Culture Wikia

A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy, but many contain an element of chance; and some are purely chance, with no element of skill.

Games usually have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most modern board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points.

There are many varieties of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme (e.g., checkers), to having a specific theme and narrative (e.g., Cluedo). Rules can range from the very simple (e.g., Tic-tac-toe), to those describing a game universe in great detail (e.g., Dungeons & Dragons) – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario.

The time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game, but it's not necessarily correlated with the number or complexity of rules; games like chess or go possess relatively simple rulesets, but have great strategic depth.[1]

Contents 1 History 1.1 Ancient board games 1.2 Europe 1.3 United States 1.4 21st century 2 Luck, strategy, and diplomacy 3 Board games and other media 4 Market 5 Research into gaming 6 Categories 7 Glossary 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


Ancient board games

Woman Playing Go, Astana Cemetery, Turpan (c. 744)

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Board games have been played in most cultures and societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites, artifacts, and documents shed light on early board games such as: Jiroft civilization gameboards[2] Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively;[3] the oldest board game known to have existed, Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300–2700 BC)[4][5] Mehen, also from Predynastic Egypt Go, originating in China Liubo, also originating in China Patolli, originating in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec Royal Game of Ur, the Royal Tombs of Ur contain this game, among others, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago[6] Buddha games list, the earliest known list of games Pachisi and Chaupar, of India

Senet, one of the oldest known board games

The game of astronomical tables, from Libro de los juegos

Knossos, New Palace period 1600–1500 BC[7]

Ancient Greek hoplites playing a board game, c. 520 BC, Olympia, Greece

A gameboard found in the Jiroft civilization


Further information: German-style board game § History

French earthenware tray and board game, 1720–50

The screene of fortune here behold, British fortune-telling game, c. 1650–1750

United States

In seventeenth and eighteenth century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts (checkers), bowling, and card games were not unknown. The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, and pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, and told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes.

In Thoughts on Lotteries (1826) Thomas Jefferson wrote:

Almost all these pursuits of chance [i.e., of human industry] produce something useful to society. But there are some which produce nothing, and endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, dice, billiards, etc. And although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, and the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, infancy, imbecility, etc., and suppress the pursuit altogether, and the natural right of following it. There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, and injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, lotteries, raffles, etc. These they do not suppress, but take their regulation under their own discretion.

The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller’s Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States.[6]

As the United States shifted from agrarian to urban living in the nineteenth century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment, enlightenment, and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction.[8]

The earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness (1843), for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness (Heaven).[8] The Game of Pope or Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army (1844) pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence, temperance, and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and...grief at the daily loss of empire".[9]

Game of the District Messenger Boy (1886) Commercially produced board games in the mid-nineteenth century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of relatively inexpensive board games. The most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games.

American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when Americans embraced materialism and capitalism. The accumulation of material goods was viewed as a divine blessing. In 1860, The Checkered Game of Life rewarded players for mundane activities such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich. Daily life rather than eternal life became the focus of board games. The game was the first to focus on secular virtues rather than religious virtues,[8] and sold 40,000 copies its first year.[10]

Game of the District Messenger Boy, or Merit Rewarded, published in 1886 by the New York City firm of McLoughlin Brothers, was one of the first board games based on materialism and capitalism published in the United States. The game is a typical roll-and-move track board game. Players move their tokens along the track at the spin of the arrow toward the goal at track's end. Some spaces on the track will advance the player while others will send him back.

In the affluent 1880s, Americans witnessed the publication of Algeresque rags to riches games that permitted players to emulate the capitalist heroes of the age. One of the first such games, The Game of the District Messenger Boy, encouraged the idea that the lowliest messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to its topmost rung. Such games insinuated that the accumulation of wealth brought increased social status.[8] Competitive capitalistic games culminated in 1935 with Monopoly, the most commercially successful board game in United States history.[11]

McLoughlin Brothers published similar games based on the telegraph boy theme including Game of the Telegraph Boy, or Merit Rewarded (1888). Greg Downey notes in his essay, "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy" that families who could afford the deluxe version of the game in its chromolithographed, wood-sided box would not "have sent their sons out for such a rough apprenticeship in the working world."[12]

Margaret Hofer described the period of 1880s–1920s as "The Golden Age" of board gaming in America.[6] Board games popularity was boosted, like that of many items, through mass production, which made them cheaper and more easily available to the populace.[13] Through there are no detailed statistics, some scholars suggest that the 20th century saw a decline in the popularity of the hobby.[13]

21st century

Board games published by year (1900–2014), as listed on BoardGameGeek. Expansions are marked in red.

The late 1990s onwards have seen substantial growth in the reach and market of board games. This has been attributed to, among other factors, the Internet, which has made it easier for people to find out about games and to find opponents to play against.[13] Around the year 2000 the board gaming industry began significant growth with companies producing a rising number of new games to be sold to a growing worldwide audience.[14] In the 2010s, a number of publications referred to the board games as having a new Golden Age.[14][15] Board game venues are also growing in popularity; for example the board game cafes are reported to be very popular in China.[16]

Luck, strategy, and diplomacy[]

Some games, such as chess, depend completely on player skill, while many children's games such as Candy Land and Snakes and Ladders require no decisions by the players and are decided purely by luck.[17]

Many games require some level of both skill and luck. A player may be hampered by bad luck in backgammon, Monopoly, Risk; but over many games a skilled player will win more often[18] and the elements of luck can make for more excitement, and more diverse and multifaceted strategies, as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered.

Luck may be introduced into a game by a number of methods. The use of dice of various sorts goes back to the earliest board games. These can decide everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, to how their forces fare in battle, as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, as in The Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. German-style board games are notable for often having less luck element than many North American board games.

Another important aspect of some games is diplomacy, that is, players making deals with one another. Negotiation generally features only in games with three or more players, cooperative games being the exception. An important facet of The Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing players to trade with you rather than with opponents. In Risk, two or more players may team up against others. Easy diplomacy involves convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Advanced diplomacy (e.g. in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with the possibility of betrayal.[19]

In a perfect information games like chess each player has complete information on the state of the game, but in other games, such as Tigris and Euphrates or Stratego, some information is hidden from players. This makes finding the best move more difficult, and may involve estimating probabilities by the opponents.

Board games and other media[]

Many board games are now available as video games, which can include the computer itself as one of several players, or as a sole opponent. Many board games can now be played online against a computer and/or other players. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move.[20] The internet and cheaper home printing has also influenced board games via print-and-play games that may be purchased and printed.[21] Some games use external media such as audio cassettes or DVDs in accompaniment to the game.[22][23]


The modern German board game The Settlers of Catan is printed in 30 languages and sold 15 million by 2009.

While the board gaming market is estimated to be smaller than that for video games, it has also experienced significant growth from the late 1990s.[15] A 2012 article in The Guardian described board games as "making a comeback".[24] Another from 2014 gave an estimate that put the growth of the board game market at "between 25% and 40% annually" since 2010, and described the current time as the "golden era for board games".[15] The rise in board game popularity has been attributed to quality improvement (more elegant mechanics and graphics) as well as increased availability thanks to sales through the Internet.[15]

A 1991 estimate for the global board game market was over $1.2 billion.[25] A 2001 estimate for the United States "board games and puzzle" market gave the value of under $400 million, and for United Kingdom, of about £50 million.[26] A 2009 estimate for the Korean market was put at 800 million won,[27] and another estimate for the American board game market for the same year was at about $800 million.[28] A 2011 estimate for the Chinese board game market was at over 10 billion yuan.[29] (Some estimates may split board games from collectible card, miniature and role-playing games; for example another 2014 estimate distinguishing board games from other types of hobby games gave the estimate for US and Canada market at only $75 million, with the total size of what it defined as the hobby game market at over $700 million,[30] with a 2015 estimate suggesting a value of almost $900 million[31]) A 2013 estimate put the size of the German toy market at 2.7 billion euro (out of which, board games and puzzle market is worth about 375 million euro), and Polish markets, at 2 billion and 280 million złoties, respectively.[32] Per capita, in 2009 Germany was considered to be the best market, with the highest number of games sold per individual.[33]

Research into gaming[]

Board games serve diverse interests. Above: Konane, for studious competition. Right: Konane for lighthearted fun.

A dedicated field of research into gaming exists, known as game studies or ludology.

While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games (e.g., chess, Go, mancala), less has been done on contemporary board games such as Monopoly, Scrabble, and Risk.[34] Much research has been carried out on chess, in part because many tournament players are publicly ranked in national and international lists, which makes it possible to compare their levels of expertise. The works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase, Herbert A. Simon, and Fernand Gobet have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing.[citation needed]

Linearly arranged board games have been shown to improve children's spatial numerical understanding. This is because the game is similar to a number line in that they promote a linear understanding of numbers rather than the innate logarithmic one.[35]

Research studies show that board games such as Chutes and Ladders result in children showing significant improvements in aspects of basic number skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, numerical estimation and number comprehension. They also practice fine motor skills each time they grasp a game piece.[36] Playing board games has also been tied to improving children's executive skills.[37]

Additionally, board games can be therapeutic. Bruce Halpenny, a games inventor said when interviewed about his game, The Great Train Robbery:

With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action with melodrama. The player’s imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build up of tension, which is immediately released once the train is robbed. Release of tension is therapeutic and useful in our society, because most jobs are boring and repetitive.[38]

Playing games have been suggested as a viable addition to traditional educational curriculum.[39]


There are a number of ways in which board games can be classified,[6] and considerable overlap may exist, so that a game belong in several categories.[6] The following is a list of some of the most common:

Abstract strategy games – e.g. chess, checkers, Go, Reversi, tafl games, or modern games such as Abalone, Stratego, Hive, or GIPF Alignment games – e.g. Renju, Gomoku, Connect6, Nine Men's Morris, or Tic-tac-toe Auction games – e.g. Hoity Toity Chess variants – traditional variants e.g. shogi, xiangqi, or janggi; modern variants e.g. Chess960, Grand chess, Hexagonal chess, or Alice chess Configuration games – e.g. Lines of Action, Hexade, or Entropy Connection games – e.g. TwixT, Hex, or Havannah Cooperative games – e.g. Max the Cat, Caves and Claws, or Pandemic Count and capture games – e.g. mancala games Cross and circle games – e.g. Yut, Ludo, or Aggravation Deduction games – e.g. Mastermind or Black Box

The abstract strategy game GIPFDexterity games – e.g. Tumblin' Dice or Pitch Car

Economic simulation games – e.g. The Business Game, Monopoly, or The Game of Life Educational games – e.g. Arthur Saves the Planet, Cleopatra and the Society of Architects, or Shakespeare: The Bard Game Elimination games – e.g. draughts, Alquerque, Fanorona, Yoté, or Surakarta Family games – e.g. Roll Through the Ages, Birds on a Wire, or For Sale Fantasy games – e.g. Shadows Over Camelot German-style board games or Eurogames – e.g. The Settlers of Catan, Carcassonne, Decatur • The Game, Carson City, or Puerto Rico Guessing games – e.g. Pictionary or Battleship Hidden-role games - e.g. Mafia (game) or The Resistance Historical simulation games – e.g. Through the Ages or Railways of the World Large multiplayer games – e.g. Take It Easy or Swat (2010) Learning/communication non-competitive games – e.g. The Ungame (1972) Mancala games – e.g. Wari, Oware, or The Glass Bead Game Multiplayer games – e.g. Risk, Monopoly, or Four-player chess Musical games – e.g. Spontuneous Negotiation games – e.g. Diplomacy Paper-and-pencil games – e.g. Tic-tac-toe or Dots and Boxes Physical skill games – e.g. Camp Granada Position games (no captures; win by leaving the opponent unable to move) – e.g. Konane, mū tōrere, or the L game Race games – e.g. Pachisi, backgammon, Snakes and Ladders, Hyena chase, or Worm Up Role-playing game - e.g. Dungeons & Dragons Roll-and-move games – e.g. Monopoly or Life Share-buying games (games in which players buy stakes in each other's positions) – typically longer economic-management games - Acquire or Panamax Single-player puzzle games – e.g. peg solitaire or Sudoku Spiritual development games (games with no winners or losers) – e.g. Transformation Game or Psyche's Key Story telling games – e.g. Dixit or Tales of the Arabian Nights Stacking games – e.g. Lasca or DVONN Territory games – e.g. Go or Reversi Tile-based games – e.g. Carcassonne, Scrabble, Tigris and Euphrates, or Evo Train games – e.g. Ticket to Ride, Steam, or 18xx Trivia games – e.g. Trivial Pursuit Two-player-only themed games – e.g. En Garde or Dos de Mayo Unequal forces (or "hunt") games – e.g. Fox and Geese or Tablut Wargames – ranging from Risk, Diplomacy, or Axis & Allies, to Attack! or Conquest of the Empire Word games – e.g. Scrabble, Boggle, Anagrams, or What's My Word? (2010)


Further information: Glossary of board games

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

See also[]

BoardGameGeek—a board game community and website database Going Cardboard—a documentary, including interviews with game designers and game publishers History of games Interactive movie—DVD games List of board games List of game manufacturers Mind sport Snakes and Lattes—a board game café


1.Jump up ^ "Chess itself is a simple game to learn but its resulting strategy is profound." Pritchard, D. B. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. p. 84. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. 2.Jump up ^ Madjidzadeh, Y (2003) Jiroft, The earliest oriental civilization. Organization of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Tehran 3.Jump up ^ Piccione, Peter A. (July–August 1980). "In Search of the Meaning of Senet". Archaeology: 55–58. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 4.Jump up ^ "Okno do svita deskovych her". 1998-04-27. Retrieved 2010-02-12.[dead link] 5.Jump up ^ Pivotto, Carlos; et al. "Detection of Negotiation Profile and Guidance to more Collaborative Approaches through Negotiation Games" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-10-02. 6.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Jason R. Edwards, Saving Families, One Game at a Time 7.Jump up ^ Board game with inlays of ivory, rock crystal and glass paste, covered with gold and silver leaf, on a wooden base (Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete) 8.^ Jump up to: a b c d Jensen, Jennifer (2003). "Teaching Success Through Play: American Board and Table Games, 1840-1900". Magazine Antiques. bnet. Retrieved 2009-02-07.[dead link] 9.Jump up ^ Fessenden, Tracy (2007). Culture and Redemption: Religion, the Secular, and American Literature. Princeton University Press. p. 271. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 10.Jump up ^ Hofer, Margaret K. (2003). The Games We Played: The Golden Age of Board & Table Games. Princeton Architectural Press. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 11.Jump up ^ Weber, Susan & Susie McGee (n.d.). "History of the Game Monopoly". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 12.Jump up ^ Downey, Greg (November 1999). "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy". Antenna. Mercurians. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 13.^ Jump up to: a b c Damian Gareth Walker (5 November 2014). A Book of Historic Board Games. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-326-03480-1. 14.^ Jump up to: a b Smith, Quinti (October 2012). "The Board Game Golden Age". Retrieved 2013-05-10. 15.^ Jump up to: a b c d Duffy, Owen. "Board games' golden age: sociable, brilliant and driven by the internet". the Guardian. 16.Jump up ^ "Six Reasons China Loves Board Game Cafés". Flamingo. Retrieved 2016-04-22. 17.Jump up ^ "The case against Candy Land", Jan 26, 2009, 18.Jump up ^ "Luck vs. Skill in Backgammon", 19.Jump up ^ "Lying and Cheating by the Rules" Joseph McLellan, June 2, 1986, The Washington Post 20.Jump up ^ "U3a International Chess by Email". Retrieved 2014-10-08. 21.Jump up ^ "Print & Play". Retrieved 2014-10-08. 22.Jump up ^ "DVD Board Games". Retrieved 2014-10-08. 23.Jump up ^ "Audio Cassette Board Games". Retrieved 2014-10-08. 24.Jump up ^ Freeman, Will. "Why board games are making a comeback". the Guardian. 25.Jump up ^ Scanlon, Jennifer (2001). "Board games". In Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat. The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2. 26.Jump up ^ "So you've invented a board game. Now what?". 27.Jump up ^ "Educational Games Getting Popular". The Korea Times. 2009-07-22. 28.Jump up ^ "Monopoly, Candy Land May Offer Refuge to Families in Recession".[dead link] 29.Jump up ^ "Chinese Board Game Market Overview - LP Board Game". LP Board Game. 30.Jump up ^ "Hobby Games Market Hits $700M". ICv2. 31.Jump up ^ "HOBBY GAMES MARKET CLIMBS TO $880 MILLION". ICv2. 32.Jump up ^ "Pamiętacie Eurobiznes? Oto wielki powrót gier planszowych, dla których oni zarywają noce". 2013-04-16. 33.Jump up ^ "Monopoly Killer: Perfect German Board Game Redefines Genre". WIRED. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 34.Jump up ^ Gobet, Fernand; de Voogt, Alex; Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-336-7. 35.Jump up ^ "Playing Linear Number Board Games—But Not Circular Ones—Improves Low-Income Preschoolers' Numerical Understanding" (PDF). 36.Jump up ^ LeFebvre, J.E. "Parenting the preschooler" (PDF). UW Extension. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 37.Jump up ^ "How Family Game Night Makes Kids Into Better Students". Retrieved 23 April 2015. 38.Jump up ^ Stealing the show. Toy Retailing News, Volume 2 Number 4 (December 1976), p. 2 39.Jump up ^ Harris, Christopher (n.d.). "Meet the New School Board: Board Games Are Back--And They're Exactly What Your Curriculum Needs". School Library Journal. 55 (5): 24–26. ISSN 0362-8930. Retrieved 23 April 2015.

Further reading[]

Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271 Bell, R. C. (1983). The Boardgame Book. Exeter Books. ISBN 0-671-06030-9. Bell, R. C. (1979) [1st Pub. 1960, Oxford University Press, London]. Board and Table Games From Many Civilizations. I (Revised ed.). Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-671-06030-9. Bell, R. C. (1979) [1st Pub. 1969, Oxford University Press, London]. Board and Table Games From Many Civilizations. II (Revised ed.). Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-671-06030-9. Diagram Group (1975). Midgley, Ruth, ed. The Way to Play. Paddington Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8467-0060-3. Falkener, Edward (1961) [1892]. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-20739-0. Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. Gobet, Fernand; de Voogt, Alex & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-336-7. Golladay, Sonja Musser, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007) Gordon, Stewart (July–August 2009). "The Game of Kings". Saudi Aramco World. Houston: Aramco Services Company. 60 (4): 18–23. (PDF version) Grunfeld, Frederic V. (1975). Games of the World. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-015261-5. Mohr, Merilyn Simonds (1997). The New Games Treasury. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 1-57630-058-7. Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess (Reissued ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827403-3. Murray, H. J. R. (1978). A History of Board-Games other than Chess (Reissued ed.). Hacker Art Books Inc. ISBN 0-87817-211-4. Parlett, David (1999). The Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press Inc. ISBN 0-19-212998-8. Pritchard, D. B. (1982). Brain Games. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-00-5682-3. Pritchard, David (1994). The Family Book of Games. Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-021-9. Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May 1992), pp. 1–5. Sackson, Sid (1983) [1st Pub. 1969, Random House, New York]. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books. ISBN 0-09-153340-6. Schmittberger, R. Wayne (1992). New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0471536215. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-517-12955-8

External links[]

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