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Culture Wikia
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1944 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1944
Ab urbe condita2697
Armenian calendar1393
Assyrian calendar6694
Bahá'í calendar100–101
Balinese saka calendar1865–1866
Bengali calendar1351
Berber calendar2894
British Regnal yearGeo. 6 – 9 Geo. 6
Buddhist calendar2488
Burmese calendar1306
Byzantine calendar7452–7453
Chinese calendar癸未(Water Goat)
4640 or 4580
    — to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4641 or 4581
Coptic calendar1660–1661
Discordian calendar3110
Ethiopian calendar1936–1937
Hebrew calendar5704–5705
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2000–2001
 - Shaka Samvat1865–1866
 - Kali Yuga5044–5045
Holocene calendar11944
Igbo calendar944–945
Iranian calendar1322–1323
Islamic calendar1363–1364
Japanese calendarShōwa 19
Javanese calendar1874–1875
Juche calendar33
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4277
Minguo calendarROC 33
Nanakshahi calendar476
Thai solar calendar2487
Tibetan calendar阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
2070 or 1689 or 917
    — to —
(male Wood-Monkey)
2071 or 1690 or 918

1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1944th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 944th year of the , the 44th year of the , and the 5th year of the decade.

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Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.


File:Landing at Anzio.jpg

US Army troops landing at Anzio during Operation Shingle, late January 1944.

  • January 2 – WWII:
    • Free French General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny is appointed to command French Army B, part of the Sixth United States Army Group in North Africa.
    • Landing at Saidor: 13,000 US and Australian troops land on Papua New Guinea in an attempt to cut off a Japanese retreat.
  • January 8 – WWII: Philippine Commonwealth troops enter the province of Ilocos Sur in northern Luzon and attack Japanese forces.
  • January 11
    • President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a Second Bill of Rights for social and economic security in his State of the Union address.
    • Nazi German administration expanded Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp into larger and standalone 'Konzentrationslager Plaszow bei Krakau'.
  • January 12Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle begin a 2-day wartime conference in Marrakech.
    • Battle of Monte Cassino: U.S. Fifth Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Mark W. Clark arrive on the River Garigliano and begin their attack against the Gustav Line south of Rome. The French Expeditionary Corps under command of General Alphonse Juin moves into the mountains north of Monte Cassino.[1]
  • January 14 – WWII: Soviet troops start the offensive at Leningrad and Novgorod.
  • January 15
    • WWII: The 27th Polish Home Army Infantry Division is re-created, marking the start of Operation Tempest by the Polish Home Army.
    • 1944 San Juan earthquake: An earthquake hits San Juan, Argentina, killing an estimated 10,000 people in the worst natural disaster in Argentina's history.
  • January 17 – WWII:
    • British forces in Italy cross the Garigliano river.
    • The Battle of Monte Cassino begins in Italy.
    • The Soviet Union ceases production of the Mosin–Nagant 1891/30 sniper rifle.
    • Meat rationing ends in Australia.
  • January 20 – WWII:
    • The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
    • The United States 36th Infantry Division, in Italy, attempts to cross the Rapido River.
  • January 22 – WWII: Operation Shingle: The Allies begin the assault on Anzio, Italy. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division stand their ground at Anzio against violent assaults for 4 months.
  • January 27 – WWII: The 2-year Siege of Leningrad is lifted.
  • January 29 – WWII:
    • Koniuchy massacre: Soviet and Jewish partisans kill at least 38 villagers in Koniuchy, Poland (modern-day Kaniūkai, Lithuania).
    • Light cruiser Template:HMS is sunk by a Henschel Hs 293 guided missile from a German aircraft off Anzio, western Italy, with the loss of 46.
  • January 30 – WWII:
    • The Battle of Cisterna opens as United States Army Rangers attempt to break out of the Anzio beachhead.
    • United States troops invade Majuro, Marshall Islands.
  • January 31 – WWII: Battle of Kwajalein: American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands.


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0004, Italien, Monte Cassino.jpg

The Abbey of Monte Cassino in ruins after being destroyed by Allied bombing, February 1944.

  • February 1 – WWII: Pacific War – United States troops land in the Marshall Islands.
  • February 2 – The first issue of Human Events is published in Washington, D.C.
  • February 3 – WWII: United States troops capture the Marshall Islands.
  • February 7 – WWII: At Anzio, German forces launch a counteroffensive.
  • February 8 – WWII:
    • 2,765 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Lima Maru.[2]
    • 2,670 drown when Template:HMS torpedoes Petrella.[3]
  • February 14 – WWII: An anti-Japanese revolt breaks out on Java.
  • February 15 – WWII – Battle of Monte Cassino: The monastery atop Monte Cassino is destroyed by Allied bombing.
  • February 17 – WWII: Pacific War – The Battle of Eniwetok begins when U.S. forces invade the atoll in the Marshall Islands.
  • February 18 – WWII: HMS Penelope torpedoed by the German U-boat. 417 of the crew, including the captain, went down with the ship; 206 survived.
  • February 20 – WWII:
    • The "Big Week" begins with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers.
    • The United States takes Eniwetok Island.
  • February 22United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe organized from the Eighth Air Force's strategic planning staff; subsuming strategic planning for all US Army Air Forces in Europe and Africa.
  • February 23 – WWII:
    • The Chechen and Ingush are forcibly deported to Central Asia.
    • Battle of Eniwetok concludes when U.S. forces secure the last islands in the Eniwetok Atoll.
  • February 24 – WWII: 7,998 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Template:SS and Tango Maru.[4]
  • February 26
    • Kurt Gerron begins shooting the Nazi propaganda film, Theresienstadt in Theresienstadt concentration camp. He and many others who featured in it are transferred to Auschwitz and gassed upon the film's completion.
    • First woman appointed to the substantive rank of captain in the United States Navy Nurse Corps, Sue S. Dauser.
  • February 29 – WWII: Pacific WarAdmiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) opens when U.S. forces land on Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands.


File:Mt Vesuvius Erupting 1944.jpg

The March 1944 eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

  • March
    • Austrian-born economist Friedrich Hayek publishes his book The Road to Serfdom in London.
  • March 1 – WWII:
    • Template:Ship and Template:Ship are laid down.
    • An anti-fascist strike begins in northern Italy.
    • 2,495 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Sakito Maru.[5]
  • March 2
    • Balvano train disaster: A train stalls inside a railway tunnel outside Salerno, Italy; 521 choke to death.
    • The 16th Academy Awards ceremony is held, the first Oscar ceremony held at a large public venue, Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. Casablanca (directed by Michael Curtiz), wins the Best Picture award.
  • March 3 – WWII: The Order of Nakhimov and the Order of Ushakov are instituted in the USSR.
  • March 4 – In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., is executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss, and Louis Capone.
  • March 6 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Narva, Estonia, destroying almost the entire baroque old town.
  • March 9 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia, killing 757 and leaving 25,000 homeless.
  • March 10
    • In Britain, the prohibition on married women working as teachers is lifted.[6]
    • Resistance leader Joop Westerweel is arrested while returning to the Netherlands having escorted a group of Jewish children to safety in Spain.
  • March 12 – WWII: the Political Committee of National Liberation is created in Greece.
  • March 15
    • WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino: Allied aircraft bomb the monastery and an assault is staged.
    • WWII: The National Council of the French Resistance approves the Resistance programme.
    • In Sweden, the 1864 law which had criminalized homosexuality is abolished.
  • March 18
    • The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.
    • WWII: The Nazis execute almost 400 prisoners, Soviet citizens and anti-fascist Romanians at Rîbnița.
  • March 19 – WWII: German forces occupy Hungary in Operation Margarethe.
  • March 20 – WWII: RAF Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade's bomber is hit over Germany, and he has to bail out without a parachute from a height of over 4,000 meters. Tree branches interrupt his fall and he lands safely on deep snow.
  • March 23 – WWII: Members of the Italian Resistance attack Nazis marching in Via Rasella, killing 33.
  • March 24 – WWII:
    • Ardeatine massacre: 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups, in Rome.
    • In the Polish village of Markowa, German police kill Józef and Wiktoria Ulm, their six children and eight Jews they were hiding.
    • The "Great Escape": 76 Royal Air Force prisoners of war escape by tunnel "Harry" from Stalag Luft III this night. Only three men, two Norwegians and a Dutchman, return to the UK; of those recaptured, fifty are executed.


  • April 2 – WWII: Ascq massacre members of the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend shoot 85 civilians suspected of blowing up their train on its approach to the Gare d'Ascq in France.
  • April 4 – WWII: An Allied surveillance aircraft of 60 Squadron SAAF photographs part of Auschwitz concentration camp.
  • April 5Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler escape from Auschwitz concentration camp.
  • April 14Bombay Explosion: The freighter SS Fort Stikine, carrying a mixed cargo of ammunition, cotton bales and gold, explodes in harbour at Bombay (India), sinking surrounding ships and killing around 800 people.
  • April 19 – WWII: The Japanese launch the Operation Ichi-Go offensive in central and south China.
  • April 25
    • The Holocaust: SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann opens "blood for goods" negotiations with Joel Brand to offer the release of thousands of Jews from eastern Europe to the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee in exchange for supplies for the German Eastern Front.
    • The United Negro College Fund is incorporated in the U.S.
  • April 26
    • Kidnap of General Kreipe on Crete, Greece.
    • WWII: 2,649 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Template:SS.[7]
  • April 28 – WWII: Allied convoy T4, forming part of amphibious Exercise Tiger (a full-scale rehearsal for the Normandy landings) in Start Bay off the Devon coast of England, is attacked by E-boats, resulting in the deaths of 749 American servicemen from LSTs.[8][9][10][11]



The prime ministers of Britain and the four major dominions at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference, 1 May 1944.

  • May – No Exit published by Jean-Paul Sartre.
  • May 1 – WWII: Two hundred Communist prisoners are shot by the Germans at Kaisariani in Athens, Greece in reprisal for the killing of General Franz Krech by partisans at Molaoi.
  • May 5 – WWII: Mohandas Gandhi is released in India.
  • May 9 – WWII: In the Ukrainian city of Sevastopol, Soviet troops completely drive out German forces, who had been ordered by Hitler to “fight to the last man.”[12]
  • May 12 – WWII: Soviet troops finalize the liberation of the Crimea.
  • May 14 – The Holocaust: Predominantly Muslim Albanian troops of the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian) round up 281 Jews in Pristina and hand them over to the Germans for transportation to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
  • May 15July 8 – The Holocaust: Deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps.
  • May 18 – WWII:
    • Battle of Monte Cassino: The Germans evacuate Monte Cassino and Allied forces led by Władysław Anders from Polish II Corps, take the stronghold after a struggle that has claimed 20,000 lives.
    • Deportation of the Crimean Tatars by the government of the Soviet Union.
  • May 24 – WWII: Six LSTs are accidentally destroyed and 163 men killed in Pearl Harbor's West Loch disaster.
  • May 30Princess Charlotte Louise Juliette Louvet Grimaldi of Monaco, heir to the throne, resigns from her rights in favor of her son Prince Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi, later reigning Prince Rainier III of Monaco.
  • May 31 – WWII: Destroyer escort Template:Ship sinks the sixth Japanese submarine in two weeks. This anti-submarine warfare performance remains unmatched through the twentieth century.


File:NormandySupply edit.jpg

Allied troops land on the beaches of Normandy during D-Day.

File:LVTs attacking Saipan.jpg

LVTs heading for shore on 15 June 1944 during the Battle of Saipan.

  • June 1
    • WWII: The BBC transmits a coded message (the first line of the poem "Chanson d'automne" by Paul Verlaine) to the French Resistance, warning that the invasion of Europe is imminent.
    • Two K-class blimps of the United States Navy complete the first transatlantic crossing by non-rigid airships, from the U.S. to French Morocco with two stops.[13][14]
  • June 2 – WWII: The provisional French government is established.
  • June 3Hans Asperger publishes his paper on Asperger syndrome.[15][16]
  • June 4 – WWII:
    • Rome falls to the Allies, the first Axis capital to fall.
    • A hunter-killer group of the United States Navy captures the Template:GS, marking the first time a U.S. Navy vessel has captured an enemy vessel at sea since the 19th century. Some significant intelligence data is acquired.
  • June 5 – WWII:
    • The German navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time.
    • British Group Captain James Stagg correctly forecasts a brief improvement in weather conditions over the English Channel which will permit the following day's Normandy landings to take place (having been deferred from today due to unfavourable weather).
    • At 10:15 p.m. local time, the BBC transmits the second line of the Paul Verlaine poem to the French Resistance, indicating that the invasion of Europe is about to begin.[17]
    • More than 1,000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.
    • US and British paratrooper divisions jump over Normandy, in preparation for D-Day, including 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions of the United States.
    • D-Day naval deceptions are launched.
  • June 6 – WWII – D-Day: 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe.
  • June 7 – WWII:
    • The steamer Danae (Greek: Δανάη), carrying 600 Cretans including 350 Greek Jews on the first leg of the journey to Auschwitz, is sunk, with no known survivors, off Santorini.
    • Joel Brand is intercepted by British agents in Aleppo.
    • Bayeux is liberated by British troops.
  • June 9 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin launches the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive against Finland, with the intent of defeating Finland before pushing for Berlin.
  • June 10 – WWII: 642 men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.
  • June 13 – WWII: Germany launches the first V-1 flying bomb attack on London.[18]
  • June 15 – WWII: Battle of Saipan: United States forces land on Saipan.
  • June 16 – At age 14, George Stinney becomes the youngest person ever executed in the United States.
  • June 17Iceland declares full independence from Denmark.
  • June 19 – A severe storm badly damages the Mulberry harbours on the Normandy coast.
  • June 22 – WWII:
    • Operation Bagration: A general attack by Soviet forces clears the German forces from Belarus, resulting in the destruction of German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat of the Wehrmacht during WWII.
    • Burma Campaign: The Battle of Kohima ends in a British victory.
  • June 24David Ben-Gurion presents the One Million Plan to the Jewish Agency for Israel, proposing a million-strong Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries as well as from Europe to Mandatory Palestine.
  • June 25 – WWII
    • The Battle of Tali-Ihantala (the largest battle ever in the Nordic countries) begins between Finnish and Soviet troops. Finland is able to resist the attack and thus manages to stay as an independent nation.
    • Bombardment of Cherbourg by ships of the United States Navy and British Royal Navy in support of U.S. ground troops.
  • June 26 – WWII: American troops enter Cherbourg.
  • June 29 – WWII: 5,400 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Toyama Maru.[3]
  • June 30 – WWII: 3,219 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Nikkin Maru.[19]


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1972-025-12, Zerstörte Lagerbaracke nach dem 20. Juli 1944.jpg

The aftermath of the failed 20 July plot to kill Hitler.

File:19440816 soviet soldiers attack jelgava.jpg

Soviet soldiers fight in the streets of Jelgava, summer 1944.

File:Medics helping injured soldier in France, 1944 - NARA - 535973.tif

American medics helping injured soldier in France, 1944.

  • July 1 – The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference begins at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States.
  • July 3 – WWII:
    • Soviet troops liberate Minsk.
    • Battle of Imphal: Japanese forces call off their advance, ending the battle with a British victory.
  • July 6
    • Hartford circus fire: More than 100 children die in one of the worst fire disasters in the history of the United States.
    • WWII: At Camp Hood, Texas, future baseball star and 1st Lt. Jackie Robinson is arrested and later court-martialed for refusing to move to the back of a segregated U.S. Army bus. He is eventually acquitted.
  • July 9 – WWII: British and Canadian forces capture Caen.
  • July 10 – WWII: Soviet troops begin operations to liberate the Baltic countries.
  • July 13 – WWII: Vilnius is freed by USSR.
  • July 16 – WWII: The first contingent of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force arrives in Italy.
  • July 17 – WWII:
    • The largest convoy of the war embarks from Halifax, Nova Scotia, under Royal Canadian Navy protection.
    • The SS E. A. Bryan, loaded with ammunition, explodes at the Port Chicago naval base; 320 are killed.
  • July 18 – WWII:
    • American forces push back the Germans in Saint-Lô, capturing the city.
    • British forces launch Operation Goodwood, an armoured offensive aimed at driving the Germans from the high ground to the south of Caen. The offensive ends 2 days later with minimal gains.
    • Hideki Tōjō resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort and is succeeded (on July 22) by Kuniaki Koiso.
  • July 20 – WWII: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by Claus von Stauffenberg.
  • July 21 – WWII:
    • Battle of Guam: American troops land on Guam (the battle ends August 10).
    • The Soviet-sponsored Polish Committee of National Liberation is created in opposition to the Polish government-in-exile.
  • July 22
    • The Bretton Woods Conference ends with agreements signed to set up the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and International Monetary Fund.
    • The new Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes the PKWN Manifesto in Chełm, calling for a continuation of fighting against Nazi Germany, radical reforms including nationalisation of industry, and a "decent border in the West" (the Oder–Neisse line).
    • United States v. Masaaki Kuwabara,[20] the only Japanese American draft avoidance case to be dismissed on a due process violation of the U.S. Constitution.
  • July 25
    • WWII – Operation Spring: One of the bloodiest days for Canadian forces during the war results in 1,550 casualties, including 450 killed, during the Normandy Campaign.
    • WWII – Beginning of the Battle of Tannenberg Line or the "Battle of the Blue Hills" in Northeastern Estonia, where the Red Army will result in a Pyrrhic victory by 10 August.
  • July 26 – WWII: A Messerschmitt Me 262 becomes the first jet fighter aircraft to have an operational victory.[21]
  • July 31 – WWII: 2,495 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Yoshino Maru.[5]


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Szare Szeregi Scouts also fought in the Warsaw Uprising.
Jewish prisoners of Gęsiówka liberated by Polish soldiers from Batalion Zośka, 5 August 1944.
Crowds of French people line the Champs Élysées following the Liberation of Paris, 26 August 1944.
  • August 1 – WWII: The Warsaw Uprising begins.
  • August 2 – WWII:
    • Turkey ends diplomatic and economic relations with Germany.
    • The First Assembly of ASNOM (the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia) is held in the Prohor Pčinjski monastery.
  • August 3 – The Education Act in the United Kingdom, promoted by Rab Butler, creates a Tripartite system of education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.[22]
  • August 4The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and others in hiding. All would die in the Holocaust except for Otto Frank, Anne's father.[23]
  • August 5 – WWII:
    • The Warsaw Uprising:
      • The Wola massacre begins. Between now and August 12, 40,000 to 50,000 Polish civilians will be indiscriminately massacred by occupying SS troops.
      • The Holocaust: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.
    • Cowra breakout: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt a mass breakout from the Cowra camp in Australia. In the ensuing manhunt, 231 Japanese escapees and four Australian soldiers are killed.
  • August 7IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
  • August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.
  • August 12 – WWII:
    • The Allies capture Florence, Italy.
    • Operation Pluto: The world's first undersea oil pipeline is laid between England and France.
  • August 15 – WWII: Operation Dragoon lands Allies in southern France. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division participates in its fourth assault landing at Sainte-Maxime, spearheading the drive for the Belfort Gap.
  • August 18 – WWII: Submarine Template:Ship sinks Teia Maru, Eishin Maru, Teiyu Maru, and carrier Template:Ship from Japanese convoy HI71 in one of the most effective American "wolfpack" attacks of the war.[24]
  • August 19 – WWII:
    • More than 4,400 Japanese seamen drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Tamatsu Maru.[25]
    • An insurrection starts in Paris.
  • August 20 – WWII:
    • American forces successfully defeat Nazi forces at Chambois, closing the Falaise Pocket.
    • 168 captured Allied airmen, including Phil Lamason, accused of being "terror fliers" by the Gestapo, arrive at Buchenwald concentration camp where they form the KLB Club.
  • August 21
    • Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization) opens in Washington, D.C.: U.S., British, Chinese, French and Soviet representatives meet to plan the foundation of the United Nations.[18]
    • WWII: Operation Tractable concludes when Canadian troops relieve the Polish and link with the Americans, capturing remaining German forces in the Falaise Pocket and securing the strategically important French town of Falaise in the final offensive of the Battle of Normandy.
  • August 22 – WWII: Tsushima Maru, an unmarked Japanese passenger/cargo ship, is sunk by torpedoes launched by the submarine Template:Ship off Akuseki-jima, killing 1,484 civilians including 767 schoolchildren.
  • August 23 – WWII: In King Michael's Coup, Ion Antonescu, prime minister of Romania, is arrested and a new government established. Romania leaves the war against the Soviet Union, joining the Allies.
  • August 24 – WWII:
    • Liberation of Paris: The Allies enter Paris, successfully completing Operation Overlord.
    • Japanese vessels attack and sink the submarine Template:Ship off Luzon.
  • August 25 – WWII:
    • German surrender of Paris: General Dietrich von Choltitz surrenders Paris to the Allies in defiance of Hitler's orders to destroy it.
    • Maillé massacre: Massacre of 129 civilians (70% women and children) by the Gestapo at Maillé, Indre-et-Loire.
    • Hungary decides to continue the war together with Germany.
    • The Red Ball Express convoy system begins operation supplying tons of materiel to Allied forces in France.
  • August 29 – WWII: The Slovak National Uprising against the Axis powers begins.
  • August 31 – The Mad Gasser of Mattoon apparently resumes their mysterious attacks in Mattoon, Illinois for two weeks.


File:Waves of paratroops land in Holland.jpg

Waves of paratroopers land in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

  • September 1 – WWII: In Bulgaria, the Bagryanov government resigns.
  • September 2
    • The Holocaust: Diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz concentration camp, arriving 3 days later.
    • ¡Hola! magazine launched in Barcelona.
  • September 3 – WWII: The Allies liberate Brussels.
  • September 4 – WWII:
    • The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the city of Antwerp in Belgium.
    • Finland breaks off relations with Germany.
  • September 5 – WWII: The Soviet Union declares war on Bulgaria.
  • September 6 – WWII: Tartu Offensive in Estonia concludes with Soviet forces capturing Tartu.
  • September 7 – WWII: The Belgian government in exile returns to Brussels from London.
  • September 8 – WWII:
    • The first V-2 rocket attack on London takes place.[18]
    • The French town of Menton is liberated from German forces.
  • September 9 – WWII: An insurrection breaks out in Sofia.
  • September 11 – WWII: Laksevåg floating dry dock at Bergen (Norway) is sunk by British X-class submarine X-24.
  • September 12 – WWII: Allied forces from Operation Overlord (in the north) and Operation Dragoon (in the south of France) link up near Dijon.
  • September 14The Great Atlantic hurricane makes landfall in the New York City area.
  • September 15 – WWII: The Battle of Peleliu begins in the Pacific.
  • September 17 – WWII: Operation Market Garden begins, Allied airborne landings in the Netherlands and Germany.
  • September 18 – WWII:
    • 5,620 drown when Template:HMS torpedoes Jun'yō Maru.[26]
    • After German forces declare the evacuation of Estonia the day before, the Estonian national government briefly resumes control of Tallinn before Soviet advance.
  • September 19 – WWII:
    • An armistice between Finland and the Soviet Union is signed, ending the Continuation War.
    • The Battle of Hürtgen Forest begins east of the Belgian–German border.
  • September 22 – WWII: The Red Army captures Tallinn, Estonia. Prime Minister in Duties of the President of Estonia Jüri Uluots and 80,000 Estonian civilians manage to escape to Sweden and Germany. The evacuees include almost the entire population of the Estonian Swedes.
  • September 24 – WWII: The U.S. 45th Infantry Division takes the strongly defended city of Épinal before crossing the Moselle river and entering the western foothills of the Vosges.
  • September 26 – WWII:
    • Operation Market Garden ends in an Allied withdrawal.
    • On the middle front of the Gothic Line, Brazilian troops control the Serchio valley region after 10 days of fighting.
  • September – Start of Dutch famine ("Hongerwinter") in the occupied northern part of the Netherlands.[27]


File:Henry Larsen on St Roch.jpg

Henry Larsen becomes the first person successfully to navigate the Northwest Passage in both directions, westbound July–October 1944.

File:7th Cavalry Leyte Island 20 10 1944.jpeg

American troops advance towards San Jose on Leyte Island, 20 October 1944.

File:USS Princeton (CVL-23) 1944 10 24 1.jpg

The light aircraft carrier Template:Ship afire, east of Luzon, 24 October 1944

File:Volkssturm armband.svg

Volkssturm founded in October 1944.

File:Douglas MacArthur lands Leyte1.jpg

The beginning of the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944.

  • October 2 – WWII: Nazi troops end the Warsaw Uprising.
  • October 5 – WWII: Royal Canadian Air Force pilots shoot down the first German jet fighter over the Netherlands.
  • October 6 – WWII: The Battle of Debrecen starts on the Eastern Front (it lasts until October 29).
  • October 7
    • Holocaust: Members of the Sonderkommando (Jewish work units) in Auschwitz stage a revolt, killing 3 SS men before being massacred themselves.
    • Dumbarton Oaks Conference concludes.
  • October 8The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet radio show debuts in the United States.
  • October 9 – WWII: Fourth Moscow Conference: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begin a 9-day conference in Moscow to discuss the future of Europe.
  • October 10
    • The Holocaust/Porajmos: 800 Romani children are systematically murdered at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    • WWII: Allied forces inflict significant losses upon Imperial Japanese Navy ships moored in Naha Harbor, destroying much of the city of Naha, Okinawa as well, in the 10-10 Air Raid.
  • October 12
    • WWII: The Allies land in Athens.
    • Canadian Arctic explorer Henry Larsen returns to Vancouver, becoming the first person successfully to navigate the Northwest Passage in both directions, in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police schooner St. Roch. His westbound voyage is the first completed in a single season and the first passage through the Prince of Wales Strait.[12][28][29]
  • October 13 – WWII:
    • Riga, the capital of Latvia, is taken by the Red Army.
    • The first V-2 rocket attack on Antwerp takes place.[30]
  • October 14 – WWII: German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commits suicide rather than face execution for allegedly conspiring against Adolf Hitler.
  • October 18 – WWII: The Volkssturm Nazi militia is founded on Adolf Hitler's orders.
  • October 19Guatemalan Revolution begins, with the overthrow of Federico Ponce Vaides by a popular leftist movement.
  • October 20 – WWII:
    • Belgrade is liberated by Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army.
    • American forces land on Red Beach in Palo, Leyte, as General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines with Philippine Commonwealth president Sergio Osmeña, and Armed Forces of the Philippines Generals Basilio J. Valdes and Carlos P. Romulo.
    • United States and Filipino troops with Filipino guerrillas begin the Battle of Leyte.
    • American forces land on the beaches in Dulag, Leyte, the Philippines, accompanied by Filipino troops entering the town, and fiercely opposed by the Japanese occupation forces. The combined forces liberate Tacloban.
  • October 20 – A liquefied natural gas explosion destroys a square mile (2.6 km²) of Cleveland, Ohio.
  • October 21 – WWII: Aachen, the first German city to fall, is captured by American troops.
  • October 23
  • October 25
    • WWII: The Red Army liberates Kirkenes, the first town in Norway to be liberated.
    • WWII: Template:Ship (the United States Navy submarine credited with sinking more ships than any other American submarine) is sunk in the Formosa Strait by one of her own torpedoes. Medal of Honor-winning submarine ace Richard O'Kane becomes a prisoner of war.
    • Florence Foster Jenkins gives a recital in Carnegie Hall.
  • October 30
    • The Holocaust: Anne Frank and her sister Margot are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
    • Appalachian Spring, a ballet by Martha Graham with music by Aaron Copland, debuts at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., with Graham in the lead role.
  • October 31 – Mass murderer Marcel Petiot is apprehended at a Paris Métro station.


  • November 1December 7 – Delegates of 52 nations meet at the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago to plan for postwar international cooperation, framing the constitution of the International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • November 3 – WWII: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest, are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
  • November 7
    • United States presidential election: Franklin D. Roosevelt wins reelection over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey, becoming the only U.S. president elected to a fourth term.
    • Election day rail accident in Puerto Rico: A passenger train derails at Aguadilla due to excessive speed on a downgrade; 16 are killed, 50 injured.
  • November 10 – WWII: Ammunition ship Template:Ship disintegrates from accidental detonation of 3800 tons of cargo in the Seeadler Harbor fleet anchorage at Manus Island. 22 small boats are destroyed, 36 nearby ships damaged, 432 men are killed and 371 more are injured.[31]
  • November 12 – WWII: Sinking of the Template:Ship by British Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers.[18]
  • November 14 – WWII: 2,246 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Akitsu Maru.[32]
  • November 16 – WWII: U.S. forces begin the month-long Operation Queen in the Rur valley.
  • November 18
    • The Popular Socialist Youth is founded in Cuba
    • WWII: 3,546 drown when Template:Ship torpedoes Mayasan Maru.[32]
  • November 22
    • Conscription Crisis: Prime Minister of Canada William Mackenzie King agrees a one-time conscription levy in Canada for overseas service.
    • Laurence Olivier's film Henry V, based on Shakespeare's play, opens in London. It is the most acclaimed and the most successful movie version of a Shakespeare play made up to that time, and the first in Technicolor. Olivier both stars and directs.[33]
  • November 24 – WWII: German forces evacuate from West Estonian Archipelago.
  • November 26 – American opera singer Florence Foster Jenkins dies in her sleep at the age of 76.
  • November 27RAF Fauld explosion: Between 3,450 and 3,930 tons (3,500 and 4,000 tonnes) of ordnance explodes at an underground storage depot in Staffordshire, England, leaving about 75 dead and a crater 1,200 metres (0.75 miles) across and 120 metres (400 ft) deep. The blast is one of the largest non-nuclear explosions in history and the largest on UK soil.[34]
  • November 29 – WWII: Submarine Template:Ship sinks Japanese aircraft carrier Template:Ship. Shinano is the largest carrier built to this date, and will remain through the twentieth century the largest ship sunk by a submarine.[35]


File:Bodies of U.S. officers and soldiers slained by the Nazis after capture near Malmedy, Belgium. - NARA - 196544.jpg

Victims of the Malmedy massacre

File:General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG

George Marshall becomes the first U.S. Five-Star General on December 16, 1944.

  • December 3 – WWII:
    • Fighting breaks out between Communists and royalists in newly liberated Greece, eventually leading to a full-scale Greek Civil War.
    • The British Home Guard is stood down.
  • December 7Convention on International Civil Aviation signed in Chicago to create the International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • December 10 – Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini leads a concert performance of the first half of Beethoven's Fidelio (minus its spoken dialogue) on NBC Radio, starring Rose Bampton. He chooses this opera for its political message – a statement against tyranny and dictatorship. Conducting it in German, Toscanini intends it as a tribute to the German people who are being oppressed by Hitler. The second half is broadcast a week later. The performance is later released on LP and CD, the first of 7 operas that Toscanini conducts on radio.
  • December 12December 13 – WWII: British units attempt to take the hilltop town of Tossignano, but are repulsed.
  • December 13Battle of Mindoro: United States, Australian and Philippine Commonwealth troops land on Mindoro Island in the Philippines.
  • December 14
    • The Soviet government changes Turkish place names to Russian in the Crimea.
    • United States release of the film National Velvet, which brings a young Elizabeth Taylor to stardom.
  • December 15 – A USAAF utility aircraft carrying bandleader Major Glenn Miller disappears in heavy fog over the English Channel while flying to Paris.
  • December 16 – WWII:
    • Germany begins the Ardennes offensive, later known as Battle of the Bulge.
    • General George C. Marshall becomes the first U.S. Five-Star General.
  • December 17 – WWII: Malmedy massacre: German SS troops under Joachim Peiper machine gun American prisoners of war captured during the Battle of the Bulge near Malmedy and elsewhere in Belgium.
  • December 19 – The daily newspaper Le Monde begins publication in Paris.
  • December 20 – The United States Women Airforce Service Pilots are disbanded.
  • December 22
    • WWII: Brigadier General Anthony C. McAuliffe, commander of the U.S. forces defending Bastogne, refuses to accept demands for surrender by sending a one-word reply, "Nuts!", to the German command.
    • The Vietnam People's Army is formed in French Indochina.
  • December 24
    • WWII: Troopship Template:SS is sunk in the English Channel by German submarine U-486. Approximately 763 soldiers of the U.S. 66th Infantry Division bound for the Battle of the Bulge drown.[36]
    • WWII: German tanks reach the furthest point of the Bulge at Celles.
    • WWII: Fifty German V-1 flying bombs, air-launched from Heinkel He 111 bombers flying over the North Sea, target Manchester in England, killing 42 and injuring more than 100 in the Oldham area.[37][38]
    • WWII: Bande massacre. 34 men between the ages of 17 and 32 are executed by the Sicherheitsdienst near Bande, Belgium in retaliation for the killing of three German soldiers.
    • The first complete U.S. production of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is presented in San Francisco, choreographed by Willam Christensen. It will become an annual tradition there, and for the next ten years, the San Francisco Ballet will be the only company in the United States performing the complete work.
  • December 26
    • WWII: American troops repulse German forces at Bastogne.
    • The original stage version of The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams premieres in Chicago.
  • December 30
    • Edward Stettinius, Jr., becomes the last United States Secretary of State of the Roosevelt administration, filling the seat left by Cordell Hull.
    • King George II of Greece declares a regency, leaving his throne vacant.
    • "Stage Door Cartoon" is the first cartoon produced by Eddie Selzer.
  • December 31 – WWII:
    • Battle of Leyte: Tens of thousands of Imperial Japanese Army soldiers are killed in action, in a significant Filipino/Allied military victory.

Date unknown

  • The 1944 Summer Olympics, scheduled for London (together with the February Winter Olympics scheduled for Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy), are suspended due to WWII.
  • In Sweden, Erik Wallenberg and Ruben Rausing invent a way to package milk in paper and start the company Tetra Pak.
  • The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is established in the United States.
  • Last known evidence of the existence of the Asiatic lion in the wild in Khuzestan Province, Persia.[39]
  • BC Zalgiris, as known well for professional basketball club founded in Kaunas, Lithuania. (former part of Soviet Union)Template:Fix



File:Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg

Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir

File:Jimmy Page at the Echo music award 2013.jpg

Jimmy Page

File:Joe Frazier awarded by the Daily News.jpg

Joe Frazier

Template:Double image

  • January 1
    • Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, 7th President of Sudan
    • Jimmy Hart, American wrestling manager
    • Bob Minor, American actor and stunt performer
  • January 2 – Prince Norodom Ranariddh, Cambodian politician
  • January 3Chris von Saltza, American swimmer
  • January 6
  • January 9
    • Ian Hornak, American painter, draughtsman and sculptor (d. 2002)
    • Jimmy Page, English guitarist (Led Zeppelin)
  • January 10Frank Sinatra, Jr., American singer-songwriter and actor (d. 2016)
  • January 12
    • Joe Frazier, American boxer (d. 2011)
    • Carlos Villagrán, Mexican actor and comedian
  • January 17
  • January 18
    • Paul Keating, 24th Prime Minister of Australia
    • Alexander Van der Bellen, 12nd President of Austria
  • January 19Shelley Fabares, American actress and singer
  • January 23Rutger Hauer, Dutch actor
  • January 24Klaus Nomi, German singer (d. 1983)
  • January 25Sally Beauman, English writer
  • January 26Angela Davis, American feminist and political activist
  • January 27
    • Peter Akinola, Nigerian religious leader
    • Mairead Corrigan, Northern Irish activist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
    • Nick Mason, English rock drummer (Pink Floyd)
  • January 28
    • Susan Howard, American actress
    • John Tavener, English composer of religious music (d. 2013)
  • January 29
    • Susana Giménez, TV presenter Argentina
    • Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican judge
  • January 31
    • Connie Booth, American writer and actress
    • Ivo Opstelten, Dutch politician


  • February 2Geoffrey Hughes, English actor (d. 2012)
  • February 3Trisha Noble, Australian singer and actress
  • February 5
    • Al Kooper, American rock musician (Blood, Sweat & Tears)
    • Thekla Carola Wied, German actress
  • February 8Roger Lloyd-Pack, English actor (d. 2014)
  • February 9Alice Walker, American writer
  • February 10Peter Allen, Australian-born Academy Award-winning composer and lyricist (d. 1992)
  • February 11Michael G. Oxley, American politician (d. 2016)
  • February 12Moe Bandy, American country music singer
  • February 13
    • Stockard Channing, American actress
    • Michael Ensign, American actor
    • Jerry Springer, English-born American politician and television personality
  • February 14
    • Carl Bernstein, American journalist
    • Sir Alan Parker, English film director, producer, actor and writer
  • February 15Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen leader, first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North Caucasus (d. 1996)
  • February 16
    • Richard Ford, American writer
    • António Mascarenhas Monteiro, President of Cape Verde (d. 2016)
  • February 17
    • Karl Jenkins, Welsh composer
    • Bernie Grant, British Labour Party MP (d. 2000)
  • February 20Willem van Hanegem, Dutch football player and coach
  • February 22
    • Jonathan Demme, American film director, producer and writer
    • Tom Okker, Dutch tennis player
  • February 23Johnny Winter, American rock musician (d. 2014)
  • February 25François Cevert, French racing driver (d. 1973)
  • February 27Ken Grimwood, American writer (d. 2003)
  • February 28Sepp Maier, German retired footballer
  • February 29Dennis Farina, American actor (d. 2013)


File:Uschi Glas II.JPG

Uschi Glas

File:Said Musa.jpg

Said Musa

File:Nobel Peace Prize Concert 2008 Diana Ross4.jpg

Diana Ross, Ex-The Supremes

  • March 1
    • John Breaux, U.S. Senator from Louisiana
    • Roger Daltrey, English singer-songwriter and actor (The Who)
  • March 2
    • Uschi Glas, German actress
    • Leif Segerstam, Finnish conductor and composer
  • March 4
    • Harvey Postlethwaite, English engineer and race car designer (d. 1999)
    • Bobby Womack, American singer and songwriter (d. 2014)
  • March 5Peter Brandes, Danish artist
  • March 6
    • Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, New Zealand soprano
    • Mary Wilson, American singer (The Supremes)
  • March 7Townes van Zandt, American singer (d. 1997)
  • March 8Buzz Hargrove, Canadian labour leader
  • March 11
    • Graham Lyle, Grammy-winning Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist, known for writing several international hits for Tina Turner
    • Don Maclean, English comedian and broadcaster
  • March 17
    • Pattie Boyd, English model and first wife of George Harrison and Eric Clapton
    • John Sebastian, American singer-songwriter (The Lovin' Spoonful)
  • March 19
    • Said Musa, Prime Minister of Belize
    • Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian assassin of Robert F. Kennedy
  • March 21Hilary Minster, British actor (d. 1999)
  • March 24R. Lee Ermey, U.S. Marine and actor
  • March 26Diana Ross, American urban musician and was lead singer of The Supremes
  • March 27Khosrow Shakibai, Iranian actor (d. 2008)
  • March 28
    • Rick Barry, American basketball player
    • Ken Howard, American actor (d. 2016)
  • March 29Denny McLain, American baseball player


File:Gerhard Schröder (cropped).jpg

Gerhard Schröder

  • April 3Tony Orlando, American musician
  • April 4
  • April 5Peter T. King, American politician
  • April 6
    • Judith McConnell, American actress
    • Anita Pallenberg, Italian model and actress
    • Dame Felicity Palmer, English soprano
  • April 7
    • Warner Fusselle, American sportscaster (d. 2012)
    • Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany
  • April 8
    • Odd Nerdrum, Norwegian painter
    • Jimmy Walker, American professional basketball player (d. 2007)
  • April 11John Milius, American film director, producer and screenwriter
  • April 13Jack Casady, American rock musician (Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna)
  • April 18Charlie Tuna, American disc jockey and game show announcer (d. 2016)
  • April 19
    • Bernie Worrell, American keyboardist, (d. 2016)
    • James Heckman, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • April 22Steve Fossett, American aviator, sailor and millionaire adventurer (d. 2007)
  • April 24Tony Visconti, American record producer, musician and singer
  • April 25Len Goodman, British ballroom dancer and television personality
  • April 26Larry H. Miller, American sports owner (Utah Jazz; d. 2009)
  • April 27
    • Michael Fish, British TV weatherman
    • Cuba Gooding, Sr., American actor and singer
  • April 28Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician
  • April 29Richard Kline, American actor and television director
  • April 30Jill Clayburgh, American actress (d. 2010)


File:John Rhys-Davies by Gage Skidmore.jpg

John Rhys-Davies

File:Joe cocker 1970.JPG

Joe Cocker

File:George Lucas, 2013.jpg

George Lucas

File:Mary Robinson World Economic Forum 2013 crop.jpg

Mary Robinson

  • May 1Suresh Kalmadi, Indian politician
  • May 4Russi Taylor, American voice actress
  • May 5
  • May 8Gary Glitter, English singer
  • May 9
  • May 10Jim Abrahams, American film director
  • May 12Sara Kestelman, English actress
  • May 13Armistead Maupin, American author
  • May 14George Lucas, American film director and producer
  • May 15
    • Ulrich Beck, German sociologist (d. 2015)
    • Gunilla Hutton, Swedish-born American actress and singer
  • May 19Peter Mayhew, English actor
  • May 20
    • Joe Cocker, English rock singer (d. 2014)
    • Boudewijn de Groot, Dutch singer
    • Dietrich Mateschitz, Austrian businessman
  • May 21Mary Robinson, President of Ireland
  • May 23
    • John Newcombe, Australian tennis player
    • Avraham Oz, Israeli theater professor, translator, and political activist
  • May 24
    • David Mark Berger, American-born Israeli weightlifter, murdered at the Munich Olympics (d. 1972)
    • Patti LaBelle, American singer
  • May 25Frank Oz, English puppeteer and film director
  • May 27Chris Dodd, American politician
  • May 28
    • Rudy Giuliani, former Mayor of New York City
    • Gladys Knight, American singer
    • Rita MacNeil, Canadian folk singer (d. 2013)
    • Patricia, Lady Stephens (née Quinn), retired Northern Irish actress
  • May 29Helmut Berger, Austrian actor
  • May 30Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000)


File:John Carlos, Tommie Smith 1968.jpg

Tommie Smith

File:Ban Ki-moon 1-2.jpg

Ban Ki-moon

File:CUN2008 Oscar party Gary Busey.jpg

Gary Busey


File:David Hemery 1968.jpg

David Hemery

File:Geraldine Chaplin 2014 (cropped).jpg

Geraldine Chaplin

  • July 3Michel Polnareff, French singer
  • July 8Jeffrey Tambor, American actor
  • July 13Ernő Rubik, Hungarian inventor
  • July 14Aad Mansveld, Dutch footballer
  • July 15Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor
  • July 16Angharad Rees, Welsh actress (d. 2012)
  • July 17
    • Mark Burgess, New Zealand cricket captain
    • Catherine Schell, Hungarian actress
    • Carlos Alberto Torres, Brazilian footballer (d. 2016)
  • July 18David Hemery, British Olympic athlete
  • July 21
    • John Atta Mills, 13th President of Ghana (d. 2012)
    • Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator from Minnesota (d. 2002)
  • July 23Alex Buzo, of Sydney, Australian playwright and author (d. 2006)
  • July 31
    • Geraldine Chaplin, English-American actress
    • Robert C. Merton, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate


File:Sam Elliot.jpg

Sam Elliot

  • August 1Yury Romanenko, Soviet cosmonaut
  • August 2
    • Jim Capaldi, British drummer, singer and songwriter (Traffic) (d. 2005)
    • Naná Vasconcelos, Brazilian percussionist and vocalist (d. 2016)
  • August 3Jonas Falk, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
  • August 4
    • Richard Belzer, American actor and comedian
    • William Frankfather, American actor (d. 1998)
    • Orhan Gencebay, Turkish musician, composer, singer and actor
  • August 7John Glover, American actor
  • August 8Brooke Bundy, American actress
  • August 9Sam Elliott, American actor
  • August 11
    • Ian McDiarmid, Scottish actor
    • Frederick W. Smith, American founder of FedEx
  • August 12Larry Troutman, American musician (d. 1999)
  • August 13Kevin Tighe, American actor
  • August 15Sylvie Vartan, French singer
  • August 18Robert Hitchcock, Australian sculptor
  • August 19Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer (d. 2016)
  • August 20Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
  • August 21
    • Kari S. Tikka, Finnish Professor of Finance (d. 2006)
    • Peter Weir, Australian film director
  • August 23Saira Banu, Indian actress
  • August 25Christine Chubbuck, American television reporter (d. 1974)
  • August 26Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
  • August 30Tug McGraw, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • August 31Jos LeDuc, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 1999)


File:Grand Gala du Disque Populaire 1974 - Barry White 927-0099.jpg

Barry White

File:Michael Douglas Deauville 2013.jpg

Michael Douglas


File:Arnhim Eustace.jpg

Arnhim Eustace


Kati Kovács

  • October 2Vernor Vinge, American science fiction writer
  • October 4Tony La Russa, American baseball player and manager
  • October 5Arnhim Eustace, Vincentian politician and 3rd Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • October 6Mylon LeFevre, American singer and evangelist
  • October 9
  • October 15
    • Şerif Gören, Turkish film director
    • David Trimble, Northern Irish Unionist political leader; recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize 1998
  • October 20Clive Hornby, English actor (d. 2008)
  • October 21Jean-Pierre Sauvage, French scientist; recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
  • October 25Kati Kovács, Hungarian jazz, pop and rock musician
  • October 28Dennis Franz, American actor
  • October 30Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi businessman and politician (d. 2015)


File:Askar Akaev MoscowRia 08-2016.jpg

Askar Akayevich Akayev

File:Danny DeVito by Gage Skidmore 3.jpg

Danny DeVito

File:Lorne Michaels David Shankbone 2010.jpg

Lorne Michaels

  • November 1
    • Bobby Heenan, American professional wrestling manager and commentator
    • Oscar Temaru, President of French Polynesia
    • Rafic Hariri, Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 2005)
  • November 2Keith Emerson, British keyboardist (d. 2016)
  • November 4Linda Gary, American voice actress (d. 1995)
  • November 6Wild Man Fischer, Outsider musician
  • November 7Joe Niekro, American baseball player (d. 2006)
  • November 10
    • Askar Akayevich Akayev, 1st President of Kyrgyzstan
    • Silvestre Reyes, American politician
  • November 11Kemal Sunal, Turkish comedian
  • November 12
    • Booker T. Jones, American musician, singer and songwriter
    • Al Michaels, American sportscaster
  • November 17
    • Gene Clark, American singer-songwriter (d. 1991)
    • Danny DeVito, American actor, film producer and director
    • Rem Koolhaas, Dutch architect
    • Lorne Michaels, Canadian television and film producer
    • Tom Seaver, American baseball player
  • November 18Wolfgang Joop, German artist, fashion designer, and art collector
  • November 20Donald DiFrancesco, American lawyer and politician, 51st Governor of New Jersey
  • November 21
    • Richard Durbin, American politician; United States Senator (D-IL)
    • Harold Ramis, American actor, director and comedy writer (d. 2014)
  • November 24
    • Candy Darling, American actress (d. 1974)
    • Ibrahim Gambari, Nigerian scholar and diplomat
  • November 25Ben Stein, American law professor, actor and author
  • November 25 – Michael Kijana Wamalwa, Kenyan politician, 8th Vice President of Kenya
  • November 30George Graham, Scottish football player and manager


File:Ibrahim Rugova.jpg

Ibrahim Rugova

File:Jeroen Krabbé.png

Jeroen Krabbe

File:Brenda Lee 1977.JPG

Brenda Lee

File:Bernard Hill2 (cropped).jpg

Bernard Hill

  • December 1John Densmore, drummer, member of The Doors.
  • December 2
    • Cathy Lee Crosby, American actress (That's Incredible!)
    • Ibrahim Rugova, first President of Kosovo (d. 2006)
  • December 4Dennis Wilson, American singer, songwriter and drummer (d. 1983)
  • December 5Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor and film director
  • December 6
    • Ron Kenoly, American Christian leader
    • Jonathan King, British music producer
  • December 7
    • Daniel Chorzempa, American organist
    • Georges Coste, French Rugby player and coach
  • December 9
    • Tadashi Irie, Japanese yakuza boss
    • Ki Longfellow, American novelist
  • December 11
    • Lynda Day George, American actress
    • Brenda Lee, American singer
  • December 12
    • Kenneth Cranham, Scottish born actor
    • Cara Duff-MacCormick, Canadian stage actress
  • December 17Bernard Hill, English actor
  • December 19Tim Reid, American actor and comedian
  • December 21
    • Bill Atkinson, English footballer
    • Michael Tilson Thomas, American conductor
    • Zheng Xiaoyu, Chinese bureaucrat (d. 2007)
  • December 22Steve Carlton, American baseball player
  • December 23
    • Wesley Clark, U.S. general and NATO Supreme Allied Commander
    • Ingar Knudtsen, Norwegian writer
  • December 24Erhard Keller, German speed skater
  • December 25Jairzinho, Brazilian football player
  • December 26
    • Bill Ayers, American education theorist and former radical anti-war activist
    • Jane Lapotaire, British actress
    • Aleksey Mikhalyov, Russian translator
  • December 28Kary Mullis, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • December 30Joseph Hilbe, American statistician and author
  • December 31Jan Widströmer, Swedish artist

Date unknown

  • Sima Bina, Iranian vocalist
  • William Goad, British businessman and serial child rapist (d. 2012)
  • Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian scholar
  • Ramon Torrents, Spanish artist



File:Kaj Munk.jpg

Kaj Munk

File:Edvard Munch 1921.jpg

Edvard Munch

  • January 1
    • Edwin Lutyens, British architect (b. 1869)
    • Charles Turner, Australian cricketer (b. 1862)
  • January 4Kaj Munk, Danish playwright, priest and martyr (b. 1898)
  • January 6Ida Tarbell, American journalist and muckraker (b. 1857)
  • January 7Lou Henry Hoover, First Lady of the United States (b. 1874)
  • January 10William Emerson Ritter, American biologist (b. 1856)
  • January 11
    • Italian Fascist leaders executed in the Verona Trial
      • Emilio de Bono, General, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1866)
      • Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari, aristocrat and diplomat, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1903)
      • Giovanni Marinelli, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1879)
      • Carluccio Pareschi, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1898)
      • Luciano Gottardi (b. 1899)
    • Charles King, American actor (b. 1889)
    • Edgard Potier, Belgian spy (suicide) (b. 1903)
  • January 20James McKeen Cattell, American psychologist (b. 1860)
  • January 23Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter (b. 1863)
  • January 29William Allen White, American journalist (b. 1868)
  • January 31Jean Giraudoux, French writer (b. 1882)


File:Piet Mondriaan.jpg

Piet Mondrian


Pehr Evind Svinhufvud

  • February 1Piet Mondrian, Dutch painter (b. 1872)
  • February 4Yvette Guilbert, French singer and actress (b. 1867)
  • February 7Robert E. Park, American Sociologist (b. 1864)
  • February 11Carl Meinhof, German linguist (b. 1857)
  • February 12
    • Kenneth Gandar-Dower, English sportsman, aviator, explorer and author (b. 1908)
    • Margaret Woodrow Wilson, American singer; Presidential daughter (b. 1886)
  • February 13Edgar Selwyn, American screenwriter (b. 1875)
  • February 16Henri Nathansen, Danish writer and stage director (b. 1868)
  • February 21Ferenc Szisz, Hungarian-born race car driver (b. 1873)
  • February 23Leo Baekeland, Belgian-born American chemist (b. 1863)
  • February 29Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Finnish politician, Prime Minister of Finland and 3rd President of Finland (b. 1861)


File:Paul-Emile Janson.jpg

Paul-Emile Janson

  • March 3Paul-Émile Janson, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1872)
  • March 4Louis Buchalter, Jewish-American mobster, head of Murder, Inc. (b. 1897)
  • March 5Max Jacob, French poet (b. 1876)
  • March 11
    • Hendrik Willem van Loon, Dutch-American historian, journalist and writer (b. 1882)
    • Irvin S. Cobb, American writer (b. 1876)
  • March 19Noël Édouard, vicomte de Curières de Castelnau, French general (b. 1851)
  • March 22Pierre Brossolette, journalist and French Resistance fighter (b. 1903)
  • March 23Myron Selznick, American film producer (b. 1898)
  • March 24
    • Aldo Finzi, Italian politician (executed) (b. 1891)
    • Orde Wingate, British soldier (b. 1903)
  • March 31Mineichi Koga, Japanese admiral (b. 1885)


File:Bernardino Machado.jpg

Bernardino Machado

  • April 9Yevgeniya Rudneva, Soviet WWII heroine (b. 1920)
  • April 17J. T. Hearne, English cricketer (b. 1867)
  • April 21Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (b. 1890)
  • April 25George Herriman, American cartoonist (b. 1880)
  • April 28Frank Knox, American Secretary of the Navy during WWII (b. 1874)
  • April 29
    • Billy Bitzer, American cinematographer (b. 1874)
    • Bernardino Machado, 3rd and 8th President of Portugal (b. 1851)
  • April 30Paul Poiret, French couturier (b. 1879)


File:Thomas Curtis.jpg

Thomas Curtis

  • May 5Bertha Benz (b. 1849), German automotive pioneer, wife and business partner of automobile inventor Karl Benz
  • May 7William Ledyard Rodgers, American admiral and military and naval historian (b. 1860)
  • May 8Albert Leo Stevens, pioneering American balloonist (b. 1877)
  • May 12
    • Max Brand, American author (b. 1892)
    • Harold Lowe, British sailor, 5th officer of the RMS Titanic (b. 1882)
    • Arthur Quiller-Couch (aka "Q"), British writer (b. 1863)
  • May 16George Ade, American author (b. 1866)
  • May 20
    • Fraser Barron, New Zealand bomber pilot during WWII (b. 1921)
    • Vincent Rose, American musician and band leader (b. 1880)
  • May 23Thomas Curtis, American athlete (b. 1873)
  • May 24
    • Inigo Campioni, Italian admiral (executed) (b. 1878)
    • Matsuji Ijuin, Japanese admiral (b. 1893)
    • Harold Bell Wright, American writer (b. 1872)
  • May 25Clark Daniel Stearns, 9th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1870)
  • May 30Jessie Ralph, American actress (b. 1864)


  • June – Joseph Campbell, Northern Irish poet and lyricist (b. 1879)
  • June 6Ker-Xavier Roussel, French painter (b. 1867)
  • June 16Marc Bloch, French historian (b. 1886)
  • June 27Milan Hodža, Slovak politician, champion of regional integration in Europe (b. 1878)



Carl Mayer

File:Claus von Stauffenberg (1907-1944).jpg

Claus von Stauffenberg

File:Reza shahpahlavi.jpg

Reza Pahlavi


Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

  • July 1Carl Mayer, Austrian screenwriter (b. 1894)
  • July 6
    • Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (b. 1919)
    • Vera Leigh, English World War II heroine (b. 1903)
    • Chūichi Nagumo, Japanese admiral (b. 1887)
    • Sonya Olschanezky, German World War II heroine (b. 1923)
    • Diana Rowden, English World War II heroine (b. 1915)
  • July 7Georges Mandel, French politician and WWII hero (b. 1885)
  • July 8
    • George B. Seitz, American director (b. 1888)
    • Takeo Takagi, Japanese admiral (b. 1892)
  • July 12Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American political and business leader (b. 1887)
  • July 14Asmahan, Syrian-born Egyptian singer (b.1918?)
  • July 15Joseph Sadi-Lecointe, French aviator (b. 1891)
  • July 18Rex Whistler, English artist (b. 1905)
  • July 20Mildred Harris, American actress (b. 1901)
  • July 21
    • Ludwig Beck, German general and Chief of the German General Staff (b. 1880)
    • Claus von Stauffenberg, German resistance leader (b. 1907)
  • July 25
    • Lesley J. McNair, American general (b. 1883)
    • Jakob von Uexküll, Baltic German biologist (b. 1864)
  • July 26Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (b. 1877)
  • July 30Lee Powell, American actor (b. 1908)
  • July 31Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot and writer (b. 1900)


File:Manuel L. Quezon (November 1942).jpg

Manuel L. Quezon

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2008-0184, Berlin, Berthold Schenk Graf v. Stauffenberg.jpg

Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg

  • August 1Manuel L. Quezon, 2nd President of the Philippines (b. 1878)
  • August 2Kakuji Kakuta, Japanese admiral (b. 1890)
  • August 4Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Polish poet (b. 1921)
  • August 8Michael Wittmann, German tank commander (killed in action) (b. 1914)
  • August 10Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, Nazi opponent and lawyer (b. 1905)
  • August 12
    • Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., American fighter pilot, oldest son of Joseph P. Kennedy (b. 1915)
    • Suzanne Spaak, Belgian World War II heroine
  • August 18Ernst Thälmann, German Communist leader (executed) (b. 1886)
  • August 19
    • Günther von Kluge, German field marshal (suicide) (b. 1882)
    • Henry Wood, British conductor (b. 1869)
  • August 23
    • Abdülmecid II, last Caliph of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1868)
    • Nikolai Roslavets, Ukrainian Soviet composer (b. 1880)
  • August 26
    • Hans Leesment, Estonian general (b. 1873)
    • Adam von Trott zu Solz, German diplomat (b. 1909)
  • August 27Princess Mafalda of Savoy (b. 1902)


File:Gustav Bauer.jpg

Gustav Bauer

File:Walter Breisky.jpg

Walter Breisky

  • September 5Gustave Biéler, Swiss WWII hero (b. 1904)
  • September 6Jan Franciszek Czartoryski, Polish Roman Catholic priest, executed during the Warsaw Uprising (b. 1897)
  • September 9Robert Benoist, French race car driver and war hero (b. 1895)
  • September 13
    • Yolande Beekman, French WWII heroine (b. 1911)
    • Madeleine Damerment, French WWII heroine (b. 1917)
    • Noor Inayat Khan, Indian WWII heroine (b. 1914)
    • W. Heath Robinson, British cartoonist and illustrator (b. 1872)
  • September 14
    • John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1914)
    • Frank Pickersgill, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1915)
    • Roméo Sabourin, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1923)
  • September 16Gustav Bauer, 11st Chancellor of Germany (b. 1870)
  • September 23Matylda Palfyova, Czechoslovakian artistic gymnast (b. 1912, killed in action)
  • September 25
    • Walter Breisky, 4th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1871)
    • Eugeniusz Lokajski, Polish athlete, gymnast and photographer (b. 1909)
  • September 27Aristide Maillol, French sculptor and painter (b. 1861)
  • September 28Josef Bürckel, German Nazi gauleiter (suicide) (b. 1895)



Ramon Castillo

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-013-07, Erwin Rommel.jpg

Erwin Rommel

  • October 1Rudolf Schmundt, German general (b. 1896)
  • October 2 or 3Benjamin Fondane, Romanian-French Symbolist poet, critic and existentialist philosopher (gassed in Auschwitz concentration camp) (b. 1898)
  • October 4Al Smith, American politician (b. 1873)
  • October 8Wendell Willkie, American politician (b. 1892)
  • October 12Ramón Castillo, 25th President of Argentina (b. 1873)
  • October 14Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (suicide) (b. 1891)
  • October 21Alois Kayser, German missionary (b. 1877)
  • October 22Richard Bennett, American actor (b. 1870)
  • October 21Hilma af Klint, Swedish abstract painter (b. 1862)
  • October 23Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
  • October 24Shōji Nishimura, Japanese vice admiral (killed in action) (b. 1889)
  • October 26
    • HRH The Princess Beatrice, youngest and last surviving child of Queen Victoria (b. 1857)
    • Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, Japanese fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1920)
    • William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1881)


File:PikiWiki Israel 7706 Hannah Senesh.jpg

Hannah Szenes


Joseph Caillaux

  • November 2Thomas Midgley, Jr., American chemist and inventor (b. 1889)
  • November 4John Dill, Field Marshal of the British Army (b. 1881)
  • November 5Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1873)
  • November 7Hannah Szenes, Hungarian World War II heroine (executed) (b. 1921)
  • November 10Wang Jingwei, Chinese statesman, President of the Nanjing-based and Japanese-supported collaborationist Government of the Republica of China (b. 1883)
  • November 12George F. Houston, American actor (b. 1896)
  • November 14Trafford Leigh-Mallory, British aviator and Royal Air Force Air Chief Marshal (plane crash) (b. 1892)
  • November 22
    • Joseph Caillaux, French politician and 75th Prime Minister of France (b. 1863)
    • Arthur Eddington, English astronomer, physicist and mathematician (b. 1882)
  • November 25Kenesaw Mountain Landis, 1st commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1866)
  • November 26Florence Foster Jenkins, American socialite and operatic soprano (b. 1868)


Template:Double image

File:Brigadier General Vicente Lim.jpg

Vicente Lim

  • December 2
    • Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian poet, editor and art theorist, founder of the Futurist movement (b. 1876)
    • Josef Lhévinne, Russian pianist (b. 1874)
  • December 4Roger Bresnahan, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1879)
  • December 9Laird Cregar, American actor (b. 1916)
  • December 13
    • Wassily Kandinsky, Russian-born artist (b. 1866)
    • Lupe Vélez, Mexican actress (suicide) (b. 1908)
  • December 15Glenn Miller, American band leader (accident) (b. 1904)
  • December 22Harry Langdon, American comedian (b. 1884)
  • December 27Sára Salkaházi, Hungarian religious sister (b. 1899)
  • December 30Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
  • December 31Vicente Lim, Filipino general of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (b. 1889)

Date unknown

  • Gerald Haxton, companion and secretary to novelist/playwright W. Somerset Maugham (b. 1892)

Nobel Prizes


  1. Ken Ford (2004). Cassino 1944: Breaking the Gustav Line, p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84176-623-2
  2. "Convoy Mo-Ta-06 (モタ61船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Greatest Maritime Disasters". International Registry of Sunken Ships. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  4. "More Maritime Disasters of World War II". George Duncan. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "List of sunken ships in Pacific War (太平洋戦争時の喪失船舶明細表)" (PDF). Sunken Ships Record Association (戦没船を記録する会). Retrieved 2012-10-20.
  6. Kynaston, David (2007). Austerity Britain 1945–1951. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-7985-4.
  7. "Convoy Take Ichi" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  8. Small, Ken; Rogerson, Mark (1988). The Forgotten Dead – Why 946 American Servicemen Died off the Coast of Devon in 1944 – and the Man who Discovered their True Story. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-0309-5.
  9. Fenton, Ben (26 April 2004). "The disaster that could have scuppered Overlord". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  10. Savill, Richard (26 April 2004). "Last of torpedo survivors remembers brave buddies". The Daily Telegraph.
  11. Wasley, Gerald (1994). Devon at War, 1939–1945. Tiverton: Devon Books. p. 157. ISBN 0-86114-885-1.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Year by Year 1944" – History Channel International
  13. Kaiser, Don (2011). "K-Ships Across the Atlantic" (PDF). Naval Aviation News. 93 (2). Retrieved 2011-09-23.
  14. "Blimp Squadron 14". Retrieved 2011-09-23.
  15. Asperger, H. (1991) [1944]. "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood". In Frith, Uta (ed.). Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. ISBN 0-521-38448-6.
  16. Asperger, Hans (3 June 1944). "Die "Autistischen Psychopathen" im Kindesalter". Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 117 (1): 76–136. doi:10.1007/BF01837709. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  17. Foot, M. R. D. (1999). SOE: An Outline History of the Special Operations Executive 1940–46. London: Pimlico. p. 143. ISBN 0-7126-6585-4.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  19. "Nikkin Maru - Casualties (日錦丸の被害)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  20. 56 F. Supp. 716 (N.D. Cal 1944).
  21. Radinger, Will; Schick, Walter (1996). Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-925505-21-0.
  22. "Education Act, 1944" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-21.
  23. Prose, Francine (2014-08-01). "Anne Frank's final entry". CNN. Retrieved 2014-08-01. On Friday, August 4, 1944... a car pulled up in front of a spice warehouse at 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam. Inside the car were an Austrian Gestapo officer and his Dutch subordinates, who, acting on a tip-off (whose source has never been identified), had come to arrest the eight Jews who had been hiding for two years in an attic above the warehouse. The eight prisoners were taken to a deportation camp, from where they were sent to Auschwitz. Only one of them, Otto Frank, would survive.
  24. Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
  25. "Convoy Hi-71 (ヒ71船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  26. van der Kuil, Peter (March 2003). "List of Casualties". The Sinking of the Junyo Maru.
  27. Van der Zee, Henri A. (1982). The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–5. London: Norman & Hobhouse. ISBN 978-0-906908-71-6.
  28. Larsen, Henry A. (1967). The Big Ship: an autobiography. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
  29. "Across the Northwest Passage: The Larsen Expeditions". University of Calgary. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  30. "Antwerp, "City of Sudden Death"". Retrieved 2013-04-24.
  31. Gile, Chester A. (February 1963). "The Mount Hood Explosion". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute.
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Convoy Hi-81 (ヒ81船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  33. As Kenneth Branagh is to do over forty years later in his successful remake.
  34. Reed, John (1977). "Largest Wartime Explosions: 21 Maintenance Unit, RAF Fauld, Staffs. November 27, 1944". After the Battle. 18: 35–40. ISSN 0306-154X.
  35. Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
  36. "The Sinking of SS Leopoldville". Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  37. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 392–394. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  38. "Battle of Britain". Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  39. Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1961). Simba: the life of the lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.