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Template:Navbar
2011 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2011
MMXI
Ab urbe condita2764
Armenian calendar1460
ԹՎ ՌՆԿ
Assyrian calendar6761
Bahá'í calendar167–168
Balinese saka calendar1932–1933
Bengali calendar1418
Berber calendar2961
British Regnal year59 Eliz. 2 – 60 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2555
Burmese calendar1373
Byzantine calendar7519–7520
Chinese calendar庚寅(Metal Tiger)
4707 or 4647
    — to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4708 or 4648
Coptic calendar1727–1728
Discordian calendar3177
Ethiopian calendar2003–2004
Hebrew calendar5771–5772
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2067–2068
 - Shaka Samvat1932–1933
 - Kali Yuga5111–5112
Holocene calendar12011
Igbo calendar1011–1012
Iranian calendar1389–1390
Islamic calendar1432–1433
Japanese calendarHeisei 23
(平成23年)
Javanese calendar1943–1945
Juche calendar100
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4344
Minguo calendarROC 100
民國100年
Nanakshahi calendar543
Thai solar calendar2554
Tibetan calendar阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
2137 or 1756 or 984
    — to —
阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
2138 or 1757 or 985
Unix time1293840000 – 1325375999

2011 (MMXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the , the 11th year of the , and the 2nd year of the decade.

2011 was designated as:

  • International Year of Forests
  • International Year of Chemistry[1]
  • International Year for People of African Descent

It was marked by a wave of revolutions in the Arab World known as the Arab Spring, including the beginnings of several unresolved protest movements and armed conflicts.

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Events

January

  • January 1Estonia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the 17th Eurozone country.[2]
  • January 4Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring.[3][4]
  • January 915Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July.[5][6]
  • January 14Arab Spring: The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests; President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia after 23 years in power.[7][8]
  • January 24 – 37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia.[9][10][11]

February

  • February 11 – Arab Spring: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigns after widespread protests calling for his departure, leaving control of Egypt in the hands of the military until a general election can be held.[12]
  • February 22March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a two-week period following the Arab Spring,[13] causing the 2011 energy crisis.

March

  • March 11 – A 9.0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840 and leaving another 3,926 missing. Tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four nuclear power plants affected by the quake.[14]
  • March 15
    • Arab Spring: Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a three-month state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest.[15][16]
    • Arab Spring: The Syrian Civil War begins.
  • March 17 – Arab Spring and the Libyan Civil War: The United Nations Security Council votes 10–0 to create a no-fly zone over Libya in response to allegations of government aggression against civilians.[17]
  • March 19 – Arab Spring and the Libyan civil war: In light of continuing attacks on Libyan rebels by forces in support of leader Muammar Gaddafi,[18] military intervention authorized under UNSCR 1973 begins as French fighter jets make reconnaissance flights over Libya.[19]

April

  • April 11 – Former Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo is arrested in his home in Abidjan by supporters of elected President Alassane Ouattara, with support from French forces; this effectively ends the 2010–11 Ivorian crisis and civil war.[20]
  • April 29 – An estimated two billion people[21] watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London.

May

  • May 1 – U.S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, the founder and leader of the militant group Al-Qaeda, was killed on May 2, 2011 (Pakistani time, UTC+6) during an American military operation in Pakistan.[22]
  • May 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund.[23]
  • May 21Grímsvötn, Iceland's most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe.[24]
  • May 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia.[25][26]

June

  • June 4 – Chile's Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia and forcing over 3,000 people to evacuate.
  • June 5 – Arab Spring: Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh travels to Saudi Arabia for treatment of an injury sustained during an attack on the presidential palace. Protesters celebrate his transfer of power to his Vice-President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi.[27]
  • June 12 – Arab Spring: Thousands of Syrians flee to Turkey as Syrian troops lay siege to Jisr ash-Shugur.[28]
  • June 28Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world.[29]

July

  • July 7 – The world's first artificial organ transplant is achieved, using an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells.[30]
  • July 9South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the independence referendum held in January.[31]
  • July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846.[32]
  • July 14South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member.[33]
  • July 20
    • Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.[34]
    • The United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 years.[35]
  • July 21Space Shuttle Atlantis lands successfully at Kennedy Space Center after completing STS-135, concluding NASA's Space Shuttle program.[36]
  • July 28Asiana Airlines Flight 991, a Boeing 747-400F, from Incheon International Airport to Shanghai Pudong International Airport crashed near Jeju Island because of a cargo fire emergency when the plane crossed the B576 air route. The plane tried to divert to Jeju International Airport but it crashed off Jeju Island.(Crew:2/Death:2/Survivor:0)
  • July 31
    • In Thailand over 12.8 million people are affected by severe flooding. The World Bank estimates damages at 1,440 billion baht (US$45 billion).[37] Some areas are still six feet under water, and many factory areas remained closed at the end of the year. 815[38] people are killed, with 58 of the country's 77 provinces affected.[39]
    • Arab Spring: Because of the uncertaintities associated with a clamp-down of the free press, there are believed to be at least 121 people killed in a Syrian Army tank raid on the town of Hama and over 150 people are reportedly killed across the country.[40][41][42] The total dead throughout Syria may never be known, but an estimate as of September 24 is 3,000.

August

  • August – Stock exchanges worldwide suffer heavy losses due to the fears of contagion of the European sovereign debt crisis and the credit rating downgraded as a result of the debt-ceiling crisis of the United States.[43][44]
  • August 5
    • NASA announces that its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has captured photographic evidence of possible liquid water on Mars during warm seasons.
    • Juno, the first solar-powered spacecraft on a mission to Jupiter, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[45]
  • August 2028 – Arab Spring and the Libyan Civil War: In the Battle of Tripoli, Libyan rebels take control of the nation's capital, effectively overthrowing the government of Muammar Gaddafi.[46][47][48]

September

  • September 5 – India and Bangladesh sign a pact to end their 40-year border demarcation dispute.[49]
  • September 10 – The MV Spice Islander I, carrying at least 800 people, sinks off the coast of Zanzibar, killing 240 people.[50]
  • September 12 – Approximately 100 people die after a petrol pipeline explodes in Nairobi.[51]
  • September 17Occupy Wall Street protests begin in the United States. This develops into the Occupy movement which spreads to 82 countries by October.[52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]
  • September 19 – With 434 dead, the United Nations launches a $357 million appeal for victims of the 2011 Sindh floods in Pakistan.[61]

October

  • October 4 – The death toll from the flooding of Cambodia's Mekong river and attendant flash floods reaches 207.[62][63]
  • October 18Israel and the Palestinian militant organization Hamas begin a major prisoner swap, in which the captured Israeli Army soldier Gilad Shalit is released by Hamas in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian and Israeli-Arab prisoners held in Israel, including 280 prisoners serving life sentences for planning and perpetrating terror attacks.[64][65][66]
  • October 20
    • Arab Spring and the Libyan civil war: Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is killed in Sirte, with National Transitional Council forces taking control of the city, and ending the war.[67][68][69][70]
    • Basque separatist militant organisation ETA declares an end to its 43-year campaign of political violence, which has killed over 800 people since 1968.[71]
  • October 23 – A magnitude 7.2 Mw earthquake jolts eastern Turkey near the city of Van, killing over 600 people, and damaging about 2,200 buildings.[72]
  • October 27 – After an emergency meeting in Brussels, the European Union announces an agreement to tackle the European sovereign debt crisis which includes a writedown of 50% of Greek bonds, a recapitalisation of European banks and an increase of the bailout fund of the European Financial Stability Facility totaling to €1 trillion.[73][74]
  • October 31
    • Date selected by the UN as the symbolic date when global population reaches seven billion.[75]
    • UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member, following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.[76]

November

  • November 26 – The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, the most elaborate Martian exploration vehicle to date, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center. It lands on Mars on August 6, 2012.[77][78][79]

December

  • December 15 – The United States formally declares an end to the Iraq War. While this ends the insurgency, it begins another.[80][81][82][83][84]
  • December 16Tropical Storm Washi causes 1,268 flash flood fatalities in the Philippines, with 85 people officially listed as missing.[85]
  • December 29Samoa and Tokelau move from east to west of the International Date Line, thereby skipping December 30, in order to align their time zones better with their main trading partners.[86]

Births

  • January 8Prince Vincent and Princess Josephine of Denmark

Deaths

Error: no text specified (help). Template:Further information

January

File:Gerry Rafferty.jpg

Gerry Rafferty

File:Bernd Eichinger (cropped).jpg

Bernd Eichinger

February

File:Jane Russell in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes trailer 3.jpg

Jane Russell

March

File:Alberto-granado-scaled.JPG

Alberto Granado

File:Taylor, Elizabeth posed.jpg

Elizabeth Taylor

  • March 4
    • Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, 30th Prime Minister of Nepal (b. 1924)
    • Simon van der Meer, Dutch Nobel physicist (b. 1925)
  • March 5Alberto Granado, Cuban writer and scientist (b. 1922)
  • March 6Ján Popluhár, Slovak footballer (b. 1935)
  • March 15Nate Dogg, American rapper (b. 1969)
  • March 17Michael Gough, British actor (b. 1916)
  • March 18Warren Christopher, American diplomat (b. 1925)
  • March 21Nikolai Andrianov, Soviet-Russian gymnast (b. 1952)
  • March 23Elizabeth Taylor, British-American actress (b. 1932)
  • March 26
    • Paul Baran, Polish-American computer engineer (b. 1926)
    • Geraldine Ferraro, American politician (b. 1935)
    • Diana Wynne Jones, British writer (b. 1934)
  • March 27Farley Granger, American actor (b. 1925)
  • March 29José Alencar, Brazilian politician (b. 1931)

April

File:William n lipscomb jr.jpg

William Lipscomb

  • April 5
    • Baruch Samuel Blumberg, American physician (b. 1925)
    • Ange-Félix Patassé, 5th President of the Central African Republic (b. 1937)
  • April 9Sidney Lumet, American film director (b. 1924)
  • April 14William Lipscomb, American chemist (b. 1919)
  • April 19Grete Waitz, Norwegian athlete (b. 1953)
  • April 24Sathya Sai Baba, Indian spiritual leader (b. 1926)
  • April 30Ernesto Sabato, Argentine writer (b. 1911)

May

File:Osama bin Laden portrait.jpg

Osama bin Laden

File:Rosalyn Yalow.jpg

Rosalyn Yalow

  • May 2Osama bin Laden, Saudi-born leader of Al-Qaeda (b. 1957)
  • May 3Jackie Cooper, American actor (b. 1922)
  • May 7
    • Seve Ballesteros, Spanish golfer (b. 1957)
    • Willard Boyle, Canadian Nobel physicist (b. 1924)
  • May 9Lidia Gueiler Tejada, 67th President of Bolivia (b. 1921)
  • May 16Samuel Wanjiru, Kenyan athlete (b. 1986)
  • May 19Garret FitzGerald, 7th Taoiseach of Ireland (b. 1926)
  • May 20Randy Savage, American professional wrestler (b. 1952)
  • May 27
  • May 29
    • Sergei Bagapsh, Georgian-born politician (b. 1949)
    • Ferenc Mádl, 2nd President of Hungary (b. 1931)
  • May 30Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, American physicist (b. 1921)
  • May 31Pauline Betz, American tennis player (b. 1919)

June

File:KevorkianUCLARoyce.jpg

Jack Kevorkian

File:Columbo Peter Falk 1973.JPG

Peter Falk

  • June 3
    • James Arness, American actor (b. 1923)
    • Jack Kevorkian, American euthanasia advocate (b. 1928)
  • June 4Lawrence Eagleburger, American diplomat (b. 1930)
  • June 5Ludo Martens, Belgian writer and political activist (b. 1946)
  • June 7Jorge Semprún, Spanish writer and politician (b. 1923)
  • June 9
    • M. F. Husain, Indian painter (b. 1915)
    • Tomoko Kawakami, Japanese voice actress (b. 1970)
  • June 10Patrick Leigh Fermor, British travel writer, scholar and soldier (b. 1915)
  • June 18
    • Frederick Chiluba, 2nd President of Zambia (b. 1943)
    • Clarence Clemons, American musician and actor (b. 1942)
  • June 23Peter Falk, American actor (b. 1927)

July

File:ItamarFranco.jpg

Itamar Franco

File:Amy Winehouse f4962007 crop.jpg

Amy Winehouse

  • July 2Itamar Franco, 37th President of Brazil (b. 1930)
  • July 4Archduke Otto of Austria, (b. 1912)
  • July 5Cy Twombly, American painter (b. 1928)
  • July 8
    • Betty Ford, American feminist, activist, philanthropist and former First Lady of the United States (b. 1918)
    • Roberts Blossom, American actor and poet (b. 1924)
  • July 10Roland Petit, French choreographer and dancer (b. 1924)
  • July 12Tom Gehrels, American astronomer (b. 1925)
  • July 17Juan María Bordaberry, 36th President of Uruguay (b. 1928)
  • July 20Lucian Freud, German-born British painter (b. 1922)
  • July 23
    • Robert Ettinger, American academic (b. 1918)
    • Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, 8th Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam (b. 1930)
    • Amy Winehouse, British singer (b. 1983)
  • July 25Mihalis Kakogiannis, Cypriot filmmaker (b. 1922)
  • July 28Abdul Fatah Younis, Libyan army commander (b. 1944)
  • July 30Mario Echandi Jiménez, 47th President of Costa Rica (b. 1915)

August

Template:Double image

  • August 2Baruj Benacerraf, Venezuelan-born American Nobel immunologist (b. 1920)
  • August 3Bubba Smith, American football player and actor (b. 1945)
  • August 7
    • Harri Holkeri, 57th Prime Minister of Finland (b. 1937)
    • Nancy Wake, New Zealand-born French Resistance fighter (b. 1912)
  • August 14Shammi Kapoor, Indian film actor and director (b. 1931)
  • August 16Andrej Bajuk, 3rd Prime Minister of the Republic of Slovenia (b. 1943)
  • August 19Raúl Ruiz, Chilean film director (b. 1941)
  • August 22
    • Jack Layton, Canadian politician (b. 1950)
    • Vicco von Bülow, German actor, comedian, humorist, cartoonist, film director (b. 1923)
  • August 31Valery Rozhdestvensky, Soviet-Russian cosmonaut (b. 1939)

September

File:Mossbauer.jpg

Rudolf Mössbauer

File:Wangari Maathai no Brasil.jpg

Wangari Maathai

  • September 7 – Victims of the 2011 Lokomotiv Yaroslavl air disaster
    • Vitaly Anikeyenko, Ukrainian-Russian hockey player (b. 1987)
    • Mikhail Balandin, Russian hockey player (b. 1980)
    • Gennady Churilov, Russian hockey player (b. 1987)
    • Pavol Demitra, Slovakian hockey player (b. 1974)
    • Robert Dietrich, Kazakhstani-German hockey player (b. 1986)
    • Marat Kalimulin, Russian hockey player (b. 1988)
    • Alexander Kalyanin, Russian hockey player (b. 1987)
    • Alexander Karpovtsev, Russian hockey player (b. 1970)
    • Andrei Kiryukhin, Russian hockey player (b. 1987)
    • Nikita Klyukin, Russian hockey player (b. 1989)
    • Igor Korolev, Russian hockey player (b. 1970)
    • Stefan Liv, Polish-born Swedish hockey player (b. 1980)
    • Jan Marek, Czech hockey player (b. 1979)
    • Brad McCrimmon, Canadian hockey player (b. 1959)
    • Sergei Ostapchuk, Belarusian hockey player (b. 1990)
    • Karel Rachůnek, Czech hockey player (b. 1979)
    • Ruslan Salei, Belarusian hockey player (b. 1974)
    • Maxim Shuvalov, Russian hockey player (b. 1993)
    • Kārlis Skrastiņš, Latvian hockey player (b. 1974)
    • Pavel Snurnitsyn, Russian hockey player (b. 1992)
    • Daniil Sobchenko, Ukrainian-Russian hockey player (b. 1991)
    • Ivan Tkachenko, Russian hockey player (b. 1979)
    • Pavel Trakhanov, Russian hockey player (b. 1978)
    • Yuri Urychev, Russian hockey player (b. 1991)
    • Josef Vašíček, Czech hockey player (b. 1980)
    • Alexander Vasyunov, Russian hockey player (b. 1988)
    • Alexander Vyukhin, Ukrainian-Russian hockey player (b. 1973)
    • Artem Yarchuk, Russian hockey player (b. 1990)
  • September 8Võ Chí Công, 5th President of Vietnam (b. 1912)
  • September 10Cliff Robertson, American actor (b. 1923)
  • September 11Andy Whitfield, Welsh actor and model
  • September 12Alexander Galimov, Russian hockey player (b. 1985)
  • September 13Richard Hamilton, British painter and collage artist (b. 1922)
  • September 14Rudolf Mössbauer, German Nobel physicist (b. 1929)
  • September 19George Cadle Price, 1st Prime Minister of Belize (b. 1919)
  • September 20Burhanuddin Rabbani, President of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996 (b. 1940)
  • September 22Aristides Pereira, 1st President of Cape Verde (b. 1923)
  • September 25Wangari Maathai, Kenyan veterinary anatomist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (b. 1940)
  • September 27Imre Makovecz, Hungarian architect (b. 1935)
  • September 30
    • Anwar al-Awlaki, American-born terrorist and Islamist militant (b. 1971)
    • Ralph M. Steinman, Canadian Nobel immunologist and cell biologist (b. 1943)

October

File:Steve Jobs Headshot 2010-CROP.jpg

Steve Jobs

File:Muammar al-Gaddafi 1-1.jpg

Muammar Gaddafi

November

File:Joe Frazier awarded by the Daily News.jpg

Joe Frazier

December

File:Kim Jong-il on August 24, 2011.jpg

Kim Jong-il

File:Václav Havel cut out.jpg

Václav Havel

  • December 1Christa Wolf, German writer (b. 1929)
  • December 4Sócrates, Brazilian footballer (b. 1954)
  • December 5Violetta Villas, Polish singer (b. 1938)
  • December 7Harry Morgan, American actor (b. 1915)
  • December 8 – Sir Zelman Cowen, 19th Governor-General of Australia (b. 1919)
  • December 14Joe Simon, American comic book writer and artist (b. 1913)
  • December 15Christopher Hitchens, British-American writer (b. 1949)
  • December 17
    • Cesária Évora, Cape Verdean singer (b. 1941)
    • Kim Jong-il, Supreme Leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (b. 1941)
  • December 18Václav Havel, Czech playwright, 10th President of Czechoslovakia and 1st President of the Czech Republic (b. 1936)
  • December 24Johannes Heesters, Dutch actor and singer (b. 1903)
  • December 27
    • Clifford Darling, 4th Governor-General of the Bahamas (b. 1922)
    • Helen Frankenthaler, American abstract expressionist painter (b. 1928)

Nobel Prizes

In fiction

Error: no text specified (help).

References

  1. "United Nations Observances". United Nations. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  2. "Estonia becomes 17th member of the euro zone 31/12/2010 BBC News". BBC News. December 31, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
  3. Gardner, Frank (December 17, 2011). "Tunisia one year on: Where the Arab Spring started". BBC News. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  4. "Vegetable seller who inspired Arab Spring honoured". CBC News. Associated Press. December 17, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  5. "Al-ManarTV:: South Sudan Referendum Wraps up, Khartoum Vows to Recognize Results 15/01/2011". Almanar.com.lb. January 15, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.Template:FixTemplate:Cbignore
  6. Sudan referendum: what's being voted on and what will happen? The Telegraph. 8 January 2011
  7. Wyre Davies (December 15, 2010). "BBC News – Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ali forced out". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  8. "Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime". Indybay. January 16, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  9. Amie Ferris-Rotman (January 24, 2011). "Suicide bomber kills 31 at Russia's biggest airport". Reuters. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  10. Число жертв теракта в Домодедово возросло до 37 (in Russian). RIA Novosti. February 24, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  11. Steve Rosenberg (January 24, 2011). "Moscow bombing: Carnage at Russia's Domodedovo airport". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  12. "Hosni Mubarak resigns as president". Al Jazeera. February 11, 2011. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  13. Dicolo, Jerry A.; Baskin, Brian (February 22, 2011). "The Stealth Return of $100 Oil". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  14. "Japan earthquake live blog: Death toll rises amid widespread destruction". CNN blog. TimeWarner. March 12, 2011. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  15. Staff writer (March 15, 2011). "Bahrain King Declares State of Emergency after Protests". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 5, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  16. Staff writer (March 15, 2011). "Two Killed in Bahrain Violence Despite Martial Law". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 5, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  17. "libyafeb17.com". libyafeb17.com. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
  18. "World leaders launch military action in Libya". MSNBC.com. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  19. Kirkpatrick, David D.; Bumiller, Elisabeth (March 19, 2011). "France Sends Military Flights Over Libya". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  20. "Gbagbo, wife in Ouattara's custody in I.Coast: UN". Reuters. April 11, 2011. Archived from the original on April 26, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  21. Grimley, Naomi (April 29, 2011). "Royal wedding: The world watches William and Kate". BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
  22. Goldman, Adam; Brummitt, Chris (May 2, 2011). "Bin Laden's demise: Long pursuit, burst of gunfire". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 16, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  23. "Portugal's 78bn euro bail-out is formally approved". BBC Business News. May 16, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
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