Culture Wikia

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1961 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1961
Ab urbe condita2714
Armenian calendar1410
Assyrian calendar6711
Bahá'í calendar117–118
Balinese saka calendar1882–1883
Bengali calendar1368
Berber calendar2911
British Regnal yearEliz. 2 – 10 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2505
Burmese calendar1323
Byzantine calendar7469–7470
Chinese calendar庚子(Metal Rat)
4657 or 4597
    — to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
4658 or 4598
Coptic calendar1677–1678
Discordian calendar3127
Ethiopian calendar1953–1954
Hebrew calendar5721–5722
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2017–2018
 - Shaka Samvat1882–1883
 - Kali Yuga5061–5062
Holocene calendar11961
Igbo calendar961–962
Iranian calendar1339–1340
Islamic calendar1380–1381
Japanese calendarShōwa 36
Javanese calendar1892–1893
Juche calendar50
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4294
Minguo calendarROC 50
Nanakshahi calendar493
Thai solar calendar2504
Tibetan calendar阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
2087 or 1706 or 934
    — to —
(female Iron-Ox)
2088 or 1707 or 935

1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1961st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 961st year of the , the 61st year of the , and the 2nd year of the decade.

As MAD Magazine pointed out on its cover for the March 1961 issue, this was the first "upside-up" year — i.e., one in which the numerals that form the year look the same as when the numerals are rotated upside down, a strobogrammatic number — since 1881.[1] The next such year will be 6009.[2] <templatestyles src="Template:TOC limit/styles.css" />



Main article: January 1961
  • January 3
    • United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces that the United States has severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba. Cuba–United States relations are later restored in 2015.
    • At the National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, atomic reactor SL-1 explodes, killing three military technicians.
    • Aero Flight 311 (Koivulahti air disaster): Douglas DC-3C OH-LCC of Finnish airline Aero crashes near Kvevlax (Koivulahti) on approach to Vaasa Airport in Finland killing all 25 on board, due to pilot error: an investigation finds that the captain and first officer were both exhausted for lack of sleep and had taken excessive alcohol at the time of the crash. It remains the deadliest air disaster to occur in the country.
  • January 5
    • Italian sculptor Alfredo Fioravanti marches into the U.S. Consulate in Rome, and confesses that he was part of the team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    • Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey (25th government).
  • January 7 – Following a four-day conference in Casablanca, five African chiefs of state announce plans for a NATO-type African organization to ensure common defense. The Charter of Casablanca involves the Casablanca Group: Morocco, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Guinea, and Mali.
  • January 8 – In France, a referendum supports Charles de Gaulle's policies on independence for Algeria.
  • January 9 – British authorities announce that they have discovered a large Soviet spy ring in London.
  • January 17
    • President Dwight Eisenhower gives his final State of the Union Address to Congress. In a Farewell Address the same day, he warns of the increasing power of a "military–industrial complex."
    • Patrice Lumumba of Republic of Congo is assassinated.
File:Jfk inauguration.jpg

Jan. 20: John F. Kennedy inaugurated as President of the U.S.

  • January 20John F. Kennedy is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • January 24 – A B-52 Stratofortress, with two nuclear bombs, crashes near Goldsboro, North Carolina.
  • January 25
    • In Washington, D.C., President John F. Kennedy delivers the first live presidential news conference. In it, he announces that the Soviet Union has freed the two surviving crewmen of a USAF RB-47 reconnaissance plane shot down by Soviet flyers over the Barents Sea July 1, 1960 (see RB-47H shot down).
    • One Hundred and One Dalmatians is released in cinemas.
    • Acting to halt 'leftist excesses', a junta composed of two army officers and four civilians takes over El Salvador, ousting another junta that had ruled for three months.
    • Jânio Quadros is elected president of Brazil. He later resigns on August 25.
  • January 26 – President John F. Kennedy appoints Janet G. Travell to be his physician, the first woman to hold this appointment.
  • January 28Supercar, the first family sci-fi TV series filmed in Supermarionation debuts on ATV.
  • January 30 – President John F. Kennedy delivers his first State of the Union Address.
  • January 31Ham the Chimp, a 37-pound (17-kg) male, is rocketed into space aboard Mercury-Redstone 2, in a test of the Project Mercury capsule, designed to carry United States astronauts into space.


Main article: February 1961


Main article: March 1961
  • March–April – Drilling for Project Mohole is undertaken off the coast of Guadalupe Island, Mexico.
  • March 1 – United States President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
  • March 3Hassan II is crowned King of Morocco.
  • March 8
    • Max Conrad circumnavigates the earth in 8 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes, setting a new world record.
    • The first U.S. Polaris submarines arrive at Holy Loch.
  • March 13
    • Black and white £5 notes cease to be legal tender in the UK.
    • A dam bursts in Kiev, USSR, killing 145.
    • United States delegate to the United Nations Security Council Adlai Stevenson votes against Portuguese policies in Africa.
    • United States President John F. Kennedy proposes a long-term "Alliance for Progress" between the United States and Latin America.[5]
    • Cyprus joins the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming the first small country in the Commonwealth.[6]
    • Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, takes in its first students.
    • A second B-52 crashes near Yuba City, California after cabin pressure is lost and the fuel runs out. Two nuclear weapons are found unexploded.
  • March 15
    • South Africa withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations. The nation rejoins the organization in 1994.
    • The Union of Peoples of Angola, led by Holden Roberto, attacks strategic locations in the north of Angola. These events result in the beginning of the colonial war with Portugal.
  • March 18
    • A ceasefire takes effect in the Algerian War of Independence.
    • Nous les amoureux by Jean-Claude Pascal (music by Jacques Datin, text by Maurice Vidalin) wins the Eurovision Song Contest 1961 for Luxembourg.
  • March 29 – The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to vote in presidential elections.
  • March 30 – The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed at New York.


Main article: April 1961
  • April 5 – The New Guinea Council of Western Papua is installed.
  • April 8 – The British passenger ship Dara blows up and sinks off Dubai; 238 passengers and crew are killed.
  • April 11 – The trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
  • April 12
    • Vostok 1: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in space, orbiting the Earth once.
    • Albert Kalonji takes the title Emperor Albert I Kalonji of South Kasai.
  • April 13 – In Portugal, a coup attempt against António de Oliveira Salazar fails.
  • April 17
    • The Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba begins; it fails by April 19.
    • The 33rd Academy Awards ceremony is held.
  • April 18 – Portugal sends to Angola its first military reinforcement.
  • April 20Fidel Castro announces that the Bay of Pigs Invasion has been defeated.
  • April 22Algiers putsch: Four French generals who oppose de Gaulle's policies in Algeria fail in a coup attempt.
  • April 23Judy Garland performs in a legendary comeback concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
  • April 24 – The Swedish ship Vasa is removed from the water after being sunk 333 years earlier.
  • April 27
    • President Kennedy urges newspapers to consider national interest in times of struggle against "a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy" in an address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association.[7]
    • Sierra Leone becomes independent from the United Kingdom.


Main article: May 1961
  • May 4 – U.S. Freedom Riders begin interstate bus rides to test the new U.S. Supreme Court integration decision.
  • May 5Mercury program: Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space aboard Mercury-Redstone 3.
  • May 6Tottenham Hotspur F.C. becomes the first team in the 20th century to win the English league and cup double. This being the last time Tottenham won the English League.
  • May 8 – Briton George Blake is sentenced to 42 years imprisonment for spying.
  • May 9 – In a speech on "Television and the Public Interest" to the National Association of Broadcasters, FCC chairman Newton N. Minow describes commercial television programming as a "vast wasteland".
  • May 14African-American Civil Rights Movement: A Freedom Riders bus is fire-bombed near Anniston, Alabama and the civil rights protestors are beaten by an angry mob of Ku Klux Klan members.
  • May 15J. Heinrich Matthaei alone performs the Poly-U-Experiment and is the first person to recognize and understand the genetic code. This is the birthdate of modern genetics.[8]
  • May 16Park Chung-hee takes over in a military coup in South Korea.
  • May 19Venera 1 becomes the first man-made object to fly-by another planet by passing Venus (however, the probe had lost contact with Earth a month earlier and does not send back any data).
  • May 21African-American Civil Rights Movement: Alabama Governor John Patterson declares martial law in an attempt to restore order after race riots break out.
  • May 22 – An earthquake rocks New South Wales.
  • May 24African-American Civil Rights Movement: Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for "disturbing the peace" after disembarking from their bus.
  • May 25Apollo program: President Kennedy announces before a special joint session of Congress his goal to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decade.
  • May 27Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaya, holds a press conference in Singapore, announcing his idea to form the Federation of Malaysia, comprising Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo (Sabah).
  • May 28Peter Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners" is published in several internationally read newspapers. This is later considered the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International.
  • May 30Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, totalitarian despot of the Dominican Republic since 1930, is killed in an ambush, putting an end to the second longest-running dictatorship in Latin American history.
  • May 31
    • In France, rebel generals Maurice Challe and Andre Zelelr are sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    • South Africa officially leaves the Commonwealth of Nations.
    • President John F. Kennedy and Charles de Gaulle meet in Paris.
    • Benfica beats Barcelona 3-2 at Wankdorf Stadium, Bern and wins the 1960–61 European Cup (football).


Main article: June 1961
  • June 1Ethiopia experiences its most devastating earthquake of the 20th century, with a magnitude of 6.7. The town of Majete is destroyed, 45% of the houses in Karakore collapse, 17 kilometers (11 mi) of the main road north of Karakore are damaged by landslides and fissures, and 5,000 inhabitants in the area are left homeless.
  • June 4Vienna summit: John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev meet during two days in Vienna. They discuss nuclear tests, disarmament and Germany.
  • June 16 – Russian ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev requests asylum in France while in Paris with the Kirov Ballet.
  • June 17
    • A Paris-to-Strasbourg train derails near Vitry-le-François; 24 are killed, 109 injured.
    • The New Democratic Party of Canada is founded with the merger of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and the Canadian Labour Congress.
  • June 19 – The British protectorate ends in Kuwait and it becomes an emirate.
  • June 22Moise Tshombe is released for lack of evidence of connection to the murder of Patrice Lumumba.
  • June 23 – The Antarctic Treaty comes into effect.
  • June 25Iraqi president Abd al-Karim Qasim announces he is going to annex Kuwait (such an annexation of Kuwait would occur in 1990).
  • June 27 – Kuwait requests British help; the United Kingdom sends in troops.


Main article: July 1961
  • July 4 – The Soviet submarine K-19 reactor leak occurs in the North Atlantic.
  • July 5 – The first Israeli rocket, Shavit 2, is launched.[9][10]
  • July 8 – A mine explosion in Czechoslovakia leaves 108 dead.
  • July 12 – A Czechoslovakian Ilyushin Il-18 crashes while attempting to land at Casablanca, Morocco, killing all 72 persons on board.
  • July 17 – Baseball legend Ty Cobb dies at the age of 74 at Emory University Hospital.
  • July 21Mercury program: Gus Grissom, piloting the Mercury-Redstone 4 capsule Liberty Bell 7, becomes the second American to go into space (sub-orbital). Upon splashdown, the hatch prematurely opens, and the capsule sinks (it is recovered in 1999).
  • July 25 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy gives a widely watched TV speech on the Berlin crisis, warning "we will not be driven out of Berlin." Kennedy urges Americans to build fallout shelters, setting off a four-month debate on civil defense.
  • July 31
    • At Fenway Park in Boston, the first Major League Baseball All-Star Game tie occurs, when the game is stopped in the 9th inning due to rain (the only tie until 2002).
    • Ireland submits the first application from a non-founding country to join the European Economic Community.


Main article: August 1961
  • August – The United States founds the Alliance for Progress.
  • August 1 – The Six Flags Over Texas theme park officially opens to the public.
  • August 6Vostok 2: Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov becomes the second human to orbit the Earth, and the first to be in outer space for more than one day.
  • August 7 – Vostok 2 (with Titov on board) lands in the Soviet Union.
  • August 10 – The United Kingdom applies for membership in the European Economic Community.
  • August 13 – Construction of the Berlin Wall begins, restricting movement between East Berlin and West Berlin and forming a clear boundary between West Germany and East Germany, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. On August 22 Ida Siekmann jumps from a window in her tenement building trying to flee to the West, becoming the first of at least 138 people to die at the Wall.
  • August 21Jomo Kenyatta is released from prison in Kenya.
  • August 25João Goulart replaces Jânio Quadros as President of Brazil. He is ousted in 1964.


Main article: September 1961
  • September 1
    • The Eritrean War of Independence officially begins with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.
    • The first meeting is held of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Soviet Union resumes nuclear testing, escalating fears over the ongoing Berlin crisis.
  • September 7Tom and Jerry make a return with their first episode since 1958, Switchin' Kitten. The new creator, Gene Deitch, makes 12 more Tom and Jerry episodes until 1962.
  • September 10 – During the F1 Italian Grand Prix on the circuit of Monza, German Wolfgang von Trips, driving a Ferrari, crashes into a stand, killing 14 spectators and himself.
  • September 14
    • The new military government of Turkey sentences 15 members of the previous government to death.
    • The Focolare Movement opens its first North American center in New York.
  • September 17 – Military rulers in Turkey hang former prime minister Adnan Menderes.
  • September 18United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in an air crash en route to Katanga, Congo.
  • September 21 – In France, the OAS slips an anti-de Gaulle message into TV programming.
  • September 24
    • The old Deutsche Opernhaus in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg is returned to its newly rebuilt house as the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
    • In the U.S., the Walt Disney anthology television series, renamed Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color, moves from ABC to NBC after seven years on the air, and begins telecasting its programs in color for the first time. Years later, after Disney's death, the still-on-the-air program will be renamed The Wonderful World of Disney.
  • September 28 – A military coup in Damascus, Syria effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria.
  • September 30 – The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is formed to replace the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).


Main article: October 1961
  • October 1 – Baseball player Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hits his 61st home run in the last game of the season, against the Boston Red Sox, setting a new record for the longer baseball season. The record for the shorter season was still held by Babe Ruth.
  • October 10 – A volcanic eruption on Tristan da Cunha causes the whole population to be evacuated.
  • October 12 – The death penalty is abolished in New Zealand.
  • October 17Paris massacre of 1961: French police in Paris attack about 30,000 protesting a curfew applied solely to Algerians. The official death toll is 3, but human rights groups claim 240 dead.
  • October 18West Side Story is released as a film in the United States.
  • October 19 – The Arab League takes over protecting Kuwait; the last British troops leave.
  • October 25 – The first edition of Private Eye, the British satirical magazine, is published.
  • October 26Cemal Gürsel becomes the fourth president of Turkey. (His former title was head of state and government. By constitution referendum, he is elected as president.)
  • October 27
    • An armistice begins in Katanga, Congo.
    • Mongolia and Mauritania join the United Nations.
    • Confrontation at Checkpoint Charlie: A standoff between Soviet and American tanks in Berlin, Germany heightens Cold War tensions.
    • Fahrettin Özdilek becomes the acting prime minister of Turkey.
  • October 29
    • DZBB-TV Channel 7, the Philippines' third TV station, is launched.
    • Devrim has been released. The project was completed only in 130 days almost from scratch and this period includes decision of the project, research, design, development and production of four cars.
  • October 30
    • Nuclear weapons testing: The Soviet Union detonates a 58-megaton yield hydrogen bomb known as Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya. It remains the largest ever man-made explosion.
    • The Note Crisis: The Soviet Union issues a diplomatic note to Finland proposing military co-operation.
  • October 31
    • Hurricane Hattie devastates Belize City, Belize killing over 270. After the hurricane, the capital moves to the inland city of Belmopan.
    • Joseph Stalin's body is removed from the Lenin Mausoleum.


Main article: November 1961
  • November 1
    • The Hungry generation Movement is launched in Calcutta, India.
    • The Interstate Commerce Commission's federal order banning segregation at all interstate public facilities officially comes into effect.
    • The Madame Alexander Doll Club is founded by Margaret Doris Winson of Sweet Springs, MO.
  • November 2Kean opens at Broadway Theater in New York City for 92 performances.
  • November 3 – The United Nations General Assembly unanimously elects U Thant to the position of acting Secretary-General.
  • November 6 – The U.S. government issues a stamp honoring the 100th birthday of James Naismith.
  • November 8Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8 crashes while attempting to land at Richmond, Virginia, killing 77 persons on board.
  • November 9Neil Armstrong records a world record speed in a rocket plane of 6,587 km/h flying a X-15.
  • November 10Catch-22 by Joseph Heller is first published.
  • November 11
    • Congolese soldiers murder 13 Italian United Nations pilots.
    • Stalingrad is renamed Volgograd.
  • November 17Michael Rockefeller, son of New York Governor and later Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, disappears in the jungles of New Guinea.
  • November 18 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam.
  • November 20
    • The funeral of longtime House Speaker Sam Rayburn is held in Washington, D.C. Two former Presidents (Truman, Eisenhower) and one future one (Lyndon B. Johnson) join President Kennedy in paying their respects.
    • İsmet İnönü of CHP forms the new government of Turkey (26th government, first coalition in Turkey, partner AP)
  • November 21 – The "La Ronde" opens in Honolulu, the first revolving restaurant in the United States
  • November 24 – The World Food Programme (WFP) is formed as a temporary United Nations program.
  • November 30 – The Soviet Union vetoes Kuwait's application for United Nations membership.


Main article: December 1961
  • December 1Netherlands New Guinea raises the new Morning Star flag and changes its name to West Papua.
  • December 2Cold War: In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro announces he is a Marxist–Leninist, and that Cuba will adopt socialism.
  • December 5 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy gives support to the Volta Dam project in Ghana.
  • December 9
    • Tanganyika gains independence and declares itself a republic, with Julius Nyerere as its first President.
    • The Australian government of Robert Menzies is re-elected for a sixth term.
  • December 10 – The Soviet Union severs diplomatic relations with Albania.
  • December 11
    • The American involvement in the Vietnam War officially begins, as the first American helicopters arrive in Saigon along with 400 U.S. personnel.
    • Adolf Eichmann is pronounced guilty of crimes against humanity by a panel of three Israeli judges.
  • December 14Walt Disney's first live-action Technicolor musical, Babes in Toyland, a remake of the famous Victor Herbert operetta, is released, but flops at the box office.
  • December 15 – An Israeli war crimes tribunal sentences Adolf Eichmann to death for his part in The Holocaust.
  • December 17 – A circus tent fire in Niterói, Brazil kills 323.[11]
  • December 18 – India opens hostilities in its annexation of Portuguese India, the colonies of Goa, Damao and Diu.
  • December 19
    • The Portuguese surrender Goa to India after 400 years of Portuguese rule.
    • Indonesian president Sukarno announces that he will take West Irian by force if necessary.
  • December 21 – In Congo, Katangan prime minister Moise Tshombe recognizes the Congolese constitution.
  • December 23Luxembourg's national holiday, the Grand Duke's Official Birthday, is set on June 23 by Grand Ducal decree.
  • December 30 – Congolese troops capture Albert Kalonji of South Kasai (who soon escapes).
  • December 31 – Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann (later RTÉ), begins broadcasting.

Date unknown[]

  • "Barbie" gets a boyfriend when the "Ken" doll is introduced in the United States.
  • Sheila Burnford's The Incredible Journey, a story of three pets travelling through the Canadian wilderness, is published in the United Kingdom.



File:Wayne Coyne outside Wal-Mart.jpg

Wayne Coyne

File:Julia Louis-Dreyfus VF 2012 Shankbone 3.jpg

Julia Louis-Dreyfus

File:Wayne Gretzky 2006-02-18 Turin 001.jpg

Wayne Gretzky

  • January 1
    • Sergei Babayan, American classical pianist
    • Sam Backo, Australian rugby league footballer
  • January 2
    • Neil Dudgeon, English actor
    • Todd Haynes, American film director
  • January 5Iris DeMent, American singer-songwriter
  • January 7Supriya Pathak,Indian actress
  • January 8Calvin Smith, American athlete
  • January 9
    • Candi Milo, American voice actress
    • Al Jean, American television writer
  • January 10Mark Venturini, American actor (d. 1996)
  • January 11
    • Jasper Fforde, British fantasy novelist
    • Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, Austrian politician and noble
  • January 12Sean Blowers, English actor
  • January 13
  • January 14Mike Tramp, Danish rock singer (White Lion)
  • January 16Peter Tanfield, British concert violinist
  • January 17Maia Chiburdanidze, Georgian chess player
  • January 18
    • Peter Beardsley, English footballer
    • Mark Messier, Canadian hockey player
  • January 19William Ragsdale, American actor
  • January 22
    • Daniel Johnston, American singer-songwriter, musician, and artist
    • Shigeru Nakahara, Japanese voice actor
  • January 24Guido Buchwald, German football player
  • January 26
    • Sharyl Attkisson, American author and former television journalist and investigative correspondent
    • Wayne Gretzky, Canadian hockey player
    • Li Cunxin, Artistic Director for Queensland Ballet
  • January 28Arnaldur Indriðason, Icelandic writer
  • January 29Petra Thümer, German swimmer
  • January 30Dexter Scott King, son of Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • January 31Lloyd Cole, British singer and songwriter



Henry Rollins

  • February 1Volker Fried, German field hockey player
  • February 3Jim Balsillie, Canadian CEO and philanthropist
  • February 6Yuko Kobayashi, Japanese voice actress
  • February 8Vince Neil, American singer
  • February 9
    • John Kruk, American baseball player and commentator
    • Jussi Lampi, Finnish musician and actor
  • February 10George Stephanopoulos, American political consultant and commentator
  • February 11Mary Docter, American speed skater
  • February 13Henry Rollins, American musician and activist
  • February 14Latifa, Tunisian singer
  • February 17
    • Meir Kessler, Israeli rabbi
    • Andrey Korotayev, Russian anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist
  • February 18Hironobu Kageyama, Japanese singer
  • February 20Phil Powers, American alpinist
  • February 21
    • Dwayne McDuffie, African-American writer of comics and television (d. 2011)
    • Geoff Moore, American Christian musician
  • February 22Akira Takasaki, Japanese guitarist
  • February 25Davey Allison, American race car driver (d. 1993)
  • February 27James Worthy, American basketball player and analyst
  • February 28Mark Latham, Australian politician


  • March 3
    • Mary Page Keller, American actress
    • John Matteson, Pulitzer Prize-winning American biographer
  • March 4
    • Ray Mancini, American boxer
    • Steven Weber, American actor
    • Roger Wessels, South African golfer
  • March 9
    • Mike Leach, American college football coach
    • Rick Steiner, American professional wrestler
  • March 10
    • Mike Bullard, American hockey player
    • Laurel Clark, American astronaut (d. 2003)
    • Mitch Gaylord, American gymnast
  • March 14
    • Kim Boyce, American Christian musician
    • Gary Dell'Abate, American radio producer
    • Marc Koska, English businessman and inventor
  • March 16
    • Brett Kenny, Australian rugby league player
    • Michiru Ōshima, Japanese composer
  • March 17
    • Umayya Abu-Hanna, Palestine-born Finnish writer and politician
    • Alexander Bard, Swedish musician (Army of Lovers)
    • Sam Bowie, American basketball player
    • Dana Reeve, American actress, singer and activist (d. 2006)
  • March 21
    • Lothar Matthäus, German footballer
    • Kassie DePaiva, American actress
  • March 23
    • Ali Hewson, Irish activist and businesswoman
    • Helmi Johannes, Indonesian television newscaster
  • March 24Yanis Varoufakis, Greek economist, current Greek Finance Minister
  • March 25Reggie Fils-Aimé, American businessman
  • March 27Tak Matsumoto, Japanese guitarist (B'z)
  • March 28Byron Scott, American basketball player and coach
  • March 29
    • Amy Sedaris, American actress, comedian and writer
    • Gerardo Teissonniere, Puerto Rican pianist


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Eddie Murphy

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George Lopez

  • April 1
    • Susan Boyle, Scottish singer
    • Kujira, Japanese voice actress
  • April 2Christopher Meloni, American actor
  • April 3Eddie Murphy, African-American actor and comedian
  • April 5Lisa Zane, American actress
  • April 6Gene Eugene, Canadian actor and singer (d. 2000)
  • April 7Thurl Bailey, American basketball player
  • April 11Vincent Gallo, American actor
  • April 12Lisa Gerrard, Australian musician
  • April 14
    • Robert Carlyle, Scottish film and television actor
    • Neil Dougherty, American basketball coach (d. 2011)
  • April 17
    • Frank J. Christensen, American labor leader
    • Daphna Kastner, Canadian actress
  • April 18Jane Leeves, English actress
  • April 20
    • Konstantin Lavronenko, Russian actor
    • Don Mattingly, American baseball player
  • April 21Cathy Cavadini, American voice actress
  • April 23
    • Dirk Bach, German actor and comedian (d. 2012)
    • George Lopez, American actor and comedian
  • April 26Anthony Cumia, American radio personality
  • April 27Moana Pozzi, Italian porn actress (d. 1994)
  • April 28Futoshi Matsunaga, Japanese serial killer
  • April 29Fumihiko Tachiki, Japanese voice actor
  • April 30Isiah Thomas, African-American basketball player, coach, and team owner


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Joe Murray

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George Clooney

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Tim Roth



  • May 1Marilyn Milian, American judge
  • May 2Steve James, English snooker player
  • May 3
    • Joe Murray, American animator
    • David Vitter, U.S. Senator (R-LA)
  • May 4
    • Jay Aston, British singer (Bucks Fizz)
    • Mary Elizabeth McDonough, American actress, producer, director and author
  • May 5
    • Hiroshi Hase, Japanese professional wrestler
    • Sarah Zivale, American actress
  • May 6George Clooney, American actor
  • May 7Robert Spano, American conductor and pianist
  • May 8
    • Janet McTeer, British actress
    • Akira Taue, Japanese professional wrestler
  • May 9Rene Capo, American judoka (d. 2009)
  • May 10Danny Carey, American drummer (Tool, Pigmy Love Circus)
  • May 11
    • Paul Begala, American political commentator
    • Lar Park Lincoln, American actress
  • May 12Billy Duffy, British guitarist (The Cult)
  • May 13Dennis Rodman, African-American basketball player and actor
  • May 14
    • Tim Roth, English actor
    • Urban Priol, German Kabarett artist and comedian
  • May 16
    • Kevin McDonald, Canadian comedian and actor
    • Charles Wright, American professional wrestler
  • May 17Enya, Irish musician
  • May 18Jim Bowden, American baseball executive
  • May 20Clive Allen, British footballer
  • May 22Mike Breen, American sports announcer
  • May 23Karen Duffy, American actress
  • May 27Peri Gilpin, American actress
  • May 28Roland Gift, British singer and musician (Fine Young Cannibals)
  • May 29Melissa Etheridge, American musician
  • May 30
    • Ralph Carter, American actor
    • Harry Enfield, English comedian, actor, writer and director
  • May 31
    • Ray Cote, Canadian ice hockey player
    • Justin Madden, Australian footballer and politician
    • Lea Thompson, American actress


File:Mary Kay Bergman Color.jpg

Mary Kay Bergman

File:Michael J. Fox 2012 (cropped) (2).jpg

Michael J. Fox

File:Boy George by Dean Stockings.jpg

Boy George

File:Curt Smith 08.jpg

Curt Smith

File:Ricky Gervais 2010.jpg

Ricky Gervais

  • June 1Paul Coffey, Canadian hockey player
  • June 2Dez Cadena, American musician
  • June 3
    • Lawrence Lessig, American academic and political activist
    • Ed Wynne, English musician (Ozric Tentacles)
  • June 4El DeBarge, African-American singer
  • June 5
    • Mary Kay Bergman, American voice actress (d. 1999)
    • Anthony Burger, American musician and singer (d. 2006)
    • Rosie Kane, Member of Scottish Parliament
  • June 6Tom Araya, Chilean-born rock musician (Slayer)
  • June 8Katy Garbi, Greek singer
  • June 9
    • Michael J. Fox, Canadian-American actor, producer, and author
    • Aaron Sorkin, American screenwriter, producer, and playwright
  • June 10
    • Kim and Kelley Deal, American musicians
    • Maxi Priest, born Max Elliott, British reggae singer
  • June 14Boy George, born George O'Dowd, British singer-songwriter and music producer
  • June 15Dave McAuley, Northern Irish boxer
  • June 17Kōichi Yamadera, Japanese voice actor
  • June 18
    • Andrés Galarraga, Venezuelan baseball player
    • Alison Moyet, English singer-songwriter
  • June 19Bidhya Devi Bhandari, first woman President of Nepal
  • June 20Karin Kania, German speed skater
  • June 21
    • Manu Chao, French singer
    • Joko Widodo, President of Indonesia
  • June 23
    • Zoran Janjetov, Serbian comic artist
    • David Leavitt, American novelist
  • June 24
  • Lisa Bevill, American Christian musician
  • Curt Smith, British musician
  • June 25
    • Mike Breen, American broadcaster
    • Ricky Gervais, English comedian, actor, writer and director. Former singer in Seona Dancing
  • June 26Greg LeMond, American cyclist
  • June 27Meera Syal, British-Indian comedian and actress
  • June 28
    • Jeff Malone, American basketball player
    • Eliezer Melamed, Israeli rabbi
  • June 29Greg Hetson, American rock guitarist (Bad Religion, Circle Jerks)


File:Международная Леонардо-премия 18.jpg

Princess Diana

File:Woody Harrelson 2009.jpg

Woody Harrelson

File:Laurence Fishburne 2009 - cropped.jpg

Laurence Fishburne

  • July 1
  • July 4Andrew Zimmern, American television personality (Bizarre Foods)
  • July 5Patrizia Scianca, Italian voice actress
  • July 7Eric Jerome Dickey, American writer
  • July 8Toby Keith, American country music singer
  • July 10
    • Jacky Cheung, Hong Kong singer and actor
    • Ulla Kock am Brink, German television presenter
  • July 14Jackie Earle Haley, American actor
  • July 15Forest Whitaker, African-American actor and film director
  • July 16J. Alan Brogan, Irish programmer
  • July 17
    • Guru, American emcee (d. 2010)
    • Jonathan Potts, Canadian actor
  • July 19
    • Maria Filatova, Soviet gymnast
    • Benoît Mariage, Belgian film director
    • Noriyuki Abe, Japanese anime director
  • July 22Keith Sweat, African-American singer
  • July 23
    • Milind Gunaji, Indian actor, model, television show host
    • Woody Harrelson, American actor and comedian
  • July 25Hugo Teufel III, 2nd Chief Privacy Officer, Department of Homeland Security
  • July 26Keiko Matsui, Japanese pianist and composer
  • July 30Laurence Fishburne, African-American actor and film director


<templatestyles src="Multiple image/styles.css" wrapper=".tmulti"></templatestyles>

File:John Key February 2015.jpg

John Key

File:Stephen Hillenburg by Carlos Cazurro.jpg

Stephen Hillenburg

File:R orzabal.jpg

Roland Orzabal

File:Billy Ray Cyrus 2009 (cropped).jpg

Billy Ray Cyrus

  • August 3Nick Harvey, English politician
  • August 4
    • Robin Carnahan, Secretary of State of Missouri
    • Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States
    • Lauren Tom, American actress
  • August 5Clayton Rohner, American actor
  • August 7
    • Brian Conley, English presenter, comedian, singer and actor
    • Yelena Davydova, Soviet gymnast
  • August 8
    • The Edge, Irish rock guitarist (U2)
    • Bruce Matthews, American football player
    • Rikki Rockett, American rock drummer (Poison)
  • August 9John Key, 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand
  • August 11
    • Sunil Shetty, Indian Bollywood film actor
    • Jukka Tapanimäki, Finnish game programmer (d. 2000)
  • August 14Susan Olsen, American actress and animal welfare advocate
  • August 16
    • Elpidia Carrillo, Mexican-American actress
    • Urara Takano, Japanese voice actress
  • August 18
    • Huw Edwards, BAFTA award-winning Welsh journalist and presenter
    • Bob Woodruff, American television journalist
  • August 21Stephen Hillenburg, American animation writer and artist
  • August 22Roland Orzabal, British musician and songwriter
  • August 24Jared Harris, English actor
  • August 25Billy Ray Cyrus, American actor and singer
  • August 27Tom Ford, American fashion designer and film director



Bam Bam Bigelow


James Gandolfini

File:Jack Dee 2014.JPG

Jack Dee

File:Julia Gillard 2010.jpg

Julia Gillard

  • September 1
    • Bam Bam Bigelow, American professional wrestler (d. 2007)
    • Cécilia Rodhe, Miss Sweden
  • September 2
    • Carlos Valderrama, Colombian footballer
    • Anthony Wong Chau-sang, Hong Kong actor
  • September 4Felix Wong, Hong Kong actor
  • September 5Karim Abdul Razak, Ghanaian footballer
  • September 6
    • Akira Kuroiwa, Japanese speed skater
    • Paul Waaktaar-Savoy, Norwegian rock musician and songwriter (A-ha)
  • September 7Kevin Kennedy, British actor
  • September 11
    • Elizabeth Daily, American voice actress and singer
    • Virginia Madsen, American actress
  • September 12Mylène Farmer, Canadian singer and songwriter
  • September 13Dave Mustaine, American metal singer, guitarist (Megadeth)
  • September 14Martina Gedeck, German actress
  • September 15
    • Dan Marino, American football player
    • Lidia Yusupova, Chechen human-rights lawyer
  • September 16 – Jen Tolley, American-Canadian voice actress
  • September 18James Gandolfini, American actor (d. 2013)
  • September 20Caroline Flint, British Labour MP
  • September 22
    • Bonnie Hunt, American actress, comedian, writer, director and television producer
    • Catherine Oxenberg, British actress
  • September 23William C. McCool, U.S. Army Commander and astronaut (d. 2003)
  • September 24Jack Dee, English stand-up comedian, actor and writer
  • September 25
    • Heather Locklear, American actress
    • Steve Scott, British journalist and presenter
  • September 26Edward Kennedy Jr, son of U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy
  • September 27Andy Lau, Hong Kong actor and singer
  • September 28Yordanka Donkova, Bulgarian athlete
  • September 29Julia Gillard, 27th Prime Minister of Australia
  • September 30
    • Crystal Bernard, American actress and singer
    • Eric Stoltz, American actor and director
    • Sally Yeh, Hong Kong singer and actress


File:Amr Abdul Baset Diab.jpg

Amr Diab

File:Rachel de thame.jpg

Rachel De Thame

File:Peter Jackson SDCC 2014.jpg

Peter Jackson

  • October 1
    • Gary Ablett, Australian rules footballer
    • Rico Constantino, American professional wrestler
    • Robert Rey, Brazilian-American plastic surgeon and television personality
  • October 2Edmond Yu, Chinese student (d. 1997)
  • October 3Ludger Stühlmeyer, German cantor, composer and musicologist
  • October 4
    • Philippe Russo, French singer
    • Jon Secada, Cuban-American singer and songwriter
  • October 5Matthew Kauffman, American journalist and George Polk Award winner
  • October 6Mark Shasha, American artist, author, illustrator
  • October 10Jodi Benson, American actress and singer
  • October 11
    • Amr Diab, Egyptian singer
    • Steve Young, American football player
  • October 13
    • Rachel De Thame, English gardener and television presenter
    • Doc Rivers, American basketball player and coach
  • October 14Jim Burns, British science-fiction illustrator
  • October 16Randy Vasquez, American actor
  • October 18
    • Wynton Marsalis, African-American trumpeter and composer
    • Rick Moody, American writer
  • October 20Michie Tomizawa, Japanese voice actress
  • October 24Dave Meltzer, American wrestling journalist
  • October 25
    • Pat Sharp, British radio DJ and host
    • Chad Smith, American musician
    • Ward Burton, American NASCAR driver
  • October 26Dylan McDermott, American actor
  • October 29Randy Jackson, African-American musician
  • October 31
    • Alonzo Babers, American runner
    • Peter Jackson, New Zealand film director
    • Larry Mullen, Jr., Irish rock drummer (U2)


File:Nadia Comăneci Montreal1976c.jpg

Nadia Comăneci

File:Meg Ryan 2009 portrait.jpg

Meg Ryan

File:Mariel Hemingway headshot, free use.jpg

Mariel Hemingway

  • November 1Anne Donovan, American basketball player
  • November 2k.d. lang, Canadian singer and songwriter
  • November 4
    • Daron Hagen, American composer
    • Dominic Heale, British journalist and newsreader
    • Ralph Macchio, American actor
    • Jeff Probst, American television personality
    • Jerry Sadowitz, American-born British stand-up comic and card magician
    • Nigel Worthington, Northern Irish footballer and football manager
  • November 9
    • Jill Dando, British journalist and television presenter (d. 1999)
    • Jackie Kay, Scottish poet and novelist
  • November 12Nadia Comăneci, Romanian gymnast
  • November 14
    • Jurga Ivanauskaitė, Lithuanian writer (d. 2007)
    • D. B. Sweeney, American actor
  • November 16Corinne Hermès, French singer, Eurovision Song Contest 1983 winner
  • November 18
    • Jan Kuehnemund, American guitarist (Vixen) (d. 2013)
    • Steven Moffat, Scottish screenwriter
    • Anthony Warlow, Australian singer
  • November 19Meg Ryan, American actress and film director
  • November 20Dave Watson, English footballer
  • November 21Maria Kawamura, Japanese voice actress
  • November 22
    • Mariel Hemingway, American actress
    • Randal L. Schwartz, American computer programmer
  • November 24Arundhati Roy, Indian writer and activist
  • November 28Alfonso Cuarón, Mexican film director, screenwriter and producer


File:Bill Hicks at the Laff Stop in Austin, Texas, 1991 (2) cropped.jpg

Bill Hicks

File:Matthew Waterhouse - Gallifrey 2011 (cropped etc).jpg

Matthew Waterhouse

File:Lech Kaczynski Ilham Alijew (10).jpg

Ilham Aliyev

  • December 3Marcelo Fromer, Brazilian guitarist
  • December 4
    • Roy Dennis, disabled American boy (d. 1978)
    • Frank Reich, American football player
  • December 8Ann Coulter, American author, conservative commentator and attorney
  • December 10Nia Peeples, American actress
  • December 12
    • Daniel O'Donnell, Irish singer
    • Sarah Sutton, British actress
  • December 13Karen Witter, American actress and model
  • December 15Karin Resetarits, Austrian journalist and politician
  • December 16Bill Hicks, American comedian (d. 1994)
  • December 19
    • Eric Allin Cornell, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
    • Matthew Waterhouse, British actor
    • Reggie White, American football player (d. 2004)
  • December 20Mohammad Fouad, Arab singer and actor
  • December 21Francis Ng, Hong Kong actor
  • December 23Ezzat el Kamhawi, Egyptian novelist
  • December 24
    • Ilham Aliyev, 7th Prime Minister of Azerbaijan and 4th President of Azerbaijan
    • Wade Williams, American actor
  • December 25Íngrid Betancourt, Colombian senator
  • December 26John Lynch, Northern Irish actor
  • December 27Guido Westerwelle, German politician (d. 2016)
  • December 29Jim Reid, Scottish musician
  • December 30
    • Douglas Coupland, Canadian author
    • Matt Goldman, Blue Man Group founder
    • Sean Hannity, American radio/television host and conservative commentator
    • Ben Johnson, Canadian athlete

Full Date unknown[]

  • Mario Maas, Dutch professor of radiology



File:Erwin Schrödinger (1933).jpg

Erwin Schrödinger

File:Anefo 910-9740 De Congolese2.jpg

Patrice Lumumba



Carlos Luz

File:Mohammed V.jpg

King Mohammed V of Morocco


File:Victor d'Arcy and Harold Abrahams 1920.jpg

Victor d'Arcy

  • March 3Paul Wittgenstein, Austrian-born pianist (b. 1887)
  • March 6George Formby, British singer, comedian & actor (b. 1904)
  • March 8
    • Sir Thomas Beecham, English conductor (b. 1879)
    • Gala Galaction, Romanian writer (b. 1879)
  • March 12
    • Victor d'Arcy, British Olympic athlete (b. 1887)
    • Belinda Lee, English actress (b. 1935)
  • March 17Susanna M. Salter, first woman mayor in the United States (b. 1860)
  • March 23Valentin Bondarenko, Russian cosmonaut (b. 1937)
  • March 25Arthur Drewry, English administrator, 5th President of FIFA (b. 1891)
  • March 26Carlos Duarte Costa, founder of the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church (b. 1888)



Ahmet Zog

File:BASA-3K-7-422-22-1896 Summer Olympics.jpg

Robert Garrett


File:Gary Cooper 1936.jpg

Gary Cooper

  • May 3Maurice Merleau-Ponty, French phenomenological philosopher (b. 1908)
  • May 6Lucian Blaga, Romanian poet and philosopher (b. 1895)
  • May 13Gary Cooper, American actor (High Noon) (b. 1901)
  • May 14Albert Sévigny, Canadian politician (b. 1881)
  • May 16George A. Malcolm, American jurist & educator (b. 1881)
  • May 22Joan Davis, American actress (b. 1907)
  • May 30Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, 2-Time President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1891)
  • May 31Walter Little, Canadian politician (b. 1877)


File:Jung 1910-crop.jpg

Carl Jung

  • June 2George S. Kaufman, American playwright (b. 1889)
  • June 6Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist (b. 1875)
  • June 9Camille Guérin, French bacteriologist and immunologist (b. 1872)
  • June 14Eddie Polo, Austro-American dramatist (b. 1875)
  • June 15Peyami Safa, Turkish journalist and writer (b. 1899)
  • June 16Marcel Junod, Swiss physician (b. 1904)
  • June 17
    • Jeff Chandler, American actor (b. 1918)
    • Thomas Darden, American Rear admiral, 37th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1900)
  • June 24
    • William J. Connors, American politician (b. 1891)
    • George Washington Vanderbilt III, American philanthropist (b. 1914)
  • June 25John A D McCurdy, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia & pilot (b. 1886)
  • June 30Lee de Forest, American inventor (b. 1873)


File:Ernest Hemingway 1950 w.jpg

Ernest Hemingway

  • July 1Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer (b. 1894)
  • July 2Ernest Hemingway, American writer, Nobel Prize laureate (suicide) (b. 1899)
  • July 4Franklyn Farnum, American actor (b. 1878)
  • July 6Woodall Rodgers, Mayor of Dallas, Texas (b. 1890)
  • July 17Ty Cobb, American baseball player (Detroit Tigers) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1886)
  • July 23
    • Esther Dale, American actress (b. 1885)
    • Valentine Davies, American screenwriter (b. 1905)


  • August 4Maurice Tourneur, French film director (b. 1873)
  • August 8Mei Lanfang, Beijing opera star (b. 1894)
  • August 9Walter Bedell Smith, American general and diplomat (b. 1895)
  • August 14
    • Henri Breuil, French priest, archaeologist, anthropologist and ethnologist (b. 1877)
    • Clark Ashton Smith, American writer and sculptor (b. 1893)
  • August 20Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1882)
  • August 23
    • Gotthard Sachsenberg, German World War I naval aviator and fighter ace (b. 1891)
    • Beals Wright, American tennis player (b. 1879)
  • August 26
    • Howard P. Robertson, American physicist (b. 1903)
    • Gail Russell, American actress (b. 1924)
  • August 30Charles Coburn, American actor (b. 1877)


File:Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg

Dag Hammarskjöld


Marion Davies


File:Chico Marx - signed.jpg

Chico Marx

File:Sergio Osmena photo.jpg

Sergio Osmena

  • October 1Donald Cook, American actor (b. 1901)
  • October 2Essington Lewis, Australian industrialist (b. 1881)
  • October 4
    • Metropolitan Benjamin (Fedchenkov), Eastern Orthodox missionary and writer, Exarch of Russian Church in North America (b. 1880)
    • Max Weber, Polish-American artist (b. 1881)
  • October 11
    • Lucy Tayiah Eads, Kaw tribal chief (b. 1888)
    • Chico Marx, American comedian (b. 1887)
  • October 13
    • Maya Deren, Russian-born filmmaker (b. 1917)
    • Zoltán Korda, Hungarian screenwriter and director (b. 1895)
    • Dun Karm Psaila, Maltese writer (b. 1871)
  • October 14Harriet Shaw Weaver, English political activist (b. 1876)
  • October 19
    • Şemsettin Günaltay, Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1883)
    • Sergio Osmena, 4th President of the Philippines (b. 1878)
  • October 22Joseph Schenck, Russian-born film studio executive (b. 1878)


File:1912 Ferdinand Bie.JPG

Ferdinand Bie

  • November 1Mordecai Ham, American evangelist (b. 1877)
  • November 2
    • James Thurber, American humorist (b. 1894)
    • Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa I, 12th Hakim of Bahrain (b. 1894)
  • November 9Ferdinand Bie, Norwegian athlete (b. 1888)
  • November 15
    • Elsie Ferguson, American actress (b. 1883)
    • Johanna Westerdijk, Dutch plant pathologist (b. 1883)
  • November 16Sam Rayburn, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1882)
  • November 24Ruth Chatterton, American actress (b. 1892)
  • November 30
    • Anna Gould, American heiress and socialite; daughter of financier Jay Gould (b. 1875)
    • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, German scientist (b. 1899)



Earle Page

File:Edith Wilson cropped 2.jpg

Edith Wilson

Date unknown[]

  • František Flos, Czech novelist
  • Wyncie King, American illustrator

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. "Doug Gilford's Mad Cover Site - Mad #61".
  2. Gardner, Martin (2001). The Colossal Book of Mathematics. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 194.
  3. "The 6555th, Chapter III, Section 8, The MINUTEMAN Ballistic Missile Test Program".
  4. "Selected Milestones of the Kennedy Presidency - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  5. JFK
  6. McIntyre, W. David (April 2008). "The Expansion of the Commonwealth and the Criteria for Membership". Round Table. 97 (395): 273–85. doi:10.1080/00358530801962089.
  7. John F. Kennedy (April 27, 1961). "The President and the Press. Before the American Newspaper Publishers Association, New York City". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  8. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, "Experimentalsysteme – Eine Geschichte der Proteinsynthese im Reagenzglas" Wallstein; ISBN 3-89244-454-4
  9. "Missile Overview". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  10. "July 1961". NASA. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  11. "Incêndio Gran-Circus Norte-Americano 1961". Blogger. Retrieved June 1, 2011.