Script error: No such module "redirect hatnote". Script error: No such module "Unsubst". Template:Infobox Olympic games The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (Korean: Template:Korean; Template:IPA-ko), were an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. They were the second summer Olympic Games to be held in Asia and the first since the 1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo, Japan.

In the Seoul Games, 159 nations were represented by a total of 8,391 athletes: 6,197 men and 2,194 women. 263 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media (4,978 written press and 6,353 broadcasters) showed the Games all over the world.[1]

These were the last Olympic Games for two of the world's "dominating" sport powers, the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games.

North Korea, still officially at war with South Korea, and its allies, Albania (who declared an Olympic-record fourth consecutive boycott), Ethiopia, Cuba, Madagascar, and Seychelles boycotted the games. Nicaragua boycotted the games because of the U.S. military support to the Contra rebels. However, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest ever number of participating nations during the Cold War era.

Host city selection

Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya.[1] Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany.[2]

1988 Summer Olympics bidding result[3]
City Country Round 1
Seoul 23x15px South Korea 52
Nagoya 23x15px Japan 27

After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul also received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics.

Highlights

File:Seoul Olympic torch.jpg

South Koreans stand by the cauldron of the 1988 Summer Olympics.

File:Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Games.JPEG

Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul

  • Soviet Vladimir Artemov won four gold medals in gymnastics.[4] Daniela Silivaş of Romania won three and equalled compatriot Nadia Comăneci's record of seven Perfect 10s in one Olympic Games.[5]
  • After having demolished the world record in the 100 m dash at the Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, U.S. sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner set an Olympic record (10.62) in the 100-metre dash and a still-standing world record (21.34) in the 200-metre dash to capture gold medals in both events. To these medals, she added a gold in the 4×100 relay and a silver in the 4×400. Just after the Games, she announced her retirement.[6]
  • Canadian Ben Johnson won the 100 m final with a new world record, but was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol. Johnson has since claimed that his positive test was the result of sabotage.[7][8]
  • In the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team All-Around Competition, the US women's team was penalized with a deduction of five tenths of a point from their team score by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) after the compulsory round due to their Olympic team alternate Rhonda Faehn appearing on the podium for the uneven bars during the duration of Kelly Garrison-Steve's compulsory uneven bars routine, despite not competing, having been caught by the East German judge, Ellen Berger. The US finishes in fourth place after the completion of the optional rounds with a combined score of 390.575, three tenths of a point behind the German Democratic Republic. This still remains controversial in the sport of gymnastics, as the US performed better than the East German team and they would have taken the bronze medal in the team competition had they not been penalized or had an inquiry accepted to receive the points back. If they had medaled, it would have also been their first gymnastics medal in the team competition (men or women) and their first gymnastics medal overall on the women's side in a fully attended Olympics (disregarding the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics which were boycotted by the Soviet Union and East Germany) had the controversy not been visited in the first place.
  • Following the controversy involving the US women's team in artistic gymnastics, American gymnast Phoebe Mills won an individual bronze medal on the balance beam, shared with Romania's Gabriela Potorac, making history as the first medal (team or individual) ever won by an American woman in artistic gymnastics at a fully attended games (disregarding 1984).
  • The USSR (Soviet Union) won their final team gold medals in artistic gymnastics on both the men's and women's sides with scores of 593.350 and 395.475 respectively. The men's team was led by Vladimir Artemov, while Elena Shushunova lead the women's team.
  • Lawrence Lemieux, a Canadian sailor in the Finn class, was in second place and poised to win a silver medal when he abandoned the race to save an injured competitor. He arrived in 21st place, but was recognized by the IOC with the Pierre de Coubertin medal honoring his bravery and sacrifice.
  • U.S. diver Greg Louganis won back-to-back titles on both diving events, but only after hitting the springboard with his head in the 3 m event final. This became a minor controversy years later when Louganis revealed he knew he was HIV-positive at the time, and did not tell anybody. Since HIV cannot survive in open water, no other divers were ever in danger.
  • Christa Luding-Rothenburger of East Germany became the first (and only) athlete to win Olympic medals at the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympics in the same year. She added a cycling silver to the speed skating gold she won earlier in the Winter Olympics of that year in Calgary.[9]
  • Anthony Nesty of Suriname won his country's first Olympic medal by winning the 100 m butterfly, scoring an upset victory over Matt Biondi by .01 of a second (thwarting Biondi's attempt[10] of breaking Mark Spitz' record seven golds in one Olympic event); he was the first black person to win an individual swimming gold.[11]
  • Swimmer Kristin Otto of East Germany won six gold medals. Other multi-medalists in the pool were Matt Biondi (five)[12] and Janet Evans (three).[13]
  • Swedish fencer Kerstin Palm became the first woman to take part in seven Olympics.[1]
  • Swimmer Mel Stewart of the U.S. was the most anticipated to win the men's 200 m butterfly finalScript error: No such module "Unsubst".[14] but surprisingly, came in 5th.[15]
  • Mark Todd of New Zealand won his second consecutive individual gold medal in the three-day event in equestrian on Charisma, only the second time in eventing history that a gold medal has been won consecutively.[16]
  • Baseball[17] and Taekwondo[18] were demonstration sports. The opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in unison.
  • This was the last time the U.S. was represented by a basketball team that didn't feature NBA players;[19] the team won the bronze medal after being defeated by the Soviet Union which went on to win the gold medal.[20]
  • For the first time in history, all the dressage events were won by women.[21]
  • Women's judo was held for the first time, as a demonstration sport.[22]
  • Bowling was held as a demonstration sport, with Kwon Jong Yul of South Korea and Arianne Cerdeña from the Philippines winning the men's and women's gold medals, respectively.
  • Table tennis was introduced at the Olympics, with China and South Korea both winning two titles.[23]
  • Tennis returned to the Olympics after a 64-year absence,[24] and Steffi Graf added to her four Grand Slam victories in the year by also winning the Olympic title,[25] beating Sabatini in the final.[26]
  • Two Bulgarian weightlifters were stripped of their gold medals after failing doping tests, and the team withdrew after this event.[27]
  • Controversies occurred involving boxers including a gold medal being awarded to a Korean light-middleweight after having apparently been defeated by American boxer Roy Jones, Jr and an assault on a New Zealand referee by Korean officials after the referee cautioned a Korean bantamweight.[28]
  • Soviet weightlifter Yury Zakharevich won the men's heavyweight (up to 110 kg class) with a 210 kg snatch and 245 kg clean and jerk for a 455 kg total. Zakhareivich had dislocated his elbow in 1983 attempting a world record and had it rebuilt with synthetic tendons.
  • Indonesia gained its first medal in Olympic history when the women's team won a silver medal in archery.

Live doves were released during the opening ceremony as a symbol of world peace, but a number of the doves were burned alive or suffered major trauma by the lighting of the Olympic cauldron. As a result of protests following the incident, the last time live doves were released at the opening ceremony was in 1992 in Barcelona, hours before the flame was lit. Balloon doves were released in 1994 at the Lillehammer Winter Games and paper doves were used at the Atlanta Ceremony in 1996.[29]

These were also the last Summer Olympic Games to hold the Opening Ceremony during the daytime. The opening ceremony featured a skydiving team descending over the stadium and forming the five-colored Olympic Rings,[30] as well as a mass demonstration of taekwondo.

Significance of the 1988 Olympics in South Korea

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File:Seoul.Olympic.Stadium.01 copy.jpg

The Seoul Olympic Stadium seen from Han River, Seoul.

Hosting the 1988 Olympics presented an opportunity to bring international attention to South Korea.[31] The idea for South Korea to place a bid for the 1988 Games emerged during the last days of the Park Chung-hee administration in the late 1970s. After President Park’s assassination in 1979, Chun Doo-hwan, his successor, submitted Korea’s bid to the IOC in September 1981, in hopes that the increased international exposure brought by the Olympics would legitimize his authoritarian regime amidst increasing political pressure for democratization, provide protection from increasing threats from North Korea, and showcase the Korean economic miracle to the world community.[32] South Korea was awarded the bid on 30 September 1981, becoming the 20th nation (16th in the Summer Olympics), the second Asian nation (following Japan in the 1964 Summer Olympics).

In an attempt to follow the model of 1964 Tokyo Olympics as a rite of passage for the Japanese economy and re-integration of Japan in the family of nations in the post-war era, the South Korean government hoped to use the Olympics as a "coming-out party" for the newly industrialized Korean economy. The South Korean government hoped the Olympics would symbolize a new legitimacy of Korea in world affairs. The Olympics gave a powerful impetus to the development of South Korea's relations with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and with China.[33]

In utilizing media events theory, Larson and Park investigated the 1988 Seoul Olympics as a form of political communication. They revealed the significance of South Korea's military government throughout the period of the olympic bid and preparation, followed by the many advantages of the Seoul Olympics: rapid economic modernization, social mobilization, the legitimization of the military dictatorship, etc.[34]

1988 Summer Olympics boycott

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File:1988 Summer Olympics Seoul boycotting countries blue.png

Countries boycotting the 1988 Games are shaded blue

In preparation for the 1988 Olympics, the International Olympic Committee worked to prevent another Olympic boycott by the Eastern Bloc as had happened at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. This was made more difficult by the lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and socialist countries. This prompted action by the IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, who was committed to the participation of these countries. Thus, at the Assembly of National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Mexico Declaration" [1] was adopted; by it, the participants agreed to include the host of the Olympic Games in 1988.Template:Clarify The agreement of the Soviet Union brought a pledge of equal participation. However, various socialist National Olympic Committees reacted with incomprehension.Template:Clarify After the Los Angeles games, East Germany had already decided to participate again in Seoul. The IOC also decided that it would send invitations to the 1988 Games itself and did not leave this task to the organizing committee as had been done before. Despite these developments, behind the scenes, the IOC did consider relocating the Games and explored the suitability of Munich as an alternative.

Another point of conflict was the involvement of North Korea in hosting the Games, something that had been encouraged by Cuban president Fidel Castro, who called for North Korea to be considered joint host of the Games. As a result, on 8 and 9 January 1986 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the IOC President chaired a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be carried out on its territory, and also demanded special opening and closing ceremonies. It wanted a joint organizing committee and a united team. The negotiations were continued into another meeting, but were not successful. The IOC did not meet the demands of North Korea and only about half of the desired sporting events were offered to the North. So the focus thereafter was solely on Seoul and South Korea.[35]

North Korea boycotted the Games after the failed negotiations and was supported by Cuba, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. Albania and the Seychelles also did not attend, but, in order to avoid sanctions by the IOC, did not call their absence a boycott. The participation of Madagascar had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country joined the North Korean boycott.[36]

Camps for homeless

In the runup to the 1988 Olympics, the South Korean government ordered Seoul's "vagrants" to be cleared from the street.[37] Thousands of people, many of them small children, were sent to a "welfare facility" called "Brothers Home," where they were subject to vicious, often fatal beatings and routine rape.[38]

Official theme song

File:Seoul 1988 Torch.JPG

The official Olympic Torch used during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.

Script error: No such module "main". In 1988, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) decided to produce and distribute an official song of the Seoul Games to publicize the Games to all the IOC member nations, encouraging their participation in the festival and consolidating the harmony and friendship of the entire world citizens through the song. The song "Hand in Hand" was written by Italian composer Giorgio Moroder and American songwriter Tom Whitlock, and performed by singing group Koreana. "Hand in Hand" topped popular songs in 17 countries including Sweden, West Germany, the Philippines, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Japan and Hong Kong and was listed among the top 10s of the popular songs in more than 30 countries.

Venues

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File:Khitai6.jpg

The World Peace Gate in Seoul.

File:Seoul Olympic Swimming Pool.jpg

Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool.

File:Autumn Seoul Olympic Park.jpg

Seoul Olympic Park in autumn.

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Cost

According to The Oxford Olympics Study data are not available to establish the cost of the Seoul 1988 Summer Olympics.[39] Average cost for Summer Games since 1960, for which data are available, is USD 5.2 billion.

Medals awarded

The 1988 Summer Olympic programme featured 237 events in the following 23 sports:

File:Erich Buljung.JPEG

Erich Buljung shows a silver medal he won in the 10m air pistol competition at the 1988 Summer Olympics.

Demonstration sports

These were the demonstration sports in the games:[1]

Calendar

All times are local (UTC+10)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date September October
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
Archery
Athletics








Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing



Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals 5 7 9 14 17 12 30 26 9 15 9 11 36 37 9
Ceremonies
Date 17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
September October

Participating National Olympic Committees

File:1988 Summer Olympic games countries.png

Participants (blue nations had their first entrance).

File:1988 Summer olympics team numbers.gif

Number of athletes sent by each nation.

Athletes from 159 nations competed at the Seoul Games. Aruba, American Samoa, Brunei, Cook Islands, Maldives, Vanuatu, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and South Yemen made their first Olympic appearance at these Games. Guam made their first Summer Olympic appearance at these games having participated in the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Seoul:[40]

Participating National Olympic Committees
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  • Template:FlagIOC participated in the Opening Ceremonies and Closing Ceremonies, marking its first appearance at the Olympic Games, but its delegation consisted of only one swimming official.
  • When the team from the Dominican Republic marched in during the Parade of Nations, the superimposed map erroneously showed the location of Cuba.[41]

Medal count

Script error: No such module "main". These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1988 Games.

1 Template:FlagIOCteam 55 31 46 132
2 Template:FlagIOCteam 37 35 30 102
3 Template:FlagIOCteam 36 31 27 94
4 Template:FlagIOCteam 12 10 11 33
5 Template:FlagIOCteam 11 14 15 40
6 Template:FlagIOCteam 11 6 6 23
7 Template:FlagIOCteam 10 12 13 35
8 Template:FlagIOCteam 7 11 6 24
9 Template:FlagIOCteam 6 4 6 16
10 Template:FlagIOCteam 6 4 4 14

Template:Color box Host nation (South Korea)

Sponsors

Coca-Cola

Fujifilm

Korean Air

McDonald's

Nestlé

Nikon

Ricoh

Samsung

Visa Card

Mascot

The official mascot for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games was Hodori. It was a stylized tiger designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people.[42] Hodori's female version was called Hosuni.[43]

The name Script error: No such module "lang". Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the public. It is a compound of Script error: No such module "lang". ho, the Sino-Korean bound morpheme for "tiger" (appearing also in the usual word Script error: No such module "lang". horangi for "tiger"), and Script error: No such module "lang". dori, a diminutive for "boys".[42]

Broadcast rights

The games were covered by the following broadcasters:

See also

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Notes

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  35. "Sport and Politics on the Korean Peninsula – North Korea and the 1988 Seoul Olympics" NKIDP e-Dossier No. 3. Retrieved 23 April 2012
  36. de:Olympische Sommerspiele 1988#Sportpolitik
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External links

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Preceded by
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Summer Olympic Games
Seoul

XXIV Olympiad (1988)
Succeeded by
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Template:Olympic Games Template:NOCin1988SummerOlympics Template:EventsAt1988SummerOlympics Template:1988 Summer Olympic venues Template:Sports Emmy Award for Outstanding Live Sports Special Template:TCA Award for Outstanding Achievement in Sports


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