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2003 by topic:
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AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBangladeshThe BahamasBahrainBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaComorosCroatiaCubaCyprusCzechiaDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEstoniaEthiopiaEuropean UnionFijiFinlandFranceGabonGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGuatemalaGuineaGuyanaHaitiHondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyIvory CoastJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKosovoKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLithuaniaLuxembourgMacauMadagascarMarshall IslandsMalawiMalaysiaMaliMaltaMauritaniaMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMongoliaMontenegroMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNauruNamibiaNepalNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorth KoreaNorth MacedoniaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPalestinePanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSamoaSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSomaliaSouth AfricaSolomon IslandsSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe
Other topics
Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Works and introductions categories
Works entering the public domain
2003 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2003
Ab urbe condita2756
Armenian calendar1452
Assyrian calendar6753
Bahá'í calendar159–160
Balinese saka calendar1924–1925
Bengali calendar1410
Berber calendar2953
British Regnal year51 Eliz. 2 – 52 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2547
Burmese calendar1365
Byzantine calendar7511–7512
Chinese calendar壬午(Water Horse)
4699 or 4639
    — to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
4700 or 4640
Coptic calendar1719–1720
Discordian calendar3169
Ethiopian calendar1995–1996
Hebrew calendar5763–5764
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2059–2060
 - Shaka Samvat1924–1925
 - Kali Yuga5103–5104
Holocene calendar12003
Igbo calendar1003–1004
Iranian calendar1381–1382
Islamic calendar1423–1424
Japanese calendarHeisei 15
Javanese calendar1935–1936
Juche calendar92
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4336
Minguo calendarROC 92
Nanakshahi calendar535
Thai solar calendar2546
Tibetan calendar阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
2129 or 1748 or 976
    — to —
(female Water-Goat)
2130 or 1749 or 977
Unix time1041379200 – 1072915199

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2003rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 3rd year of the , the 3rd year of the , and the 4th year of the decade.

2003 was designated the International Year of the Fresh water.[1]

In 2003, a United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, starting the Iraq War.

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  • January 5Tel Aviv central bus station: Two Palestinian suicide bombers attack a neighborhood in Tel Aviv, killing at least 23 people and injuring 103.[2]
  • January 8Air Midwest Flight 5481 crashed into a hangar upon takeoff in Charlotte, North Carolina, killing all 21 passengers and crew.[3]
  • January 10 – North Korea announces its withdrawal from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.[4]
  • January 22
    • The last signal from NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, some 12.2 billion kilometers (7.6 billion mi) from Earth.[5]
  • January 29 – Riots break out in Phnom Penh, Cambodia targeting Thai nationals after false reports that a Thai actress made comments about a temple. Thailand severs diplomatic relations with Cambodia in response.[6]
  • January 30Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so.[7]


  • February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all 7 astronauts on board.[8]
  • February 4 – The leaders of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reconstitute the country into a loose state-union between Montenegro and Serbia, marking an end to the 85 year old Yugoslav state.[9]
  • February 15 – Millions of people worldwide take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States and its allies invade Iraq.[10]
  • February 20The Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island kills 100 people and injures 230.
  • February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government.[11]
  • February 27 – Former Bosnian Serb leader Biljana Plavšić is sentenced by the U.N. ICTY to 11 years in prison for war crimes committed during the Bosnian War.[12]


  • March 8Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[13]
  • March 12
    • Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper.[14]
    • The World Health Organization issues a global alert on severe acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong and Vietnam after originating in China.[15]
  • March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and allied forces.[16]
  • March 23Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum.[17]



  • May 1 – U.S President George W. Bush gives a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq War.[21]
  • May 11
    • Benvenuto Cellini's Cellini Salt Cellar table sculpture is stolen from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.[22]
    • Lithuania approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[23]
  • May 12 – In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 30 people are killed in multiple bombings at a housing compound, mostly foreign expatriates.[24]
  • May 17Slovakia approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[25]
  • May 19Insurgency in Aceh: The Indonesian military begins a massive military operation in Aceh against Free Aceh Movement separatists.[26]
  • May 21 – A 6.8 magnitude earthquake strikes northern Algeria with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock generated a destructive tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea and left over a thousand people dead and 7,000 more injured.[27]
  • May 23Dewey, the first deer cloned by scientists at Texas A&M University, is born.[28]
  • May 28Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists, is born.[29]


  • June 8Poland approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[30]
  • June 14 – The Czech Republic approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[31]
  • June 26 – The Supreme Court of the United States, in a landmark ruling, strikes down sodomy laws and rules them to be unconstitutional, effectively legalizing homosexual sodomy nationwide.[32]
  • June 30 – Warring parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo sign a peace accord, bringing an end to the Second Congo War, which left millions dead.[33]


  • July 1500,000 people in Hong Kong march to protest Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23, which controversially redefines treason.[34]
  • July 5 – Severe acute respiratory syndrome is declared to be contained by the World Health Organization.[35]
  • July 6 – The 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message Cosmic Call 2 to 5 stars: Hip 4872, HD 245409, 55 Cancri, HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris, that will arrive at these stars in 2036, 2040, May 2044, September 2044 and 2049 respectively.[citation needed]
  • July 8Sudan Airways Flight 139, with 117 people on board, crashes in Sudan; the only survivor is a 2-year-old child.[36]
  • July 18 – The Convention on the Future of Europe finishes its work and proposes the first European Constitution.[37]
  • July 22Uday and Qusay Hussein, sons of Saddam Hussein, are killed by the U.S. military in a shootout at a house in Mosul.[38]
  • July 24 – The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands, led by Australia, begins after ethnic violence engulfs the island country.[39]


  • August 11
    • The Second Liberian Civil War comes to end after President Charles Taylor resigns and flees the country.[40]
    • NATO takes over command of the peacekeeping force in Afghanistan, marking its first major operation outside Europe in its 54-year-history.[41]
  • August 25 – The Spitzer Space Telescope is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.[42]
  • August 27
    • Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in over 60,000 years.[43]
    • The first six-party talks, involving South and North Korea, the United States, China, Japan and Russia, convene to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.


File:UStanks baghdad 2003.JPEG

U.S. troops in Baghdad after the United States invaded Iraq, November 13, 2003.

  • September 3 – The Hubble Space Telescope starts the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, making 800 exposures, until January 16, 2004.[44]
  • September 4 – Europe's busiest shopping centre, the Bull Ring in Birmingham, is officially opened.[45]
  • September 14Estonia approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[46]
  • September 15ELN rebels kidnap eight foreign tourists at Ciudad Perdida, Colombia, being freed 100 days later following negotiations with the Colombian government.[47]
  • September 20Latvia approves joining the European Union in a referendum.[48]
  • September 27SMART-1, a European Space Agency satellite and Europe's first mission to the moon, is launched.[49]


  • October 5Israeli warplanes strike alleged Islamic jihad bases inside Syrian territory, the first Israeli attack on the country since the 1973 Yom Kippur War.[50]
  • October 15 – China launches Shenzhou 5, their first manned spaceflight.[51]
  • October 24 – The Concorde makes its last commercial flight, bringing the era of airliner supersonic travel to a close.[52]


  • November 12A suicide bombing at an Italian military police headquarters in Nasiriyah, Iraq, kills 17 Italian military police officers and nine Iraqi civilians.[53]
  • November 18 – The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court declares in a landmark ruling that only opposite-sex couples having the right to marry is unconstitutional, paving the way for Massachusetts to become the first U.S. State to legalize same-sex marriage.[54]
  • November 23Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze resigns after widespread protests engulf the country following a disputed parliamentary election.[55]


  • December 13 – Saddam Hussein, former President of Iraq, is captured in the small town of Ad-Dawr by the U.S. Army.[56]
  • December 19Libya agrees to eliminate all of its materials, equipment, and programs aimed at producing weapons of mass destruction.[57]
  • December 23 – The World Tourism Organization becomes a specialized agency of the United Nations.[58]
  • December 26 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake shakes southeastern Iran with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing tens of thousands of people.[59]


  • January 6MattyBRaps, American rapper
  • August 18Max Charles, American child actor
  • August 20Prince Gabriel of Belgium
  • August 28Quvenzhané Wallis, American child actress
  • November 8Lady Louise Windsor, daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Sophie, Countess of Wessex
  • December 7Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, daughter of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Queen Maxima


Main article: Deaths in 2003


File:Maurice gibb.jpg

Maurice Gibb

File:Fred Rogers, late 1960s.jpg

Fred Rogers


File:Fidel Sanchez Hernandez.JPG

Fidel Sánchez Hernández

  • February 1
    • Michael P. Anderson, American astronaut (b. 1959)
    • David M. Brown, American astronaut (b. 1956)
    • Kalpana Chawla, American astronaut (b. 1962)
    • Laurel Clark, American astronaut (b. 1961)
    • Rick Husband, American astronaut (b. 1957)
    • William McCool, American astronaut (b. 1961)
    • Ilan Ramon, Israeli fighter pilot and astronaut (b. 1954)
  • February 2Lou Harrison, American composer (b. 1917)
  • February 10Curt Hennig, American professional wrestler (b. 1958)
  • February 20Maurice Blanchot, French philosopher and writer (b. 1907)
  • February 27
    • Fred Rogers, American children's television host (b. 1928)
    • Wolfgang Larrazábal, President of Venezuela (b. 1911)
  • February 28Fidel Sánchez Hernández, 45th President of El Salvador (b. 1917)



Daniel Patrick Moynihan


File:Nina Simone 1965.jpg

Nina Simone


File:Sadruddin Aga Khan (1991) by Erling Mandelmann.jpg

Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan

  • May 11Noel Redding, English musician (b. 1946)
  • May 12Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, French U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (b. 1933)
  • May 14
    • Wendy Hiller, English actress (b. 1912)
    • Robert Stack, American actor (b. 1919)
  • May 15
    • June Carter Cash, American singer (b. 1929)
    • Rik Van Steenbergen, Belgian cyclist (b. 1924)
  • May 24Rachel Kempson, English actress (b. 1910)
  • May 27Luciano Berio, Italian composer (b. 1925)
  • May 28
    • Ilya Prigogine, Russian-Belgian physicist and chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1917)
    • Martha Scott, American actress (b. 1912)


File:Gregory Peck 1948.jpg

Gregory Peck

File:Katharine Hepburn promo pic.jpg

Katharine Hepburn

  • June 10
    • Donald Regan, American Treasury Secretary (b. 1918)
    • Bernard Williams, English philosopher (b. 1929)
  • June 12Gregory Peck, American actor (b. 1916)
  • June 15
    • Hume Cronyn, Canadian actor (b. 1911)
    • Kaiser Matanzima, 1st President of Transkei (b. 1915)
  • June 21Leon Uris, American writer (b. 1924)
  • June 22Vasil Bykaŭ, Belarusian novelist (b. 1924)
  • June 26
    • Denis Thatcher, British businessman, husband of Margaret Thatcher (b. 1915)
    • Strom Thurmond, American politician (b. 1902)
    • Marc-Vivien Foé, Cameroonian footballer (b. 1975)
  • June 29Katharine Hepburn, American actress (b. 1907)
  • June 30Buddy Hackett, American comedian and actor (b. 1924)


File:Grand Gala du Disque Populaire 1974 - Barry White 927-0099.jpg

Barry White

File:Bob Hope, 1978.jpg

Bob Hope


File:Idi Amin -Archives New Zealand AAWV 23583, KIRK1, 5(B), R23930288.jpg

Idi Amin



Johnny Cash


Elia Kazan


File:Bertram Brockhouse.jpg

Bertram Brockhouse


Alija Izetbegović

  • October 2Otto Günsche, German adjutant of Adolf Hitler (b. 1917)
  • October 3William Steig, American cartoonist (b. 1907)
  • October 5
    • Timothy Treadwell, American environmentalist and filmmaker (b. 1957)
    • Neil Postman, American educator, media theorist, and cultural critic (b. 1931)
  • October 10Eugene Istomin, American pianist (b. 1925)
  • October 13Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
  • October 16
    • László Papp, Hungarian boxer (b. 1926)
    • Stu Hart, Canadian wrestling promoter (b. 1915)
  • October 19
    • Alija Izetbegović, 1st President of Bosnia and Herzegovina (b. 1925)
    • Michael Hegstrand American wrestler (b. 1957)
  • October 20Jack Elam, American actor (b. 1918)
  • October 21Elliott Smith, American musician (b. 1969)
  • October 23Soong Mei-ling, Chinese wife of Chiang Kai-shek (b. 1897)
  • October 24Veikko Hakulinen, Finnish cross-country skier (b. 1925)
  • October 27Rod Roddy, American television announcer (b. 1937)
  • October 29
    • Hal Clement, American writer (b. 1922)
    • Franco Corelli, Italian opera tenor (b. 1921)



Mike Lockwood


File:Heydar Aliyev 1997.jpg

Heydar Aliyev

Nobel Prize winners[]

  • ChemistryPeter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon
  • EconomicsRobert F. Engle, Clive W. J. Granger
  • LiteratureJohn Maxwell Coetzee
  • PeaceShirin Ebadi
  • PhysicsAlexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, Anthony James Leggett
  • Physiology or MedicinePaul Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield

In fiction[]

Main article: Works of fiction set in 2003


  1. "A/RES/55/196 - International Year of Freshwater - UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements". Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  2. "Suicide bombings kill 23 in Tel Aviv". CNN. January 6, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2022.
  3. "Loss of Pitch Control Caused Fatal Airliner Crash in Charlotte, North Carolina Last Year". National Transportation Safety Board. February 26, 2004. NTSB SB-04-03. Archived from the original on March 20, 2021.
  4. "North Korea withdraws from nuclear treaty". The Guardian. January 10, 2003. Retrieved December 14, 2022.
  5. Mewhinney, Michael (February 25, 2003). "Pioneer 10 Spacecraft Sends Last Signal". NASA. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  6. Aglionby, John (January 31, 2003). "Thais cut links with Cambodia after riots". The Guardian. Retrieved December 14, 2022.
  7. Harding, Gareth (January 31, 2003). "Belgium legalizes gay marriage". UPI. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  8. "The Columbia Space Shuttle Accident". Century of Flight. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  9. "The History of Serbia and Montenegro". Fact Rover. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  10. "Millions join global anti-war protests". BBC. February 17, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  11. "Q&A: Sudan's Darfur conflict". BBC News. February 23, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  12. Staff and agencies (February 27, 2003). "'Iron lady' jailed for Bosnia war crimes". the Guardian. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  13. "Malta votes 'yes' to EU membership". CNN. March 9, 2003. Archived from the original on March 13, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2016. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  14. "Djindjic murder suspect arrested". BBC. March 25, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  15. " - Timeline: SARS outbreak - Apr. 24, 2003". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Crichton, Kyle; Lamb, Gina; Jacquette, Rogene Fisher. "Timeline of Major Events in the Iraq War". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  17. Green, Peter S. (March 24, 2003). "Slovenia Votes for Membership in European Union and NATO". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  18. "Hungarians approve EU entry -". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  19. "Human genome finally complete". BBC. April 14, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  20. Schmitt, Eric (April 29, 2003). "U.S. to Withdraw All Combat Forces From Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  21. Roberts, Joel (April 30, 2004). "'Mission Accomplished' Revisited". CBS News. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  22. Bernstein, Richard (January 26, 2006). "For Stolen Saltcellar, A Cellphone Is Golden". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  23. "EU welcomes Lithuania vote". BBC. May 12, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  24. Al-awsat, Asharq (May 12, 2013). "The Riyadh Compound Bombings: Ten Years, and Ten Lessons, Later - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  25. "Slovakia welcomes EU membership with thumping referendum results". New Europe. May 25, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  26. Vries, Lloyd (May 19, 2003). "Indonesia Goes After Aceh Rebels". CBS News. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  27. " - Quake rescuers race against time - May. 22, 2003". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  28. Highfield, Roger (December 24, 2003). "Dewey the deer is latest clone". The Telegraph. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  29. Bhattacharya, Shaoni (August 6, 2003). "World's first cloned horse is born". New Scientist. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  30. "Poland says big Yes to EU". BBC. June 9, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  31. Green, Peter S. (June 15, 2003). "In Binding Ballot, Czechs Give Landslide Approval to 2004 Membership in European Union". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  32. The Associated Press (June 26, 2003). "Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Law Banning Sodomy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  33. Bamat, Joseph (November 15, 2011). "Timeline: Key dates in DR Congo's turbulent history". France24. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  34. "Huge protest fills HK streets". CNN. July 2, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  35. Branswell, Helen (March 11, 2013). "SARS 2013: 10 Years Ago SARS Went Around The World, Where Is It Now?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  36. "Child only survivor of Sudan crash". CNN. July 8, 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  37. "First European Constitution Drafted". Human and Constitutional Rights. July 18, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  38. Macfarquhar, Neil (July 23, 2003). "AFTER THE WAR: IRAQ; Hussein's 2 Sons Dead in Shootout, U.S. Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  39. "Operation Helpem Fren: Rebuilding the Nation of Solomon Islands". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  40. Agencies (August 11, 2003). "Liberian president Taylor steps down". the Guardian. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  41. Press, Associated (August 11, 2003). "Nato takes control of Afghanistan peace mission". the Guardian. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  42. "Spitzer Space Telescope". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  43. "Mars Opposition in August 2003 - Windows to the Universe". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  44. "The Hubble Space Telescope "Ultra Deep Field" View". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  45. "Historian says Bullring lacks heart". BBC. September 4, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  46. "Euroopa Liidu Infokeskus | Estonia's Accession to the EU |". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  47. "Ciudad Perpida Kidnappings and Modern History". La Ciudad Perpida. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  48. "Latvia in decisive 'yes' to EU". CNN. September 20, 2003. Archived from the original on October 8, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2016. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  49. Malik, Tariq (November 12, 2004). "Europe's First Moon Probe to Enter Lunar Orbit". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  50. Crean, Ellen (October 5, 2003). "Israel Strikes Base Inside Syria". CBS News. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  51. "Shenzhou-5 launch: long-cherished dream realized". People. October 15, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  52. Lawless, Jill (October 24, 2003). "Final Concorde Flight Lands at Heathrow". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  53. Burns, John F. (November 12, 2003). "At Least 26 Killed in a Bombing of an Italian Compound in Iraq". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  54. Kiritsy, Laura (November 18, 2004). "Goodridge celebrates its paper anniversary". Bay Windows. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  55. "Georgian Leader Resigns Amid Peaceful Opposition Standoff". PBS Newshour. November 24, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  56. Kreitner, Richard (December 13, 2015). "December 13, 2003: Saddam Hussein Is Captured". The Nation. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  57. "Libya: Nuclear Program Overview". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  58. "Tourism takes its place at United Nations". Kamloops This Week. February 8, 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  59. "Iran considers moving capital". BBC. January 5, 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2016.

External links[]

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