow framework with a rubber mask that was pushed from behind by a snake head-shaped puppet to give the illusion of Doom's facial bones changing. The head was then replaced with a Script error: No such module "convert". mechanical snake; as it moved outwards, a crew member pressed a foot pedal to collapse the framework. For the final part of the sequence, a real snake was filmed on a miniature set.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Optical effects

File:Opticalprinter.jpg

VCE's special effects were composited with the live-action reels through a two-headed optical printer to create the final print.

There were few optical effects in Conan the Barbarian. Milius professed ambivalence to fantasy elements, preferring a story that showcases accomplishments realized through one's own efforts without reliance on the supernatural. He also said that he followed the advice of Cobb and other production members on the matters of special effects.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Peter Kuran's Visual Concepts Engineering (VCE) effects company was engaged in October 1981 to handle post-production optical effects for Conan. VCE had previously worked on films such as Raiders of the Lost Ark and Dragonslayer. Among their tasks for Conan were adding glint and sparkle to The Eye of the Serpent and Valeria's Valkyrie armor.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Not all of VCE's work made it to the final print: the flames of Valeria's funeral pyre were originally enhanced by the company but were later restored to the original version.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

For the scene in which Valeria and Subotai had to fend off ghosts to save Conan's life, the "boiling clouds" were created by George Lucas's Industrial Light and Magic, while VCE was given the task of creating the ghosts. Their first attempt—filming strips of film emulsion suspended in a vat of a viscous solution—elicited complaints from the producers who thought the resulting spirits looked too much like those in a scene from Raiders of the Lost Ark, so VCE turned to animation to complete the task. First, they drew muscular warriors in ghostly forms onto cels and printed the images onto film with an Oxberry animation stand and contact printer. The Oxberry was fitted with a used lens that introduced lens flares to the prints; VCE's intention with using the old lens was to make the resultant images of the ghosts seem as if they were of real-life objects filmed with a camera. The final composite was produced by passing the reels of film for the effects and the live-action sequences through a two-headed optical printer and capturing the results with a camera.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Music

Template:Listen Milius recruited his friend, Basil Poledouris, to produce the score for Conan; they had had a successful collaboration on Big Wednesday.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film industry's usual practice was to contract a composer to start work after the main scenes had been filmed, but Milius hired Poledouris before principal photography had started. The composer was given the opportunity to compose the film's music based on the initial storyboards and to modify it throughout filming before recording the score near the end of production.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Poledouris made extensive use of Musync, a music and tempo editing hardware and software system invented by Robert Randles (subsequently nominated for an Oscar for Scientific Achievement), to modify the tempo of his compositions and synchronize them with the action in the film. The system helped make his job easier and faster; it could automatically adjust tempos when the user changed the positioning of beats. In the montage where Conan grows up, for example, Poledouris had Randles prepare, over the phone, a long accelerando that landed on precise moments in the picture along the way. Poledouris would otherwise have had to conduct the orchestra and adjust his compositions on the fly.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan is the first film to list Musync in its credits.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Milius and Poledouris exchanged ideas throughout production, working out themes and "emotional tones" for each scene.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Poledouris, Milius envisioned Conan as an opera with little or no dialog;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Poledouris composed enough musical pieces for most of the film (approximately two hours' worth).Script error: No such module "Footnotes". This was his first large-scale orchestral score,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and a characteristic of his work here was that he frequently slowed down the tempo of the last two bars (segments of beats) before switching to the next piece of music.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Poledouris said the score uses a lot of fifths as its most primitive interval; thirds and sixths are introduced as the story progresses.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The composer visited the film sets several times during filming to see the imagery his music would accompany. After principal photography was completed, Milius sent him two copies of the edited film: one without music, and the other with its scenes set to works by Richard Wagner, Igor Stravinsky, and Sergei Prokofiev, to illustrate the emotional overtones he wanted.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Poledouris said he started working on the score by developing the melodic line—a pattern of musical ideas supported by rhythms. The first draft was a poem sung to the strumming of a guitar, composed as if Poledouris was a bard for the barbarian.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". This draft became the "Riddle of Steel",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". a composition played with "massive brass, strings, and percussion",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". which also serves as Conan's personal theme.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The music is first played when Conan's father explains the riddle to him. Laurence E. MacDonald, Professor of Music at Mott Community College, said the theme stirs up the appropriate emotions when it is repeated during Conan's vow to avenge his parents.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film's main musical theme, the "Anvil of Crom",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". which opens the film with "the brassy sound of twenty-four French horns in a dramatic intonation of the melody, while pounding drums add an incessantly driven rhythmic propulsion" is played again in several later scenes.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Poledouris completed the music that accompanies the attack on Conan's village at the beginning of the film in October 1981.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius initially wanted a chorus based on Carl Orff's Carmina Burana to herald the appearance of Doom and his warriors in this sequence. After learning that Excalibur (1981) had used Orff's work, he changed his mind and asked his composer for an original creation. Poledouris' theme for Doom consists of "energetic choral passages",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". chanted by the villain's followers to salute their leader and their actions in his name. The lyrics were composed in English and roughly translated into Latin;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Poledouris was "more concerned about the way the Latin words sounded than with the sense they actually made."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He set these words to a melody adapted from the 13th-century Gregorian hymn, Dies Irae,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". which was chosen to "communicate the tragic aspects of the cruelty wrought by Thulsa Doom."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The film's music mostly conveys a sense of power, energy, and brutality, yet there are tender moments.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The sounds of oboes and string instruments accompany Conan and Valeria's intimate scenes, imbuing them with a sense of lush romance and an emotional intensity. According to MacDonald, Poledouris deviated from the practice of scoring love scenes with tunes reminiscent of Romantic period pieces; instead, Poledouris made Conan and Valeria's melancholic love theme unique through his use of "minor-key harmony".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". David Morgan, a film journalist, heard Eastern influences in the "lilting romantic melodies".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Page Cook, audio critic for Films in Review, describes Conan the Barbarian's score as "a large canvas daubed with a colorful yet highly sensitive brush. There is innate intelligence behind Poledouris's scheme, and the pinnacles reached are often eloquent with haunting intensity."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

From late November 1981, Poledouris spent three weeks recording his score in Rome.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He engaged a 90-instrument orchestra and a 24-member choir from the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and the RAI National Symphony Orchestra,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and conducted them personally.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The pieces of music were orchestrated by Greig McRitchie, Poledouris's frequent collaborator.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The chorus and orchestra were recorded separately.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The 24 tracks of sound effects, music, and dialog were downmixed into a single-channel,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". making Conan the Barbarian the last film released by a major studio with a mono soundtrack.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Poledouris, Raffaella De Laurentiis balked at the cost ($30,000) of a stereo soundtrack and was worried over the paucity of theaters equipped with stereo sound systems.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Themes

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Riddle of Steel
The secret of steel has always carried with it a mystery. You must learn its riddle, little Conan. You must learn its discipline. For no one, no one in this world can you trust. Not men, not women, not beasts. [Points to sword] This you can trust.

Conan's father

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The central theme in Conan the Barbarian is the Riddle of Steel. At the start of the film, Conan's father tells his son to learn the secret of steel and to trust only it. Initially believing in the power of steel, Thulsa Doom raids Conan's village to steal the Master's sword. Subsequently, the story centers on Conan's quest to recover the weapon in which his father has told him to trust.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Weaponry fetish is a device long established in literature; Carl James Grindley, an assistant professor of English, said ancient works such as Homer's Iliad, the Old English poem Beowulf, and the 14th-century tale of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight pay detailed attention to the arsenal of their heroes.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Grindley further said that Conan the Barbarian, like most other contemporary action films, uses weapons as convenient plot devices rather than as symbols that mark the qualities of the hero.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". James Whitlark, an associate professor of English, said the Riddle of Steel makes the film's emphasis on the swords ironic; it gives the illusion that the weapons have powers of their own, but later reveals them to be useless and dependent on the strength of their wielders.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". In the later part of the film, Doom mocks steel, proclaiming the power of flesh to be stronger. When Conan recovers his father's sword, it is after he has broken it in the hands of Doom's lieutenant during their duel. According to Grindley, that moment—Conan's breaking of his father's sword—"[fulfills] a snickering spectrum of Oedipal conjecture" and asserts Homer's view that "the sword does not make the hero, but the hero makes the sword."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film, as Whitlark says, "offers a fantasy of human power raised beyond mortal limits."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Passman and other authors agree, stating the film suggests that human will and determination are in a Nietzschean sense stronger than physical might.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Another established literary trope found in the plot of Conan the Barbarian is the concept of death, followed by a journey into the underworld, and rebirth. Donald E. Palumbo, the Language and Humanities Chair at Lorain County Community College, noted that like most other sword and sorcery films, Conan used the motif of underground journeys to reinforce the themes of death and rebirth.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to him, the first scene to involve all three is after Conan's liberation: his flight from wild dogs sends him tumbling into a tomb where he finds a sword that lets him cut off his chains and stand with newfound power. In the later parts of the film, Conan experiences two underground journeys where death abounds: in the bowels of the Tower of Serpents where he has to fight a giant snake and in the depths of the Temple of Set where the cultists feast on human flesh while Doom transforms himself into a large serpent. Whereas Valeria dies and comes back from the dead (albeit briefly), Conan's ordeal from his crucifixion was symbolic. Although the barbarian's crucifixion might evoke Christian imagery,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". associations of the film with the religion are roundly rejected. Milius stated his film is full of pagan ideas, a sentiment supported by film critics such as ElleyScript error: No such module "Footnotes". and Jack Kroll.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". George Aichele, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and Religion at Adrian College, suggested the filmmaker's intent with the crucifixion scene was pure marketing: to tease the audience with religious connotations.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He, however, suggested that Conan's story can be viewed as an analogy of Christ's life and vice versa.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Nigel Andrews, a film critic, saw any connections to Christianity related more to the making of the film.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Siegfried and the Twilight of the Gods p 056.jpg

Conan's slaying of Doom's giant snake in the Tower of Serpents recalls Siegfried's slaying of Fafner the dragon (illustrated) in Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Milius's concept of Conan the Barbarian as an opera was picked up by the critics; Elley and Huckvale saw connections to Wagner's operas.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Huckvale, the film's opening sequence closely mirrors a sword forging scene in Siegfried. Conan's adventures and ordeals seem to be inspired by the trials of the opera's titular hero: witnessing his parents' deaths, growing up as a slave, and slaying a giant serpent—dragon. Furthermore, Schwarzenegger's appearance in the role of Conan evoked images of Siegfried, the role model of the "Aryan blonde beast", in the lecturer's mind.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The notion of racial superiority, symbolized by this Aryan hero, was a criticism given by J. Hoberman and James Wolcott; they highlighted the film's Nietzschean epigraph and labeled its protagonist as Nietzsche's übermensch.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Ebert was disturbed by the depiction of a "Nordic superman confronting a black", in which the "muscular blond" slices off the black man's head and "contemptuously [throws it] down the flight of stairs".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". His sentiment was shared by Adam Roberts, an Arthurian scholar, who also said Conan was an exemplar of the sword and sorcery films of the early 1980s that were permeated in various degrees with fascist ideology. According to Roberts, the films were following the ideas and aesthetics laid down in Leni Riefenstahl's directorial efforts for Nazi Germany. Roberts cautioned that any political readings into these sword and sorcery films with regards to fascism is subjective.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Film critic Richard Dyer said that such associations with Conan were inaccurate and influenced by misconceptions of Nietzschean philosophies,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and scholars of philosophy said that the film industry has often misinterpreted the ideas behind the übermensch.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Conan is also seen as a product of its time: The themes of the film reflect the political climate of the United States in the 1980s. Ronald Reagan was the country's president and the ideals of individualism were promoted during his two terms in office. He emphasized the moral worth of the individual in his speeches, encouraging his fellow Americans to make the country successful and to stand up against the Soviet Union during the Cold War.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Dr. Dave Saunders, a film writer and lecturer at South Essex College of Further and Higher Education, linked facets of Conan the Barbarian to aspects of ReaganismScript error: No such module "Footnotes".—the conservative ideology that surrounded the president's policies.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Saunders likened Conan's quest against Doom to the Americans' crusades,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". his choice of weaponry—swords—to Reagan's and Milius's fondness of resisting the Soviets with only spirit and simple weapons,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Doom's base of operations to the Kremlin.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan, in Saunder's interpretation, is portrayed as the American hero who draws strength from his trials and tribulations to slay the evil oppressors—the Soviets—and crush their un-American ways.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Douglas Kellner and his fellow academic Michael Ryan proposed another enemy for the American individual: an overly domineering federal government.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film's association with individualism was not confined to the United States; Jeffrey Richards, a cultural historian, noticed the film's popularity among the youths of the United Kingdom.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Robin Wood, a film critic, suggests that in most cases, there is only a thin veneer between individualism and fascism; he also said that Conan is the only film in that era to dispense with the disguise, openly celebrating its fascist ideals in a manner that would delight Riefenstahl.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

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"Conan shows a world where there are two kinds of men—one of which has long hair and gorgeous tits."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

F. X. Feeney from L.A. Weekly in 1982Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

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Sexual politics were also examined in thematic studies of the film. The feminist movement experienced a backlash during the opening years of the 1980s and action films then were helping to promote the notions of masculinity.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Women in these films were portrayed as whores, handmaidens, or warriors and clad in flesh-revealing outfits.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan gave its male audience a manly hero that overcame all odds and adversity, delivering them a fantasy that offered escape from the invasion of radical "strong feminist women" in their lives.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Renato Casaro's promotional artwork for the film's release in the United States presents a sexualized portrayal of the two main characters, Conan and Valeria.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Scantily clad in costumes cut in the styles of underwear, they wear long boots and sport their hair loose. While Conan strides forth in the picture with his sword held high, Valeria "squats in an impossible pose with her leather body-suit [in the shape of a teddy] forming a dark shape between her thighs".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Schubart, critics did not accept Valeria as a strong female figure, but viewed her as a "sexual spectacle"; to them, she was the traditional male warrior buddy in a sexy female body.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Release

In 1980, the producers began advertising to publicize the film. Teaser posters were put up in theaters across the United States. The posters reused Frazetta's artwork that was commissioned for the cover of Conan the Adventurer (1966).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Laurentiis wanted Conan the Barbarian to start playing in cinemas at Christmas, 1981,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". but Universal executives requested further editing after they previewed a preliminary version of the film in August. A Hollywood insider said the executives were concerned about the film's portrayal of violence. The premiere was delayed until the following year so changes could be made.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Many scenes were excised from Thulsa Doom's attack on Conan's village, including the close-up shots on the severed head of Conan's mother;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the late notice of the changes forced Poledouris to quickly adjust his score before recording music for the sequence.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Other scenes of violence that were cut included Subotai's slaying of a monster at the top of the Tower of Serpents and Conan chopping off a pickpocket's arm in a bazaar.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Milius intended to show a 140-minute story; the final release ran 129 minutes.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Cobb, the total production expenses approached $20 million by the time the film was released.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The United States' public were offered a sneak preview on February 19, 1982, in Houston, Texas. In the following month, previews were held in 30 cities across the country. In Washington D.C., the mass of moviegoers formed long lines that spanned streets, causing traffic jams. Tickets were quickly sold out in Denver, and 1,000 people had to be turned away in Houston. The majority of those in the lines were male; a moviegoer in Los Angeles said, "The audience was mostly white, clean-cut and high-school or college age. It was not the punk or heavy-leather crowd, but an awful lot of them had bulging muscles."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". On March 16, Conan the Barbarian had its worldwide premiere at Fotogramas de Plata, an annual cinema awards ceremony in Madrid,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and began its general release in Spain and France a month later.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Twentieth Century Fox handled the foreign distribution of the film.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Universal originally scheduled Conan's official release in the United States for the weekend before Memorial DayScript error: No such module "Footnotes".—the start of the film industry's summer season when schools close for a month-long holiday.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". To avoid competition with other big-budget, high-profile films, the studio advanced the release of Conan the Barbarian and on May 14, 1982, the film officially opened in 1,400 theaters across North America.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Home video

Conan the Barbarian has been released in several different versions on home video. As well as the 129-minute theatrical print, Universal distributed the film in 115-minute and 123-minute cuts on VHS in the 1980s. A slightly extended version was created for the film's special edition DVD release in 2000; it features two minutes of additional footage for a 131-minute running time.

Reception

Critical response

The media's reactions toward Conan were polarized. Aspects of the film heavily criticized by one side were regarded in a positive light by the other; Professor Gunden stated that "for every positive review the film garnered, it received two negative ones."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The opinions of Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times and Richard Schickel of Time magazine illustrate their colleagues' divided views. Ebert called Conan the Barbarian "a perfect fantasy for the alienated preadolescent",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". whereas Schickel said, "Conan is a sort of psychopathic Star Wars, stupid and stupefying."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Although reviews were mixed to negative at the time of the film's release, modern genre critics review the film more positively, giving the film an aggregate score of 70% on film review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, albeit with a score of 40% among "Top Critics".[7]

File:Hugh Rankin - Shadows in the Moonlight.jpg

Critics said there was too much violence in the movie, or the violence failed to match up to Howard's portrayals (as illustrated by Hugh Rankin in Weird Tales).

At the time Conan was released, the media were inclined to condemn Hollywood's portrayals of violence; typical action films showed the hero attaining his goals by killing all who stood in his way.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan was particularly condemned for its violent scenes,Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". which Newsweek's Jack Kroll called "cheerless and styleless".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". In one of his articles for the San Francisco Chronicle, Stu Schreiberg counted 50 people killed in various scenes.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Other film critics differed over the film's portrayal of violence. David Denby wrote in his review for New York magazine that the action scenes were one of the film's few positive features; however, exciting as the scenes were, those such as the decapitation of Conan's mother seemed inane.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". On the other hand, Vincent Canby, Carlos Clarens, and Pascal Mérigeau were unanimous in their opinion that the film's depicted violence failed to meet their expectations: the film's pacing and Howard's stories suggested more gory material.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Paul Sammon, Milius's cuts to assuage concerns over the violence made the scenes "cartoon-like".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Comparison with the source material also produced varying reactions among the critics. Danny Peary and Schickel expected a film based on pulp stories and comic books to be light-hearted or corny, and Milius's introduction of Nietzschean themes and ideology did not sit well with them.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Others were not impressed with Milius's handling of his ideas; James Wolcott called it heavy-handed and Kroll said the material lacked substance in its implementation.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The themes of individualism and paganism, however, resonated with many in the audience; the concept of a warrior who relies only on his own prowess and will to conquer the obstacles in his way found favor with young males.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Wolcott wrote in Texas Monthly that these themes appeal to "98-pound weaklings who want to kick sand into bullies' faces and win the panting adoration of a well-oiled beach bunny".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Kroll's opinion was that the audience loved the violence and carnage but were cynical about the "philosophical bombast."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". While popular with audiences, the theatrical treatment of the barbarian was rejected by hardcore fans and scholars of Howard's stories. A particular point of contention was the film's version of Conan's origin, which is at odds with Howard's hints about the character's youth.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Their point of view is supported by Kerry Brougher,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". but Derek Elley, Clarens, and Sammon said Milius was faithful to the ideology behind Howard's work.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Arnold Schwarzenegger's performance was frequently mentioned in the critiques.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Clarens, Peary, Gunden and Nigel Andrews were among those who gave positive assessments of the former bodybuilder's acting: to them, he was physically convincing as the barbarian in his body movements and appearance.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Andrews added that Schwarzenegger exuded a certain charm—with his accent mangling his dialog—that made the film appealing to his fans.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Fanfare's Royal S. Brown disagreed and was grateful that the actor's dialog amounted to "2 pages of typescript."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schickel summed up Schwarzenegger's acting as "flat",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". while Knoll was more verbose, characterizing the actor's portrayal as "a dull clod with a sharp sword, a human collage of pectorals and latissimi who's got less style and wit than Lassie."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". While Sandahl Bergman earned acclaim for injecting grace and dynamism into the film,Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the film's more experienced thespians were not spared criticisms. Gunden said von Sydow showed little dedication to his role,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Clarens judged Jones's portrayal of Thulsa Doom to be worse than camp.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Brougher faulted none of the actors for their performances, laying the blame on Milius's script instead.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Box office and other media

According to Rentrak Theatrical, a firm of media analysts, Conan debuted at the top spot at the US box office, taking $9,479,373 over the opening weekend.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".[nb 4] Rentrak's data on Conan covered 8 weeks after the film's release; during that period, Conan grossed $38,513,085 at the box office in the United States.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Universal Pictures received $22.5 million after deducting the amounts due to the cinema owners.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". This sum—the rentalScript error: No such module "Footnotes".—was more than the money Universal had invested in making the film, thus qualifying Conan as a commercial success; any further income from the film was pure profit for the studio.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Marian Christy, interviewer for the Boston Globe, mentioned that the film was a box office success in Europe and Japan as well.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Worldwide, Conan the Barbarian grossed $68,851,475 in ticket sales.[8]

David A. Cook, Professor of Film Studies at Emory University, said that Conan's North American performance fell short of the amount returned by blockbusters;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". the rentals of such films from their release in the continent were supposed to be least $50 million.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan's rental was the thirteenth highest for 1982Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and when combined with those for E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (the most successful film in that year with a rental of $187 million),Script error: No such module "Footnotes". On Golden Pond, and The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas—all distributed by Universal Pictures—constituted 30 percent of the year's total film rental. According to Arthur D. Murphy, a film-industry analyst, it was the first time that a single distributor captured such a substantial share of the film market.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The videocassette version of the film was released on October 2, 1982. Sales and rental figures of the videocassette were high; from its launch, the title was listed in Billboard's Videocassette Top 40 (Sales and Rental categories) for 23 weeks.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Sammon, sales of the film through frequent home video releases increased the film's gross earnings to more than $300 million by 2007.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan the Barbarian was novelized by Lin Carter and the de Camps (L. Sprague and his wife, Catherine).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". It was also adapted by Marvel in comic form;[nb 5] scripted by Michael Fleisher and drawn by John Buscema, the comic was one of the rarest paperbacks published by the company.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Accolades

Conan the Barbarian did not receive any film awards, but the Hollywood Foreign Press Association noted Bergman's performance as Valeria and awarded her a Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year—Actress.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Poledouris's score was judged by Films in Review's Page Cook as the second best sound track of the films released in 1982.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The film was nominated for a Razzie Award for Worst Actor for Arnold Schwarzenegger.[9]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Legacy and impact

Whereas most comic book and pulp adaptations were box office failures in the 1980s, Conan the Barbarian was one of the few that made a profit.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Sammon, it became the standard against which sword and sorcery films were measured until the debut of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring in 2001;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". several contemporary films of the same genre were judged by critics to be clones of Conan,Script error: No such module "Footnotes". such as The Beastmaster (1982).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Conan's success inspired low-budget copycats, such as Ator, the Fighting Eagle (1982) and Deathstalker (1983).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Its sequel, Conan the Destroyer, was produced and released in 1984; only a few of those involved in the first film, such as Schwarzenegger, Mako, and Poledouris, returned.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Later big- and small-screen adaptations of Robert E. Howard's stories were considered by Sammon to be inferior to the film that started the trend.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". A spinoff from Conan was a 20-minute live-action show, The Adventures of Conan: A Sword and Sorcery Spectacular, that ran from 1983 to 1993 at Universal Studios Hollywood. Produced at a cost of $5 million, the show featured action scenes executed to music composed by Poledouris.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The show's highlights were pyrotechnics, lasers, and an Script error: No such module "convert". tall animatronic dragon that breathed fire.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

File:Dino de laurentiis crop.jpg

Producer Dino De Laurentiis (2009 photograph) profited from Conan, but had less success with his later films.

Several of those involved in the film reaped short-term benefits. Sandahl Bergman's Golden Globe for her role as Valeria marks her greatest achievement in the film industry; her later roles failed to gain her further recognition.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Dino De Laurentiis had produced a string of box office failures since the success of King Kong in 1976; it appeared Conan the Barbarian might be a turning point in his fortunes. The sequel was also profitable, but many of De Laurentiis' later big-budget projects did not recoup their production costs and he was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1988.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". For John Milius, Conan the Barbarian is his "biggest directorial success" to date;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". his subsequent endeavors failed to equal its success and popularity.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Pressman did not receive any money from Conan's box office takings, but he sold the film rights for the Conan franchise to De Laurentiis for $4.5 million and 10 percent of the gross of any sequel to Conan the Barbarian.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The sale more than paid off his company's debts incurred from producing Old Boyfriends, saving him from financial ruin;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Pressman said this deal "made [him] more money by selling out, by not making a movie, than [he] ever have made by making one."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He also arranged for Mattel to obtain the rights to produce a range of toys for the film. Although the toy company abandoned the license after its executives decided Conan was "too violent" for children, Pressman convinced them to let him produce a film based on their new Masters of the Universe toy line.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The eponymous film cost $20 million to produce and grossed $17 million at the United States box office in 1987.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Those who benefited most from the project were Basil Poledouris and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Poledouris's reputation in the film industry increased with the critical acclaim his score received;Script error: No such module "Footnotes". MacDonald noted Poledouris's work on Conan as "one of the most spectacular film music achievements of the decade",Script error: No such module "Footnotes". and Page Cook named it as the only reason to watch the film and as the second best film sound track (after E.T.'s) for 1982.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". After hearing Conan's music, Paul Verhoeven engaged Poledouris to score his films, Flesh and Blood (1985), RoboCop (1987) and Starship Troopers (1997).Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The music in Verhoeven's Total Recall (1990) also bore the influence of Conan's score; its composer, Jerry Goldsmith, used Poledouris's work as the model for his compositions.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

Conan brought Schwarzenegger worldwide recognition as an action starScript error: No such module "Footnotes". and established the model for most of his film roles: "icy, brawny, and inexpressive—yet somehow endearing."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". The image of him as the barbarian was an enduring one; when he campaigned for George H. W. Bush to be president, he was introduced as "Conan the Republican"Script error: No such module "Footnotes".—a moniker that stuck with him throughout his political career and was often repeated by the media during his term as Governor of California.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Schwarzenegger was aware of the benefits the film had brought to him, acknowledging the role of Conan as "God's gift to [his] career."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". He embraced the image: when he was Governor of California, he displayed his copy of the Atlantean sword in his office, occasionally flourishing the weapon at visitors and letting them play with it.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". More than once, he spiced up his speeches with Conan's "crush your enemies, see them driven before you and hear the lamentations of their women".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".

The film's soundtrack, "Riders of Doom", was used in the commercials for the adventure video game The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, and its remake.

Sequels

Script error: No such module "anchor". Conan the Destroyer was released in 1984, with Schwarzenegger and Mako reprising their roles. A planned third entry in the trilogy, Conan the Conqueror was previewed at the end of Destroyer. Conqueror was planned for 1987 release, but which never came to fruition. An derivation of the script was adapted to become the 1997 film, Kull the Conqueror.

In October 2012, Universal Pictures announced plans for Schwarzenegger to return to the role of Conan for the film The Legend of Conan. The story will be a direct sequel of the original film, "bypassing" Conan the Destroyer and the 2011 film starring Jason Momoa.[13][14] In June 2013, Schwarzenegger said he still had plans to make The Legend of Conan, but after Terminator Genisys, which began shooting in 2014.[15] In October 2013, Deadline reported that Andrea Berloff was to write the film's script.[16] In February 2015, IGN reported that Will Beall was writing the script.[17] On May 24, 2015, Chris Morgan told The Arnold Fans website that the film's script is ready and revealed that at least three characters from the first film will be returning.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes". In early 2016, Schwarzenegger expressed enthusiasm for the completed script and reaffirmed his interest in starring in the film, saying "Interest is high . . . but we are not rushing."Script error: No such module "Footnotes". Fredrik Malmberg told Deadline.com in an interview that the sequel could lead to a cinematic universe of Howard's creations for film and TV.[18]Script error: No such module "Footnotes". On January 28, 2016, Schwarzenegger confirmed that the third film would be Conan the Conqueror. He revealed the details about the film at a Q&A event in Scotland.Script error: No such module "Footnotes". According to Sandy Schaefer writing for Screenrant.com in August 2016 the script is collaboratively honed by Chris Morgan and Will Beall.[19]

Notes

  1. The original English quote, as translated by Sir Henry Hoyle Howorth in 1876 from Abraham Constantin Mouradgea d'Ohsson's French version of Genghis Khan's speech: "The greatest pleasure is to vanquish your enemies, to chase them before you, to rob them of their wealth, to see those dear to them bathed in tears, to ride their horses, to clasp to your bosom their wives and daughters."Script error: No such module "Footnotes".Script error: No such module "Footnotes".
  2. The US dollar figure is derived from the exchange rate (82.7500) between the currency and the peseta on January 31, 1981.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".
  3. In the surroundings of La Cerca, near the villages of Solosancho, Robledillo and La Hija de Dios.[5]
  4. The average price for a movie ticket in 1982 was $2.94.Script error: No such module "Footnotes".
  5. Further details of the comic: Script error: No such module "Citation/CS1".

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References

  1. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  2. 2.0 2.1 PRODUCER New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] September 20, 1987: SMA65
  3. MILIUS: MIGHT MAKES A RITE: JOHN MILIUS Pollock, Dale. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] May 14, 1982: h1.
  4. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  5. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
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  7. "Conan the Barbarian (1982)" (film reviews). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  8. [1]
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  14. Cornet, Roth (January 29, 2014). "The Legend of Conan Producer Chris Morgan Says Arnold Schwarzenegger's Return to the Role is Going to be Their Unforgiven." IGN.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  15. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  16. ‘Legend Of Conan’ Lands Andrea Berloff To Script Arnold Schwarzenegger Epic Reprise
  17. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  18. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  19. Legend of Conan Writer Teases Opening Shot & ‘Worthy’ Conan Sequel, Susan Schaefer, 08/16/2016.

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Sources

Books

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Essays and journals

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Newspaper and magazine articles

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Interviews

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Online

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  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1". This is an online version of the article in Script error: No such module "Citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  • Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".

External links

Script error: No such module "Side box".

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Script error: No such module "Authority control".Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".

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