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Events

  • 286 – Emperor Diocletian elevates his general Maximian to co-emperor with the rank of Augustus and gives him control over the Western regions of the Roman Empire.
  • 325 – Crown Prince Jin Chengdi, age 4, succeeds his father Jin Mingdi as emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty.
  • 457Majorian is acclaimed emperor by the Roman army.
  • 527Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne.
  • 528 – The daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei was made the "Emperor" as a male heir of the late emperor by Empress Dowager Hu, deposed and replaced by Yuan Zhao the next day; she was the first female monarch in the History of China, but not widely recognised.
  • 1293Robert Winchelsey leaves England for Rome, to be consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 1318Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from England.
  • 1340Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
  • 1545Potosí is founded after the discovery of major silver deposits in the area.
  • 1572 – In the Eighty Years' War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • 1625 – A combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet of 52 ships commences the recapture of Bahia from the Dutch during the Dutch–Portuguese War.
  • 1789 – In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first Speaker.
  • 1826Samuel Morey received a patent for a compressionless "Gas or Vapor Engine."
  • 1833 – The Convention of 1833, a political gathering of settlers in Mexican Texas to help draft a series of petitions to the Mexican government, begins in San Felipe de Austin
  • 1854Charles Dickens' novel Hard Times begins serialisation in his magazine Household Words.
  • 1865American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks. Union Army led by Philip Sheridan decisively defeated Confederate States Army led by George Pickett, leading to Breakthrough at Petersburg and Appomattox Campaign.
  • 1867Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1871 – The first stage of the Brill Tramway opens.
  • 1873 – The White Star steamer Template:RMS sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547 in one of the worst marine disasters of the 19th century.
  • 1887Mumbai Fire Brigade is established.
  • 1889 – The University of Northern Colorado was established, as the Colorado State Normal School.
  • 1891 – The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1893 – The rank of Chief Petty Officer in the United States Navy is established.
  • 1895 – The Indian Army is established.
  • 1908 – The Territorial Force (renamed Territorial Army in 1920) is formed as a volunteer reserve component of the British Army.
  • 1918 – The Royal Air Force is created by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
  • 1924Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years imprisonment for his participation in the "Beer Hall Putsch" but spends only nine months in jail; during this time he writes Mein Kampf.
  • 1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1933 – The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in a series of anti-Semitic acts.
  • 1935 – India's central banking institution, The Reserve Bank of India is formed.
  • 1936Odisha formerly known as Kalinga or Utkal becomes a state in India.
  • 1937Aden becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1937 – Spanish Civil War: Jaén, Spain is bombed by German fascist forces, supporting Francoist Nationalists.
  • 1937 – Royal New Zealand Air Force is Formed as an independent Air Force.
  • 1939 – Spanish Civil War: Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announces the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrender.
  • 1941Fântâna Albă massacre: Between 200 and 2,000 Romanian civilians are killed by Soviet Border Troops.
  • 1941 – A military coup in Iraq overthrows the regime of 'Abd al-Ilah and installs Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.
  • 1944 – Navigation errors lead to an accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen.
  • 1945 – World War II: Operation Iceberg: United States troops land on Okinawa in the last major campaign of the war.
  • 1946 – The 8.6 Mw Aleutian Islands earthquake shakes the Aleutian Islands with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI (Strong). A destructive tsunami reaches the Hawaiian Islands resulting in many deaths, mostly in Hilo. Between 165 and 173 were killed.
  • 1946 – Formation of the Malayan Union.
  • 1947Paul becomes king of Greece, on the death of his childless elder brother, George II.
  • 1947 – The only mutiny in the history of the Royal New Zealand Navy begins.
  • 1948 – Communist forces respond to the introduction of the Deutsche Mark by attempting to force the western powers to withdraw from Berlin.
  • 1948 – Faroe Islands gain autonomy from Denmark.
  • 1948 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 43 and 44 are adopted.
  • 1949Chinese Civil War: The Chinese Communist Party holds unsuccessful peace talks with the Nationalist Party in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
  • 1949 – The Government of Canada repeals Japanese-Canadian internment after seven years.
  • 1949 – The 26 counties of the Irish Free State become Ireland.
  • 1954 – United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
  • 1955 – The EOKA rebellion against the British Empire begins in Cyprus, with the goal of obtaining the desired unification ("enosis") with Greece.
  • 1959Iakovos is enthroned as Greek Orthodox Archbishop of America.
  • 1960 – The TIROS-1 satellite transmits the first television picture from space.
  • 1970 – President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring the Surgeon General's warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertising on television and radio in the United States, effective 1 January 1971.
  • 1971Bangladesh Liberation War: The Pakistan Army massacre over 1,000 people in Keraniganj Upazila, Bangladesh.
  • 1973Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched in the Jim Corbett National Park, India.
  • 1974 – The metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England come into being.
  • 1976Apple Inc. is formed by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in Cupertino, California, USA.
  • 1978 – The Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, becomes the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
  • 1979Iran becomes an Islamic republic by a 99% vote, officially overthrowing the Shah.
  • 1986Sector Kanda: Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal) cadres attacks a number of police stations in Kathmandu, seeking to incite a popular rebellion.
  • 1989Margaret Thatcher's new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the "poll tax"), is introduced in Scotland.
  • 1997Comet Hale–Bopp is seen passing at perihelion.[1]
  • 1999Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved out of the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
  • 2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy surveillance aircraft collides with a Chinese People's Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, China and is detained.
  • 2001 – Former President of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on war crimes charges.
  • 2001 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in the Netherlands, the first contemporary country to allow it.
  • 2004Google announces Gmail to the public.
  • 2011 – After protests against the burning of the Quran turn violent, a mob attacks a United Nations compound in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, resulting in the deaths of thirteen people, including eight foreign workers.

Births

  • 1220Emperor Go-Saga of Japan (d. 1272)
  • 1282Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1347)
  • 1543François de Bonne, Duke of Lesdiguières (d. 1626)
  • 1578William Harvey, English physician and academic (d. 1657)
  • 1610Charles de Saint-Évremond, French soldier and critic (d. 1703)
  • 1629Jean-Henri d'Anglebert, French organist and composer (d. 1691)
  • 1640Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician and academic (d. 1697)
  • 1647John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet and courtier (d. 1680)
  • 1697Antoine François Prévost, French novelist and translator (d. 1763)
  • 1721Pieter Hellendaal, Dutch-English organist, violinist, and composer (d. 1799)
  • 1741George Dance the Younger, English architect and surveyor (d. 1825)
  • 1753Joseph de Maistre, French philosopher, lawyer, and diplomat (d. 1821)
  • 1755Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer and politician (d. 1826)
  • 1765Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver and etcher (d. 1810)
  • 1776Sophie Germain, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (d. 1831)
  • 1815Otto von Bismarck, German lawyer and politician, 1st Chancellor of the German Empire (d. 1898)
  • 1815 – Edward Clark, American lawyer and politician, 8th Governor of Texas (d. 1880)
  • 1823Simon Bolivar Buckner, American general and politician, 30th Governor of Kentucky (d. 1891)
  • 1824Louis-Zéphirin Moreau, Canadian bishop (d. 1901)
  • 1834James Fisk, American businessman (d. 1872)
  • 1852Edwin Austin Abbey, American painter and illustrator (d. 1911)
  • 1856Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician (d. 1933)
  • 1865Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-German chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
  • 1866William Blomfield, New Zealand cartoonist and politician (d. 1938)
  • 1866 – Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1924)
  • 1866 – Ève Lavallière, French actress (d. 1929)
  • 1868Edmond Rostand, French poet and playwright (d. 1918)
  • 1868 – Walter Mead, English cricketer (d. 1954)
  • 1871F. Melius Christiansen, Norwegian-American violinist and conductor (d. 1955)
  • 1873Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1943)
  • 1874Ernest Barnes, English mathematician and theologian (d. 1953)
  • 1874 – Prince Karl of Bavaria (d. 1927)
  • 1875Edgar Wallace, English journalist, author, and playwright (d. 1932)
  • 1878C. Ganesha Iyer, Ceylon Tamil philologist (d. 1958)
  • 1879Stanislaus Zbyszko, Polish wrestler and strongman (d. 1967)
  • 1880Agha Petros, Assyrian general (d. 1932)
  • 1883Lon Chaney, American actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 1930)
  • 1883 – Edvard Drabløs, Norwegian actor and director (d. 1976)
  • 1883 – Laurette Taylor, American actress (d. 1946)
  • 1885Wallace Beery, American actor (d. 1949)
  • 1889K. B. Hedgewar, Indian physician and activist (d. 1940)
  • 1893Cicely Courtneidge, Australian-English actress (d. 1980)
  • 1895Alberta Hunter, American singer-songwriter and nurse (d. 1984)
  • 1898William James Sidis, American mathematician, anthropologist, and historian (d. 1944)
  • 1899Gustavs Celmiņš, Latvian academic and politician (d. 1968)
  • 1901Whittaker Chambers, American journalist and spy (d. 1961)
  • 1905Gaston Eyskens, Belgian economist and politician, 47th Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 1988)
  • 1905 – Paul Hasluck, Australian historian, poet, and politician, 17th Governor-General of Australia (d. 1993)
  • 1906Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev, Russian engineer, founded the Yakovlev Design Bureau (d. 1989)
  • 1908Abraham Maslow, American psychologist and academic (d. 1970)
  • 1908 – Harlow Rothert, American shot putter, lawyer, and academic (d. 1997)
  • 1909Abner Biberman, American actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 1977)
  • 1909 – Eddy Duchin, American pianist and bandleader (d. 1951)
  • 1910Harry Carney, American saxophonist and clarinet player (d. 1974)
  • 1910 – Bob Van Osdel, American high jumper and soldier (d. 1987)
  • 1912Donald Nyrop, American businessman (d. 2010)
  • 1913Memos Makris, Greek sculptor (d. 1993)
  • 1915O. W. Fischer, Austrian-Swiss actor and director (d. 2004)
  • 1917Sheldon Mayer, American author and illustrator (d. 1991)
  • 1917 – Sydney Newman, Canadian screenwriter and producer, co-created Doctor Who (d. 1997)
  • 1917 – Melville Shavelson, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2007)
  • 1919Joseph Murray, American surgeon and soldier, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2012)
  • 1920Harry Lewis, American actor and businessman (d. 2013)
  • 1920 – Toshiro Mifune, Japanese actor (d. 1997)
  • 1921William Bergsma, American composer and educator (d. 1994)
  • 1921 – Ken Reardon, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2008)
  • 1921 – Arthur "Guitar Boogie" Smith, American guitarist, fiddler, and composer (d. 2014)
  • 1922Duke Jordan, American pianist and composer (d. 2006)
  • 1922 – William Manchester, American historian and author (d. 2004)
  • 1923Leora Dana, American actress (d. 1983)
  • 1923 – Bobby Jordan, American actor (d. 1965)
  • 1924Brendan Byrne, American lieutenant, judge, and politician, 47th Governor of New Jersey
  • 1925Kathy Stobart, English saxophonist (d. 2014)
  • 1926Charles Bressler, American tenor and educator (d. 1996)
  • 1926 – Gérard La Forest, Canadian lawyer and judge
  • 1926 – Anne McCaffrey, American-Irish author (d. 2011)
  • 1927Walter Bahr, American soccer player, coach, and manager
  • 1927 – Peter Cundall, English-Australian soldier, horticulturist, and author
  • 1927 – Ferenc Puskás, Hungarian footballer and manager (d. 2006)
  • 1928George Grizzard, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1929Barbara Bryne, English actress
  • 1929 – Jonathan Haze, American actor, producer, screenwriter, and production manager
  • 1929 – Milan Kundera, Czech-born novelist, poet, and playwright
  • 1929 – Payut Ngaokrachang, Thai animator and director (d. 2010)
  • 1929 – Jane Powell, American actress, singer, and dancer
  • 1929 – Bo Schembechler, American football player and coach (d. 2006)
  • 1930Grace Lee Whitney, American actress and singer (d. 2015)
  • 1931George Baker, Bulgarian-English actor and screenwriter (d. 2011)
  • 1931 – Rolf Hochhuth, German author and playwright
  • 1932Gordon Jump, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1932 – Debbie Reynolds, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. 2016)
  • 1933Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Algerian-French physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1933 – Dan Flavin, American sculptor and educator (d. 1996)
  • 1933 – Robert Shavlakadze, Georgian high jumper
  • 1934Jim Ed Brown, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2015)
  • 1934 – Rod Kanehl, American baseball player and manager (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Marie Patterson, English trade union leader
  • 1934 – Vladimir Posner, French-American journalist and radio host
  • 1935Larry McDonald, American physician and politician (d. 1983)
  • 1936Peter Collinson, English-American director and producer (d. 1980)
  • 1936 – Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, Swiss politician, 80th President of the Swiss Confederation (d. 1998)
  • 1936 – Tarun Gogoi, Indian politician, 14th Chief Minister of Assam
  • 1936 – Abdul Qadeer Khan, Indian-Pakistani physicist, chemist, and engineer
  • 1939Ali MacGraw, American actress
  • 1939 – Phil Niekro, American baseball player and manager
  • 1940Wangari Maathai, Kenyan environmentalist and politician, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
  • 1941Gideon Gadot, Israeli journalist and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1941 – Guy Trottier, Canadian-American ice hockey player and coach (d. 2014)
  • 1941 – Ajit Wadekar, Indian cricketer, coach, and manager
  • 1942Brian Binley, English businessman and politician
  • 1942 – Samuel R. Delany, American author and critic
  • 1942 – Roderick Floud, English historian and academic
  • 1942 – Richard D. Wolff, American economist and academic
  • 1943Carol White, English actress (d. 1991)
  • 1943 – Dafydd Wigley, Welsh academic and politician
  • 1944Rusty Staub, American baseball player and coach
  • 1945John Barbata, American drummer
  • 1946Nikitas Kaklamanis, Greek academic and politician, Greek Minister of Health and Social Security
  • 1946 – Ronnie Lane, English bass player, songwriter, and producer (d. 1997)
  • 1946 – Eva Polttila, Finnish journalist
  • 1946 – Arrigo Sacchi, Italian footballer, coach, and manager
  • 1947Alain Connes, French mathematician and academic
  • 1947 – Philippe Kirsch, Canadian lawyer and judge
  • 1947 – Francine Prose, American novelist, short story writer, and critic
  • 1947 – Robin Scott, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1947 – Norm Van Lier, American basketball player, coach, and sportscaster (d. 2009)
  • 1948Jimmy Cliff, Jamaican singer and musician
  • 1948 – Paul Myners, Baron Myners, English journalist and politician
  • 1948 – J. J. Williams, Welsh rugby player and sprinter
  • 1949Gérard Mestrallet, French businessman
  • 1949 – Sammy Nelson, Northern Irish footballer and coach
  • 1949 – Gil Scott-Heron, American singer-songwriter and author (d. 2011)
  • 1950Samuel Alito, American lawyer and jurist
  • 1950 – Loris Kessel, Swiss race car driver (d. 2010)
  • 1950 – Daniel Paillé, Canadian academic and politician
  • 1951John Abizaid, American general
  • 1951 – Kay Davies, English geneticist, anatomist, and academic
  • 1951 – Frederic Schwartz, American architect, co-designed Empty Sky (d. 2014)
  • 1952Annette O'Toole, American actress
  • 1952 – Rey Robinson, American sprinter and coach
  • 1952 – Bernard Stiegler, French philosopher and academic
  • 1953Barry Sonnenfeld, American cinematographer, director, and producer
  • 1953 – Alberto Zaccheroni, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1954Üllar Kerde, Estonian basketball player and coach
  • 1954 – Jeff Porcaro, American drummer, songwriter, and producer (d. 1992)
  • 1954 – Knut Værnes, Norwegian guitarist
  • 1954 – Arnold Sidebottom, English footballer and cricketer
  • 1955Sal Brinton, English politician
  • 1955 – Don Hasselbeck, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1955 – İlhan İrem, Turkish singer-songwriter
  • 1955 – Humayun Akhtar Khan, Pakistani politician, 5th Commerce Minister of Pakistan
  • 1955 – Terry Nichols, American criminal
  • 1956Jeffrey Beecroft, American production designer and art director
  • 1957Andreas Deja, Polish-American animator
  • 1957 – David Gower, English cricketer and sportscaster
  • 1957 – Stephen O'Brien, English lawyer and politician, Shadow Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills
  • 1958D. Boon, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1985)
  • 1958 – Stephen O'Rahilly, Irish-British physician and academic
  • 1959Helmuth Duckadam, Romanian footballer
  • 1959 – Margita Stefanović, Serbian keyboard player (d. 2002)
  • 1960J. Christopher Stevens, American lawyer and diplomat, 10th United States Ambassador to Libya (d. 2012)
  • 1961Susan Boyle, Scottish singer
  • 1961 – Mark White, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1962 – Mark Shulman, American author
  • 1962Chris Grayling, English journalist and politician, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
  • 1962 – Samboy Lim, Filipino basketball player and manager
  • 1962 – Phillip Schofield, English television host
  • 1963Teodoro de Villa Diaz, Filipino guitarist and songwriter (d. 1988)
  • 1963 – Aprille Ericsson-Jackson American aerospace engineer
  • 1964Erik Breukink, Dutch cyclist and manager
  • 1964 – Kevin Duckworth, American basketball player (d. 2008)
  • 1964 – John Morris, English cricketer
  • 1964 – José Rodrigues dos Santos, Portuguese journalist, author, and educator
  • 1964 – Scott Stevens, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1965Jane Adams, American film, television, and stage actress
  • 1965 – Mark Jackson, American basketball player and coach
  • 1965 – Robert Steadman, English composer and conductor
  • 1966Chris Evans, English radio and television host
  • 1966 – Sharon Hodgson, English accountant and politician
  • 1966 – Mehmet Özdilek, Turkish footballer and manager
  • 1967Nicola Roxon, Australian lawyer and politician, 34th Attorney-General for Australia
  • 1968Mike Baird, Australian politician, 44th Premier of New South Wales
  • 1968 – Andreas Schnaas, German actor and director
  • 1968 – Alexander Stubb, Finnish academic and politician, 43rd Prime Minister of Finland
  • 1969Lev Lobodin, Ukrainian-Russian decathlete
  • 1969 – Dean Windass, English footballer and manager
  • 1970Sung-Hi Lee, South Korean-American model and actress
  • 1970 – Brad Meltzer, American author, screenwriter, and producer
  • 1970 – Mark Wheeler, American football player
  • 1971Sonia Bisset, Cuban javelin thrower
  • 1971 – Karen Dunbar, Scottish actress and screenwriter
  • 1971 – Lachy Hulme, Australian actor and screenwriter
  • 1971 – Shinji Nakano, Japanese race car driver
  • 1971 – Danielle Smith, Canadian journalist and politician
  • 1972Darren McCarty, Canadian ice hockey player and sportscaster
  • 1972 – Jesse Tobias, American guitarist and songwriter
  • 1973Christian Finnegan, American comedian and actor
  • 1973 – Stephen Fleming, New Zealand cricketer and coach
  • 1973 – Rachel Maddow, American journalist and author
  • 1974John Glen, English politician
  • 1974 – Hugo Ibarra, Argentinian footballer and manager
  • 1974 – Sandra Völker, German swimmer
  • 1975George Bastl, Swiss tennis player
  • 1975 – John Butler, American-Australian singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1975 – Magdalena Maleeva, Bulgarian tennis player
  • 1976Hazem El Masri, Lebanese-Australian rugby league player and educator
  • 1976 – David Gilliland, American race car driver
  • 1976 – Gábor Király, Hungarian footballer
  • 1976 – David Oyelowo, English actor
  • 1976 – Clarence Seedorf, Dutch-Brazilian footballer and manager
  • 1976 – Yuka Yoshida, Japanese tennis player
  • 1977Vitor Belfort, Brazilian-American boxer and mixed martial artist
  • 1977 – Haimar Zubeldia, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978Antonio de Nigris, Mexican footballer (d. 2009)
  • 1978 – Jean-Pierre Dumont, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Mirka Federer, Slovak-Swiss tennis player
  • 1978 – Anamaria Marinca, Romanian-English actress
  • 1978 – Etan Thomas, American basketball player
  • 1980Dennis Kruppke, German footballer
  • 1980 – Randy Orton, American wrestler
  • 1981Antonis Fotsis, Greek basketball player
  • 1981 – Bjørn Einar Romøren, Norwegian ski jumper
  • 1982Taran Killam, American actor, voice artist, comedian, and writer
  • 1982 – Andreas Thorkildsen, Norwegian javelin thrower
  • 1983John Axford, Canadian baseball player
  • 1983 – Tamati Ellison, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1983 – Lance Hohaia, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1983 – Ólafur Ingi Skúlason, Icelandic footballer
  • 1983 – Sean Taylor, American football player (d. 2007)
  • 1984Gilberto Macena, Brazilian footballer
  • 1985Daniel Murphy, American baseball player
  • 1985 – Beth Tweddle, English gymnast
  • 1987Gianluca Musacci, Italian footballer
  • 1987 – Li Ting, Chinese diver
  • 1987 – Oliver Turvey, English race car driver
  • 1988Brook Lopez, American basketball player
  • 1988 – Robin Lopez, American basketball player
  • 1988 – Courtney McCool, American gymnast
  • 1989Jan Blokhuijsen, Dutch speed skater
  • 1989 – David N'Gog, French footballer
  • 1989 – Christian Vietoris, German race car driver
  • 1990Julia Fischer, German discus thrower
  • 1990 – Joe Partington, English-Welsh footballer
  • 1991Graham Candy, New Zealand singer-songwriter and actor
  • 1992Deng Linlin, Chinese gymnast
  • 1994Ella Eyre, English singer-songwriter
  • 1997 – Álex Palou, Spanish racing driver
  • 1997Asa Butterfield, English actor

Deaths

  • 1085Emperor Shenzong of Song (b. 1048)
  • 1132Hugh of Châteauneuf, French bishop and saint (b. 1053)
  • 1204Eleanor of Aquitaine (b. 1122)
  • 1205Amalric II of Jerusalem (b. 1145)
  • 1282Abaqa Khan, khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate
  • 1528Francisco de Peñalosa, Spanish composer (b. 1470)
  • 1580Alonso Mudarra, Spanish guitarist and composer (b. 1510)
  • 1621Cristofano Allori, Italian painter and educator (b. 1577)
  • 1682Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bavarian bishop (b. 1625)
  • 1787Floyer Sydenham, English scholar and academic (b. 1710)
  • 1839Benjamin Pierce, American soldier and politician, 11th Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1757)
  • 1865Giuditta Pasta, Italian soprano (b. 1797)
  • 1872Frederick Denison Maurice, English theologian and academic (b. 1805)
  • 1878John C.W. Daly, English-Canadian soldier and politician (b. 1796)
  • 1890David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
  • 1890 – Alexander Mozhaysky, Russian soldier, pilot, and engineer (b. 1825)
  • 1914Rube Waddell, American baseball player (b. 1876)
  • 1914 – Charles Wells, English founder of Charles Wells Ltd (b. 1842)
  • 1917Scott Joplin, American pianist and composer (b. 1868)
  • 1920Walter Simon, German banker and philanthropist (b. 1857)
  • 1922Charles I of Austria (b. 1887)
  • 1922 – Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychologist and author (b. 1884)
  • 1924Jacob Bolotin, American physician (b. 1888)
  • 1924Lloyd Hildebrand, English cyclist (b. 1870)
  • 1924 – Stan Rowley, Australian sprinter (b. 1876)
  • 1925Lars Jørgen Madsen, Danish target shooter (b. 1871)
  • 1946Noah Beery, Sr., American actor (b. 1882)
  • 1947George II of Greece (b. 1890)
  • 1950Charles R. Drew, American physician and surgeon (b. 1904)
  • 1950 – Recep Peker, Turkish soldier and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1889)
  • 1962Jussi Kekkonen, Finnish captain and businessman (b. 1910)
  • 1965Helena Rubinstein, Polish-American businesswoman (b. 1870)
  • 1966Brian O'Nolan, Irish author (b. 1911)
  • 1967Đặng Văn Ngữ, Vietnamese physician (b. 1910)
  • 1968Lev Landau, Azerbaijani-Russian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
  • 1976Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor (b. 1891)
  • 1981Eua Sunthornsanan, Thai singer-songwriter and bandleader (b. 1910)
  • 1984Marvin Gaye, American singer-songwriter (b. 1939)
  • 1984 – Elizabeth Goudge, English author (b. 1900)
  • 1985Douglass Wallop, American author and playwright (b. 1920)
  • 1986Erik Bruhn, Danish actor, director, and choreographer (b. 1928)
  • 1987Henri Cochet, French tennis player (b. 1901)
  • 1991Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
  • 1991 – Jaime Guzmán, Chilean lawyer and politician (b. 1946)
  • 1992Michael Havers, Baron Havers, English lawyer and politician, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1923)
  • 1992 – Nigel Preston, English drummer (b. 1959)
  • 1993Alan Kulwicki, American race car driver (b. 1954)
  • 1994Robert Doisneau, French photographer (b. 1912)
  • 1995H. Adams Carter, American mountaineer, journalist, and educator (b. 1914)
  • 1995 – Lucie Rie, Austrian-English potter (b. 1902)
  • 1996Jean Le Moyne, Canadian journalist and politician (b. 1913)
  • 1996 – John McSherry, American baseball player and umpire (b. 1944)
  • 1997Norman Carr, English environmentalist and author (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Makar Honcharenko, Ukrainian footballer and manager (b. 1912)
  • 1998Rozz Williams, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1963)
  • 1999Jesse Stone, American pianist, songwriter, and producer (b. 1901)
  • 2000Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart, Scottish lawyer and judge (b. 1924)
  • 2001Jo-Jo Moore, American baseball player (b. 1908)
  • 2001 – Ayhan Şahenk, Turkish businessman, founded Doğuş Holding (b. 1929)
  • 2001 – Trịnh Công Sơn, Vietnamese guitarist and composer (b. 1939)
  • 2002Simo Häyhä, Finnish soldier and sniper (b. 1905)
  • 2002 – Aptullah Kuran, Turkish scholar and academic (b. 1927)
  • 2003Leslie Cheung, Chinese-Hong Kong singer (b. 1956)
  • 2004Paul Atkinson, English guitarist and producer (b. 1946)
  • 2004 – Aaron Bank, American colonel, founded the US Army Special Forces (b. 1902)
  • 2004 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (b. 1952)
  • 2004 – Carrie Snodgress, American actress (b. 1945)
  • 2005Paul Bomani, Tanzanian politician and diplomat, 1st Tanzanian Minister of Finance (b 1925)
  • 2005 – Alexander Brott, Canadian violinist, composer, and conductor (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Jack Keller, American songwriter and producer (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Robert Coldwell Wood, American political scientist and academic (b. 1923)
  • 2006In Tam, Cambodian general and politician, 26th Prime Minister of Cambodia (b. 1916)
  • 2008Jake Warren, Canadian soldier and diplomat, Canadian Ambassador to the United States (b. 1921)
  • 2010John Forsythe, American actor (b. 1918)
  • 2010 – Tzannis Tzannetakis, Greek soldier and politician, 175th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1927)
  • 2012Lionel Bowen, Australian soldier, lawyer, and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1922)
  • 2012 – Giorgio Chinaglia, Italian-American soccer player and radio host (b. 1947)
  • 2012 – Miguel de la Madrid, Mexican banker, academic, and politician, 52nd President of Mexico (b. 1934)
  • 2012 – Jamaa Fanaka, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1942)
  • 2012 – N. K. P. Salve, Indian accountant and politician (b. 1921)
  • 2013Moses Blah, Liberian general and politician, 23rd President of Liberia (b. 1947)
  • 2013 – David Burge, American pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1930)
  • 2013 – Kildare Dobbs, Canadian author (b. 1923)
  • 2013 – William H. Ginsburg, American lawyer (b. 1943)
  • 2013 – Karen Muir, South African swimmer and physician (b. 1952)
  • 2013 – Jack Pardee, American football player and coach (b. 1936)
  • 2013 – Greg Willard, American basketball player and referee (b. 1958)
  • 2014King Fleming, American pianist and bandleader (b. 1922)
  • 2014 – Rudolph Hargrave, American lawyer and judge (b. 1925)
  • 2014 – Jacques Le Goff, French historian and author (b. 1924)
  • 2014 – Andrew Joseph McDonald, American bishop (b. 1923)
  • 2014 – Bill Mitchell, Canadian-American ice hockey player and coach (b. 1930)
  • 2014 – Rolf Rendtorff, German theologian and academic (b. 1925)
  • 2015John Paul Hammerschmidt, American soldier and politician (b. 1922)
  • 2015 – Eddie LeBaron, American football player, manager, and sportscaster (b. 1930)
  • 2015 – Nicolae Rainea, Romanian footballer and referee (b. 1933)

Holidays and observances

  • Christian feast day:
    • Cellach of Armagh
    • Hugh of Grenoble
    • Frederick Denison Maurice (Episcopal Church (USA))
    • Melito of Sardis
    • Nuno Álvares Pereira
    • Tewdrig
    • Theodora
    • Walric, abbot of Leuconay
    • April 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Earliest day on which Sizdah Be-dar can fall, while April 2 is the latest; celebrated on the 13th day after vernal equinox. (Iran)
  • Iranian Islamic Republic Day (Iran) falls on this day if the Vernal Equinox falls on March 21.
  • Veneralia was held on April 1 during Ancient Rome, however this date does not lock into the modern Gregorian calendar.
  • April Fools' Day
  • Arbor Day (Tanzania)
  • Civil Service Day (Thailand)
  • Cyprus National Day (Cyprus)
  • Edible Book Day
  • Fossil Fools Day
  • Kha b-Nisan, the Assyrian New Year (Assyrian people)
  • National Civil Service Day (Thailand)

References

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External links

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