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The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.

Organisation

Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.[1]

Boycott

File:1986 Commonwealth Games (Edinburgh) boycotting countries (red).png

1986 Commonwealth Games boycotting countries dark red

The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, so that the Games appeared to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries—largely African, Asian and Caribbean states—stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest number of athletes since Auckland 1950.[2] Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[3]

Boycotting nations

Controversys

Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.[5]

Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent games.

Participating teams

File:Commonwealth games 1986 countries map.PNG

Participating countries

27 teams were represented at the 1986 Games.
(Teams competing for the first time are shown in bold).

Opening ceremony

The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium.[7]

Venues

Medals by country

1 Template:Country data England 52 43 49 144
2 23x15px Canada 51 34 31 116
3 23x15px Australia 40 46 35 121
4 23x15px New Zealand 8 16 14 38
5 Template:Country data Wales 6 5 12 23
6 Template:Country data Scotland 3 12 18 33
7 Template:Country data Northern Ireland 2 4 9 15
8 Template:Country data Isle of Man 1 0 0 1
9 Template:Country data Guernsey 0 2 0 2
10 Template:Country data Swaziland 0 1 0 1
11 23x15px Hong Kong 0 0 3 3
12 Template:Country data Malawi 0 0 2 2
13 Template:Country data Botswana 0 0 1 1
Template:Country data Jersey 0 0 1 1
Template:Country data Singapore 0 0 1 1
Total 163 163 176 502

Medals by event

Aquatics

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Athletics

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Badminton

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Bowls

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Boxing

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Light Flyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Flyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Bantamweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Featherweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Lightweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Light Welterweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Welterweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Light Middleweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
Middleweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
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Light Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
Super Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete

Cycling

Track

Men
Time Trial Template:Flagathlete 00:01:06 Template:Flagathlete 00:01:06 Template:Flagathlete 00:01:07
Sprint Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Individual Pursuit Template:Flagathlete 00:04:44 Template:Flagathlete 00:04:51 Template:Flagathlete 00:04:54
Team Pursuit Template:AUS
Glenn Clarke
Brett Dutton
Bill Hardy
Wayne McCarney
Dean Woods
00:04:27 Template:NZL
Gary Anderson
Russell Clune
Stephen Swart
Andrew Whitford
00:04:34 Template:ENG
Chris Boardman
Gary Colman
Rob Muzio
Jon Walshaw
Guy Rowland
overtaken
10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch Template:Flagathlete 00:19:41 Template:Flagathlete 00:19:41 Template:Flagathlete 00:19:41

Road

Men
Road Race Template:Flagathlete 04:08:50 Template:Flagathlete 04:08:50 Template:Flagathlete 04:08:50
Team Time Trial Template:ENG
Alan Gornall
Deno Davie
Keith Reynolds
Paul Curran
02:13:16 Template:NZL
Blair Cox
Graeme Miller
Gregory Fraine
Paul Leitch
02:14:50 Template:NIR
Alastair Irvine
Cormac McCann
Joseph Barr
Martin Quinn
02:16:13

Rowing

Men
Single sculls Template:ENG
Steve Redgrave
00:07:28 Template:AUS
Richard Powell
00:07:33 Template:NZL
Eric Verdonk
00:07:39
Double sculls Template:CAN
Bruce Ford
Pat Walter
00:06:19 Template:AUS
Paul Reedy
Brenton Terrell
00:06:21 Template:ENG
Carl Smith
Allan Whitwell
00:06:34
Coxless pairs Template:ENG
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
00:06:40 Template:NZL
Barrie Mabbott
Ian Wright
00:06:43 Template:SCO
Ewan Stuart
David Riches
00:06:43
Coxless fours Template:CAN
Grant Mann
Kevin Neufeld
Paul Steele
Pat Turner
00:06:01 Template:NZL
Andrew Stevenson
Shane O'Brien
Neil Gibson
Don Symon
00:06:01 Template:ENG
Graham Faultless
Richard Ireland
Mostyn Field
Humphrey Hatton
00:06:06
Coxed fours Template:ENG
Martin Cross
Adam Clift
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
Adrian Ellison
00:06:08 Template:NZL
Nigel Atherfold
Chris White
Greg Johnston
Bruce Holden
Andrew Bird
00:06:10 Template:AUS
Mark Doyle
James Galloway
Michael McKay
James Tomkins
Dale Caterson
00:06:11
Eights Template:AUS
Ion Popa
00:05:44 Template:ENG 00:05:46 Template:NZL
Mike Burrell[8]
Neil Gibson[9]
Barrie Mabbott[10]
Shane O'Brien[11]
Andrew Stevenson[12]
Don Symon[13]
Carl Vincent[14]
Ian Wright[15]
Andy Hay (cox)[16]
00:05:48
Lightweight single sculls Template:AUS
Peter Antonie
00:07:16 Template:CAN
Peter Tattersall
00:07:27 Template:ENG
Carl Smith
00:07:27
Lightweight coxless fours Template:ENG
Christopher Bates
Peter Haining
Neil Staite
Stuart Forbes
00:06:26 Template:AUS
Simon Cook
Brian Digby
Merrick Howes
Joseph Joyce
00:06:28 Template:CAN
Dave Henry
Brian Peaker
Bob Thomas
Ryan Tierney
00:06:36
Women
Single sculls Template:NZL
Stephanie Foster
00:07:43 Template:CAN
Lisa Wright
00:07:49 Template:ENG
Gillian Bond
00:07:53
Double sculls Template:NZL
Stephanie Foster
Robin Clarke
00:07:22 Template:CAN
Heather Clarke
Lisa Robertson
00:07:49 Template:ENG
Diane Prince
Claire Parker
00:07:55
Coxless pairs Template:CAN
Kathryn Barr
Andrea Schreiner
00:07:35 Template:ENG
Pauline Bird
Fiona Johnson
00:07:42 Template:AUS
Catherine Hall
Alison Smith
00:07:53
Coxed fours Template:CAN
Tina Clarke
Tricia Smith
Lesley Thompson
Jane Tregunno
Jenny Wallinga
00:06:50 Template:AUS
Debbie Bassett
Susan Chapman-Popa
Robyn Grey-Gardner
Marilyn Kidd
Kaylynn Fry
00:06:54 Template:ENG
Joanne Gough
Ann Callaway
Kate Holroyd
Patricia Reid
Alison Norrish
00:07:06
Eights Template:AUS 00:06:44 Template:ENG 00:06:46 Template:CAN NTT
Lightweight single sculls Template:AUS
Adair Ferguson
00:07:45 Template:NZL
Philippa Baker
00:07:46 Template:CAN
Heather Hattin
00:07:52
Lightweight coxless fours Template:ENG
Alexa Forbes
Gillian Hodges
Linda Clark
Judith Burne
00:06:55 Template:AUS
Deborah Clingeleffer
Amanda Cross
Virginia Lee
Karin Riedel
00:07:00 Template:CAN
Anne Drost
Marni Hamilton
Marlene van der Horst
Wendy Wiebe
00:07:01

Shooting

Pistol

Men/Open
Free Pistol Template:Flagathlete 551 Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
549
Free Pistol – Pairs Template:CAN
Tom Guinn
Claude Beaulieu
1099 Template:ENG
Paul Leatherdale
Richard Wang
1090 Template:AUS
Phil Adams
Bengt Sandström
1085
Centre-Fire Pistol Template:Flagathlete 583 Template:Flagathlete 582 Template:Flagathlete 580
Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs Template:AUS
Phil Adams
Rod Hack
1165 Template:ENG
Bob Northover
Michael Cutler
1157 Template:NZL
Rex Hamilton
Barry O'Neale
1153
Rapid-Fire Pistol Template:Flagathlete 591 Template:Flagathlete 588 Template:Flagathlete 585
Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs Template:ENG
Brian Girling
Terry Turner
1169 Template:AUS
Pat Murray
Jack Mast
1152 Template:CAN
Mark Howkins
André Chevrefils
1150
Air Pistol Template:Flagathlete 575 Template:Flagathlete 574 Template:Flagathlete 574
Air Pistol – Pairs Template:ENG
Paul Leatherdale
Ian Reid
1143 Template:AUS
Phil Adams
Bruce Favell
1143 Template:NZL
Greg Yelavich
Barrie Wickens
1140

Rifle

Men/Open
Small Bore Rifle, Prone Template:Flagathlete 599 Template:Flagathlete 598 Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
597
Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs Template:CAN
Michael Ashcroft
Gale Stewart
1175 Template:AUS
Donald Brook
Alan Smith
1171 Template:WAL
Terry Wakefield
Colin Harris
1165
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions Template:Flagathlete 1170 Template:Flagathlete 1167 Template:Flagathlete 1150
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs Template:ENG
Malcolm Cooper
Sarah Cooper
2278 Template:CAN
Jean-François Sénécal
Michael Dion
2276 Template:SCO
Alister Allan
Bill MacNeill
2241
Full Bore Rifle Template:Flagathlete 396 Template:Flagathlete 396 Template:Flagathlete 395
Full Bore Rifle – Pairs Template:CAN
Bill Baldwin
Alain Marion
583 Template:AUS
James Corbett
Stan Golinski
583 Template:NIR
David Calvert
Martin Millar
582
Air Rifle Template:Flagathlete 588 Template:Flagathlete 583 Template:Flagathlete 582
Air Rifle – Pairs Template:CAN
Guy Lorion
Sharon Bowes
1167 Template:AUS
Wolfgang Jobst
Anton Wurfel
1151 Template:ENG
Malcolm Cooper
Robert Smith
1146

Shotgun

Men/Open
Trap Template:Flagathlete 195 Template:Flagathlete 192 Template:Flagathlete 192
Trap – Pairs Template:ENG
Peter Boden
Ian Peel
185 Template:NIR
Tom Hewitt
Eamon Furphy
183 Template:AUS
Terry Rumbel
Domingo Diaz
183
Skeet Template:Flagathlete 196 Template:Flagathlete
Template:Flagathlete
195
Skeet – Pairs Template:ENG
Joe Neville
Ken Harman
195 Template:CAN
Brian Gabriel
Don Kwasyncia
193 Template:NZL
John Woolley
Jeff Farrell
189

Weightlifting

Men
Flyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 212.5 Template:Flagathlete 185 Template:Flagathlete 177.5
Bantamweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 245 Template:Flagathlete 217.5 Template:Flagathlete 215
Featherweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 252.5 Template:Flagathlete 250 Template:Flagathlete 235
Lightweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 315 Template:Flagathlete 307.5 Template:Flagathlete 290
Middleweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 302.5 Template:Flagathlete 300 Template:Flagathlete 270
Light Heavyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 350 Template:Flagathlete 325 Template:Flagathlete 317.5
Middle Heavyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 350 Template:Flagathlete 342.5 Template:Flagathlete 340
Sub Heavyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 360 Template:Flagathlete 332.5 Template:Flagathlete 327.5
Heavyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 375 Template:Flagathlete 372.5 Template:Flagathlete 370
Super Heavyweight – Overall Template:Flagathlete 392.5 Template:Flagathlete 347.5 Template:Flagathlete 342.5

Wrestling

Men
Light Flyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Flyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Bantamweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Featherweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Lightweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Welterweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Middleweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Light Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete
Super Heavyweight Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete Template:Flagathlete

See also

References

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  3. Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-11-02.
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  6. Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2015-08-19.
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External links

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