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2021

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  2020 (Wednesday)
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[[Category:Script error: No such module "pagetype". with short description]]Script error: No such module "Check for unknown parameters".Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Script error: No such module "SDcat".August 19 is the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". day of the year (Script error: No such module "Ordinal". in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 134 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

  • 295 BC – The first temple to Venus, the Roman goddess of love, beauty and fertility, is dedicated by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges during the Third Samnite War.[1]
  • 43 BCGaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul.
  • 947Abu Yazid, a Kharijite rebel leader, is defeated and killed in the Hodna Mountains in modern-day Algeria by Fatimid forces.
  • 1153Baldwin III of Jerusalem takes control of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from his mother Melisende, and also captures Ascalon.
  • 1458Pope Pius II is elected the 211th Pope.[2]
  • 1504 – In Ireland, the Hiberno-Norman de Burghs (Burkes) and Anglo-Norman Fitzgeralds fight in the Battle of Knockdoe.[3]
  • 1561Mary, Queen of Scots, aged 18, returns to Scotland after spending 13 years in France.[4]
  • 1612 – The "Samlesbury witches", three women from the Lancashire village of Samlesbury, England, are put on trial, accused of practicing witchcraft, one of the most famous witch trials in British history.
  • 1666Second Anglo-Dutch War: Rear Admiral Robert Holmes leads a raid on the Dutch island of Terschelling, destroying 150 merchant ships, an act later known as "Holmes's Bonfire".
  • 1692Salem witch trials: In Salem, Province of Massachusetts Bay, five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.
  • 1745 – Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard in Glenfinnan: The start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion, known as "the 45".
  • 1745 – Ottoman–Persian War: In the Battle of Kars, the Ottoman army is routed by Persian forces led by Nader Shah.
  • 1759Battle of Lagos Naval battle during the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France.
  • 1772Gustav III of Sweden stages a coup d'état, in which he assumes power and enacts a new constitution that divides power between the Riksdag and the King.
  • 1782American Revolutionary War: Battle of Blue Licks: The last major engagement of the war, almost ten months after the surrender of the British commander Charles Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown.
  • 1812War of 1812: American frigate Template:Ship defeats the British frigate Template:HMS off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning the nickname "Old Ironsides".
  • 1813Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's Second Triumvirate.
  • 1839 – The French government announces that Louis Daguerre's photographic process is a gift "free to the world".
  • 1848California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January).
  • 1854 – The First Sioux War begins when United States Army soldiers kill Lakota chief Conquering Bear and in return are massacred.
  • 1861 – First ascent of Weisshorn, fifth highest summit in the Alps.
  • 1862American Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way.
  • 1909 – The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opens for automobile racing. Wilfred Bourque and his mechanic are killed during the first day's events.[5]
  • 1920 – The Tambov Rebellion breaks out, in response to the Bolshevik policy of Prodrazvyorstka.[6]
  • 1927Patriarch Sergius of Moscow proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet Union.
  • 1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1934 – The German referendum of 1934 approves Hitler's appointment as head of state with the title of Führer.
  • 1936 – The Great Purge of the Soviet Union begins when the first of the Moscow Trials is convened.
  • 1940 – First flight of the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber.
  • 1941Germany and Romania sign the Tiraspol Agreement, rendering the region of Transnistria under control of the latter.[7]
  • 1942World War II: Operation Jubilee: The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an amphibious assault by allied forces on Dieppe, France and fails, many Canadians are killed or captured. The operation was intended to develop and try new amphibious landing tactics for the coming full invasion in Normandy.
  • 1944 – World War II: Liberation of Paris: Paris, France rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops.
  • 1945August Revolution: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 1953Cold War: The CIA and MI6 help to overthrow the government of Mohammad Mosaddegh in Iran and reinstate the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
  • 1955 – In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives.
  • 1960 – Cold War: In Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.
  • 1960 – Sputnik program: Korabl-Sputnik 2: The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants.
  • 1964Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, is launched. Two months later, it would enable live coverage of the 1964 Summer Olympics.
  • 1965Japanese prime minister Eisaku Satō becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa Prefecture.
  • 1978 – In Iran, Cinema Rex fire caused more than 400 deaths.
  • 1980Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people.
  • 1980 – Otłoczyn railway accident: In Poland's worst post-war railway accident, 67 people lose their lives and a further 62 are injured.[8]
  • 1981Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra.
  • 1987Hungerford massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with a semi-automatic rifle and then commits suicide.
  • 1989 – Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist prime minister in 42 years.
  • 1989 – Several hundred East Germans cross the frontier between Hungary and Austria during the Pan-European Picnic, part of the events that began the process of the Fall of the Berlin Wall.
  • 1991Dissolution of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Ukraine.
  • 1991 – Crown Heights riot begins.[9]
  • 1999 – In Belgrade, Yugoslavia, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević.
  • 2002Khankala Mi-26 crash: A Russian Mil Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 – A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sérgio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2003 – A suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem, Israel, planned by Hamas, kills 23 Israelis, seven of them children, in the Shmuel HaNavi bus bombing.
  • 2005 – The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.
  • 2009 – A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others.
  • 2010Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams crossing the border to Kuwait.
  • 2013 – The Dhamara Ghat train accident kills at least 37 people in the Indian state of Bihar.
  • 2017 – Tens of thousands of farmed non-native Atlantic salmon are accidentally released into the wild in Washington waters in the 2017 Cypress Island Atlantic salmon pen break.

Births

  • 232Marcus Aurelius Probus, Roman emperor (d. 282)[10]
  • 1342Catherine of Bohemia, duchess of Austria (d. 1395)
  • 1398Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana, Spanish poet and politician (d. 1458)[11]
  • 1557Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608) Script error: No such module "Unsubst".
  • 1570Salamone Rossi, Italian violinist and composer (probable;[12] d. 1630)
  • 1583Daišan, Chinese prince and statesman (d. 1648)
  • 1590Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire (d. 1649)
  • 1596Elizabeth Stuart, queen of Bohemia (d. 1662)
  • 1621Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter, etcher, and poet (d. 1674)
  • 1631John Dryden, English poet, literary critic and playwright (d. 1700)
  • 1646John Flamsteed, English astronomer and academic (d. 1719)
  • 1686Eustace Budgell, English journalist and politician (d. 1737)
  • 1689 (baptized) – Samuel Richardson, English author and publisher (d. 1761)[13]
  • 1711Edward Boscawen, English admiral and politician (d. 1761)
  • 1719Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1791)
  • 1743Madame du Barry, French mistress of Louis XV of France (d. 1793)[14]
  • 1777Francis I, king of the Two Sicilies (d. 1830)
  • 1815Harriette Newell Woods Baker, American editor and children's book writer (d. 1893)[15]
  • 1819Julius van Zuylen van Nijevelt, Luxembourger-Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 1894)
  • 1830Julius Lothar Meyer, German chemist (d. 1895)
  • 1835Tom Wills, Australian cricketer and pioneer of Australian rules football (d. 1880)
  • 1843C. I. Scofield, American minister and theologian (d. 1921)
  • 1846Luis Martín, Spanish religious leader, 24th Superior General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1906)
  • 1848Gustave Caillebotte, French painter and engineer (d. 1894)
  • 1849Joaquim Nabuco, Brazilian politician and diplomat (d. 1910)
  • 1858Ellen Willmott, English horticulturalist (d. 1934)[16]
  • 1870Bernard Baruch, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1965)
  • 1871Orville Wright, American engineer and pilot, co-founded the Wright Company (d. 1948)[17]
  • 1873Fred Stone, American actor and producer (d. 1959)
  • 1878Manuel L. Quezon, Filipino soldier, lawyer, and politician, 2nd President of the Philippines (d. 1944)
  • 1881George Enescu, Romanian violinist, pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1955)[18]
  • 1881 – George Shepherd, 1st Baron Shepherd (d. 1954)
  • 1883Coco Chanel, French fashion designer, founded the Chanel Company (d. 1971)[19]
  • 1883 – José Mendes Cabeçadas, Portuguese admiral and politician, 9th President of Portugal (d. 1965)
  • 1887S. Satyamurti, Indian lawyer and politician (d. 1943)
  • 1895C. Suntharalingam, Sri Lankan lawyer, academic, and politician (d. 1985)
  • 1899Colleen Moore, American actress (d. 1988)
  • 1900Gontran de Poncins, French author and adventurer (d. 1962)
  • 1900 – Gilbert Ryle, English philosopher, author, and academic (d. 1976)
  • 1900 – Dorothy Burr Thompson, American archaeologist and art historian (d. 2001)
  • 1902Ogden Nash, American poet (d. 1971)
  • 1903James Gould Cozzens, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1978)
  • 1904Maurice Wilks, English engineer and businessman (d. 1963)
  • 1906Philo Farnsworth, American inventor, invented the Fusor (d. 1971)[20]
  • 1907Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Indian historian, author, and scholar (d. 1979)
  • 1907 – Thruston Ballard Morton, American soldier and politician (d. 1982)
  • 1909Ronald King, New Zealand rugby player (d. 1988)
  • 1910Quentin Bell, English historian and author (d. 1996)
  • 1910 – Saint Alphonsa, first woman of Indian origin to be canonized as a saint by the Catholic Church (d. 1946)[21]
  • 1911Anna Terruwe, Dutch psychiatrist and author (d. 2004)
  • 1912Herb Narvo, Australian rugby league player, coach, and boxer(d. 1958)[22]
  • 1913John Argyris, Greek engineer and academic (d. 2004)
  • 1913 – Peter Kemp, Indian-English soldier and author (d. 1993)
  • 1913 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1914Lajos Baróti, Hungarian footballer and manager (d. 2005)
  • 1914 – Fumio Hayasaka, Japanese composer (d. 1955)
  • 1914 – Rose Heilbron, British barrister and judge (d. 2005)[23]
  • 1915Ring Lardner, Jr., American journalist and screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Alfred Rouleau, Canadian businessman (d. 1985)
  • 1916Dennis Poore, English race car driver and businessman (d. 1987)
  • 1918Jimmy Rowles, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 1996)
  • 1919Malcolm Forbes, American publisher and politician (d. 1990)
  • 1921Gene Roddenberry, American screenwriter and producer (d. 1991)
  • 1922Jack Holland, Australian rugby league player (d. 1994)[24]
  • 1924Willard Boyle, Canadian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
  • 1924 – William Marshall, American actor, director, and opera singer (d. 2003)[25]
  • 1925Claude Gauvreau, Canadian poet and playwright (d. 1971)
  • 1926Angus Scrimm, American actor and author (d. 2016)
  • 1928Shiv Prasaad Singh, Indian Hindi writer (d.1998)
  • 1928 – Bernard Levin, English journalist, author, and broadcaster (d. 2004)
  • 1929Bill Foster, American basketball player and coach (d. 2016)
  • 1929 – Ion N. Petrovici, Romanian-German neurologist and academic
  • 1930Frank McCourt, American author and educator (d. 2009)
  • 1931Bill Shoemaker, American jockey and author (d. 2003)[26]
  • 1932Thomas P. Salmon, American lawyer and politician, 75th Governor of Vermont
  • 1932 – Banharn Silpa-archa, Thai politician, Prime Minister (1995–1996) (d. 2016)
  • 1933Bettina Cirone, American model and photographer
  • 1933 – David Hopwood, English microbiologist and geneticist
  • 1933 – Debra Paget, American actress
  • 1934David Durenberger, American soldier, lawyer, and politician
  • 1934 – Renée Richards, American tennis player and ophthalmologist
  • 1935Bobby Richardson, American baseball player and coach
  • 1936Richard McBrien, American priest, theologian, and academic (d. 2015)
  • 1937Richard Ingrams, English journalist, founded The Oldie
  • 1937 – William Motzing, American composer and conductor (d. 2014)
  • 1938Diana Muldaur, American actress
  • 1938 – Nelly Vuksic, Argentine conductor and musician
  • 1939Ginger Baker, English drummer and songwriter (d. 2019)
  • 1940Roger Cook, English songwriter, singer, and producer
  • 1940 – Johnny Nash, American singer-songwriter
  • 1940 – Jill St. John, American model and actress
  • 1941John Cootes, Australian rugby league player, priest, and businessman[27]
  • 1941 – Mihalis Papagiannakis, Greek educator and politician (d. 2009)
  • 1942Fred Thompson, American actor, lawyer, and politician (d. 2015)
  • 1943Don Fardon, English pop singer
  • 1943 – Sid Going, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1943 – Billy J. Kramer, English pop singer
  • 1944Jack Canfield, American author
  • 1944 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish author and poet
  • 1944 – Eddy Raven, American country music singer-songwriter
  • 1944 – Charles Wang, Chinese-American businessman and philanthropist, co-founded Computer Associates International (d. 2018)
  • 1945Dennis Eichhorn, American author and illustrator (d. 2015)
  • 1945 – Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington, English politician
  • 1945 – Ian Gillan, English singer-songwriter
  • 1946Charles Bolden, American general and astronaut
  • 1946 – Bill Clinton, American lawyer and politician, 42nd President of the United States[28]
  • 1946 – Dawn Steel, American film producer (d. 1997)
  • 1947Dave Dutton, English actor and screenwriter
  • 1947 – Terry Hoeppner, American football player and coach (d. 2007)
  • 1947 – Gerard Schwarz, American conductor and director
  • 1947 – Anuška Ferligoj, Slovenian mathematician
  • 1948Robert Hughes, Australian actor
  • 1948 – Christy O'Connor Jnr, Irish golfer and architect (d. 2016)
  • 1949Michael Nazir-Ali, Pakistani-English bishop
  • 1950Jennie Bond, English journalist and author
  • 1950 – Sudha Murty, Indian author and teacher, head of Infosys Foundation[29]
  • 1951John Deacon, English bass player and songwriter
  • 1951 – Gustavo Santaolalla, Argentinian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1952Jonathan Frakes, American actor and director
  • 1954Oscar Larrauri, Argentinian race car driver
  • 1955Mary-Anne Fahey, Australian actress
  • 1955 – Peter Gallagher, American actor
  • 1955 – Patricia Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, Dominica-born English lawyer and politician, Attorney General for England and Wales
  • 1955 – Ned Yost, American baseball player and manager
  • 1956Adam Arkin, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1956 – José Rubén Zamora, Guatemalan journalist
  • 1957Paul-Jan Bakker, Dutch cricketer
  • 1957 – Gary Chapman, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1957 – Martin Donovan, American actor and director
  • 1957 – Ian Gould, English cricketer and umpire
  • 1957 – Cesare Prandelli, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1957 – Christine Soetewey, Belgian high jumper
  • 1957 – Gerda Verburg, Dutch trade union leader and politician, Dutch Minister of Agriculture
  • 1958Gary Gaetti, American baseball player, coach, and manager
  • 1958 – Anthony Muñoz, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1958 – Brendan Nelson, Australian physician and politician, 47th Minister for Defence for Australia
  • 1958 – Rick Snyder, American politician and businessman, 48th Governor of Michigan
  • 1958 – Darryl Sutter, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1959Chris Mortimer, Australian rugby league player[30]
  • 1959 – Ricky Pierce, American basketball player
  • 1960Morten Andersen, Danish-American football player
  • 1960 – Ron Darling, American baseball player and sportscaster
  • 1961Jonathan Coe, English author and academic
  • 1963John Stamos, American actor
  • 1963 – Joey Tempest, Swedish rock singer-songwriter and musician
  • 1965Hemant Birje, Indian actor
  • 1965 – Kevin Dillon, American actor
  • 1965 – Kyra Sedgwick, American actress and producer
  • 1965 – James Tomkins, Australian rower
  • 1966Lee Ann Womack, American singer-songwriter
  • 1967Khandro Rinpoche, Indian spiritual leader
  • 1969Nate Dogg, American rapper (d. 2011)
  • 1969 – Matthew Perry, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1969 – Kazuyoshi Tatsunami, Japanese baseball player and coach
  • 1969 – Clay Walker, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1970Jeff Tam, American baseball player
  • 1971Mary Joe Fernández, Dominican-American tennis player and coach
  • 1971 – João Vieira Pinto, Portuguese footballer
  • 1972Roberto Abbondanzieri, Argentinian footballer and manager
  • 1972 – Chihiro Yonekura, Japanese singer-songwriter
  • 1973Marco Materazzi, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1973 – Tasma Walton, Australian actress[31]
  • 1975Chynna Clugston, American illustrator
  • 1976Régine Chassagne, Canadian singer-songwriter
  • 1977Iban Mayo, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978Chris Capuano, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Qais Al Khonji, Omani entrepreneur
  • 1979Oumar Kondé, Swiss footballer
  • 1980Darius Campbell, Scottish singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
  • 1980 – Craig Frawley, Australian rugby league player[32]
  • 1980 – Jun Jin, South Korean singer
  • 1980 – Paul Parry, Welsh footballer
  • 1980 – Michael Todd, American bass player
  • 1981Nick Kennedy, English rugby player
  • 1981 – Percy Watson, American football player and wrestler
  • 1982J. J. Hardy, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Kevin Rans, Belgian pole vaulter
  • 1982 – Stipe Miocic, American professional mixed martial artist
  • 1983Mike Conway, English race car driver
  • 1983 – Missy Higgins, Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1983 – John McCargo, American football player
  • 1984Simon Bird, English actor and screenwriter
  • 1984 – Alessandro Matri, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – Ryan Taylor, English footballer
  • 1985David A. Gregory, American actor
  • 1985 – Gavin Cooper, Australian rugby league player
  • 1985 – Lindsey Jacobellis, American snowboarder
  • 1986Sotiris Balafas, Greek footballer
  • 1986 – Saori Kimura, Japanese volleyball player
  • 1986 – Christina Perri, American singer and songwriter
  • 1987Nick Driebergen, Dutch swimmer
  • 1987 – Nico Hülkenberg, German race car driver
  • 1987 – Anaïs Lameche, French-Swedish singer
  • 1987 – Richard Stearman, English footballer
  • 1988Veronica Roth, American author[33]
  • 1989 – Romeo Miller, American basketball player, rapper, actor[34]
  • 1990Danny Galbraith, Scottish footballer
  • 1994Nafissatou Thiam, Belgian pentathlete and heptathlete[35]
  • 1994 – Fernando Gaviria, Colombian cyclist[36]
  • 1996Lachlan Lewis, Australian rugby league player[37]
  • 1999Thomas Flegler, Australian rugby league player[38]

Deaths

  • AD 14Augustus, Roman emperor (b. 63 BC)
  • 780Credan, English abbot and saint
  • 911Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, Arab religious and political leader (b. 859)
  • 947Abu Yazid, Kharijite rebel leader (b. 873)
  • 998Fujiwara no Sukemasa, Japanese noble, statesman and calligrapher (b. 944)
  • 1072Hawise, Duchess of Brittany (b. 1037)
  • 1085Al-Juwayni, Muslim scholar and imam (b. 1028)
  • 1186Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1158)
  • 1245Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (b. 1195)
  • 1284Alphonso, Earl of Chester (b. 1273)
  • 1297Louis of Toulouse, French bishop and saint (b. 1274)
  • 1457Andrea del Castagno, Italian painter (b. 1421)
  • 1470Richard Olivier de Longueil, French cardinal (b. 1406)
  • 1493Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1415)
  • 1506 – King Alexander Jagiellon of Poland (b. 1461)
  • 1541Vincenzo Cappello, Venetian admiral and statesman (b. 1469)[39]
  • 1580Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, designed the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore and Il Redentore (b. 1508)
  • 1646Alexander Henderson, Scottish theologian and academic (b. 1583)
  • 1654Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller, Bohemian rabbi (b. 1579)
  • 1662Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)
  • 1680Jean Eudes, French priest, founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary (b. 1601)
  • 1691Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha, Ottoman commander and politician, 117th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1637)
  • 1702Anthony Grey, 11th Earl of Kent, English politician (b. 1645)
  • 1753Johann Balthasar Neumann, German engineer and architect, designed Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (b. 1687)
  • 1808Fredrik Henrik af Chapman, Swedish admiral and shipbuilder (b. 1721)
  • 1822Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, French mathematician and astronomer (b. 1749)
  • 1883Jeremiah S. Black, American lawyer and politician, 24th United States Attorney General (b. 1810)
  • 1889Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, French author, poet, and playwright (b. 1838)
  • 1895John Wesley Hardin, American Old West outlaw, gunfighter (b. 1853)[40]
  • 1900Jean-Baptiste Accolay, Belgian violinist, composer, and conductor (b. 1833)
  • 1914Franz Xavier Wernz, German religious leader, 25th Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1844)
  • 1915Tevfik Fikret, Turkish poet and educator (b. 1867)
  • 1923Vilfredo Pareto, Italian sociologist and economist (b. 1845)
  • 1928Stephanos Skouloudis, Greek banker and diplomat, 97th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1838)
  • 1929Sergei Diaghilev, Russian critic and producer, founded Ballets Russes (b. 1872)
  • 1932Louis Anquetin, French painter (b. 1861)
  • 1936Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet, playwright, and director (b. 1898)
  • 1942Harald Kaarmann, Estonian footballer (b. 1901)
  • 1945Tomás Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b. 1875)
  • 1950Giovanni Giorgi, Italian physicist and engineer (b. 1871)
  • 1954Alcide De Gasperi, Italian journalist and politician, 30th Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1881)
  • 1957David Bomberg, English soldier and painter (b. 1890)
  • 1967Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg-born American author and publisher (b. 1884)
  • 1967 – Isaac Deutscher, Polish-English journalist and historian (b. 1907)
  • 1968George Gamow, Ukrainian-American physicist and cosmologist (b. 1904)
  • 1970Paweł Jasienica, Polish soldier and historian (b. 1909)
  • 1975Mark Donohue, American race car driver and engineer (b. 1937)
  • 1976Alastair Sim, Scottish-English actor (b. 1900)
  • 1976 – Ken Wadsworth, New Zealand cricketer (b. 1946)
  • 1977Aleksander Kreek, Estonian shot putter and discus thrower (b. 1914)
  • 1977 – Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (b. 1890)
  • 1980Otto Frank, German-Swiss businessman, father of Anne Frank (b. 1889)
  • 1981Jessie Matthews, English actress, singer, and dancer (b. 1907)
  • 1982August Neo, Estonian wrestler (b. 1908)
  • 1986Hermione Baddeley, English actress (b. 1906)
  • 1986 – Viv Thicknesse, Australian rugby player (b. 1910)[41]
  • 1993Utpal Dutt, Bangladeshi actor, director, and playwright (b. 1929)
  • 1994Linus Pauling, American chemist and biologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1901)
  • 1995Pierre Schaeffer, French composer and musicologist (b. 1910)
  • 2000Bineshwar Brahma, Indian poet, author, and educator (b. 1948)
  • 2000 – Theodore Trautwein, American lawyer and judge (b. 1920)
  • 2001Donald Woods, South African journalist and activist (b. 1933)
  • 2003Carlos Roberto Reina, Honduran lawyer and politician, President of Honduras (b. 1926)
  • 2003 – Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (b. 1948)
  • 2005Mo Mowlam, English academic and politician, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (b. 1949)
  • 2008Levy Mwanawasa, Zambian lawyer and politician, 3rd President of Zambia (b. 1948)
  • 2009Don Hewitt, American television producer, created 60 Minutes (b. 1922)
  • 2011Raúl Ruiz, Chilean director and producer (b. 1941)
  • 2012Donal Henahan, American journalist and critic (b. 1921)
  • 2012 – Ivar Iversen, Norwegian canoe racer (b. 1914)
  • 2012 – Tony Scott, English-American director and producer (b. 1944)
  • 2012 – Edmund Skellings, American poet and academic (b. 1932)
  • 2013Musa'id bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Saudi Arabian prince (b. 1923)
  • 2013 – Russell S. Doughten, American director and producer (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – Abdul Rahim Hatif, Afghan politician, 8th President of Afghanistan (b. 1926)
  • 2013 – Donna Hightower, American singer-songwriter (b. 1926)
  • 2014Samih al-Qasim, Palestinian poet and journalist (b. 1939)
  • 2014 – Simin Behbahani, Iranian poet and activist (b. 1927)
  • 2014 – James Foley, American photographer and journalist (b. 1973)
  • 2014 – Candida Lycett Green, Anglo-Irish journalist and author (b. 1942)
  • 2015George Houser, American minister and activist (b. 1916)
  • 2015 – Sanat Mehta, Indian activist and politician (b. 1935)
  • 2016Jack Riley, American actor and voice artist (b. 1935)
  • 2017Dick Gregory, American comedian, author and activist (b. 1932)[42]
  • 2019Lars Larsen, Danish businessman and billionaire, founder and owner of the Danish retail chain JYSK (b. 1948)[43]

Holidays and observances

  • Afghan Independence Day, commemorates the Treaty of Rawalpindi in 1919, granting independence from Britain (Afghanistan)
  • August Revolution Commemoration Day (Vietnam)
  • Birthday of Crown Princess Mette-Marit (Norway)
  • Christian Feast Day:
    • Bernardo Tolomei
    • Bertulf of Bobbio
    • Saint Calminius
    • Ezequiél Moreno y Díaz
    • Feast of the Transfiguration (Julian calendar), and its related observances:
      • Buhe (Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church)
      • Saviour's Transfiguration, popularly known as the "Apples Feast" (Russian Orthodox Church and Georgian Orthodox Church)
    • Jean-Eudes de Mézeray
    • Louis of Toulouse
    • Maginus
    • Magnus of Anagni
    • Magnus of Avignon
    • Sebaldus
    • August 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Manuel Luis Quezón Day (Quezon City and other places in the Philippines named after Manuel L. Quezon)
  • National Aviation Day (United States)
  • World Humanitarian Day

References

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  6. Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN: 0-674-07608-7.
  7. Script error: No such module "Citation/CS1".
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  9. Shapiro, Edward S. (2002). "Interpretations of the Crown Heights Riot". American Jewish History.
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  24. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/jack-holland/summary.html
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  27. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/john-cootes/summary.html
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  30. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/chris-mortimer/summary.html
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  32. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/craig-frawley/summary.html
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  37. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/lachlan-lewis/summary.html
  38. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/thomas-flegler/summary.html
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  41. http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/players/viv-thicknesse/summary.html
  42. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/aug/20/dick-gregory-obituary
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External links

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  • Template:NYT On this day
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