Culture Wikia
Culture Wikia

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Millennium:
Centuries:
Decades:
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Years:
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Events

Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.

January

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  • January 1 – WWII: The Soviet Union announces that 22 German divisions have been encircled at Stalingrad, with 175,000 killed and 137,650 captured.
  • January 4
    • WWII: Greek-Polish athlete and saboteur Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz is executed by the Germans at Kaisariani.
    • Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California, is succeeded by Earl Warren.
  • January 11 – The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China.
  • January 13 – 36 people are executed and 200 arrested in anti-Nazi protests in Sofia.
  • January 1424 – WWII: Casablanca Conference: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States; Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; and Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud of the Free French forces meet secretly at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next stage of the war.
  • January 15
    • WWII: Guadalcanal CampaignOperation Ke: Japanese forces begin to withdraw from Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
    • The world's largest office building, The Pentagon, is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.
  • January 16Iraq declares war on the Axis powers.
  • January 18
    • WWII: Soviet officials announce that the Red Army has broken the Wehrmacht's siege of Leningrad as part of Operation Iskra, opening a narrow land corridor to the city. Georgy Zhukov is promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union.
    • The first Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins.
  • January 22
    • WWII: Battle of Buna–Gona ends with American and Australian forces securing control of the territory of Papua.
    • The Holocaust: Over 4,000 Jews are detained in Nazi-occupied Marseille as part of "Action Tiger" before being transported to extermination camps in Poland.
  • January 23
    • WWII: British forces capture Tripoli from the Italians.
    • Duke Ellington plays at New York City's Carnegie Hall for the first time.
    • American critic and commentator Alexander Woollcott suffers an eventually fatal heart attack during a regular broadcast of the CBS Radio round-table program People's Platform.
  • January 27 – WWII: 50 bombers mount the first all American air raid against Germany: Wilhelmshaven is the target.
  • January 29
    • Nazi German police arrest alleged necrophiliac and serial killer Bruno Lüdke.
    • United States Marine Corps Women's Reserve (MCWR) created.
  • January 2930 – WWII: Battle of Rennell Island – The Imperial Japanese Navy resists the United States Navy's attempt to interrupt the withdrawal of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal in the last major naval battle of the Guadalcanal Campaign.
  • January 2931 – WWII: Battle of Wau – Australian forces with United States support resist a Japanese advance in the New Guinea campaign.

February

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  • February 2 – WWII: In Russia, the Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end with the surrender of the German 6th Army.
  • February 3 – WWII: The Four Chaplains of the U.S. Army are among those drowned when their ship, Template:SS, is struck by a German torpedo in the North Atlantic.
  • February 5 – Lt. General Frank M. Andrews is selected to command the U.S. armies in Europe, while General Dwight D. Eisenhower is assigned command in North Africa; General Andrews will serve only three months before dying in an airplane crash.
  • February 7 – WWII:
    • North Atlantic convoy SC 118 is attacked by U-boats, sinking eight ships.[1]
    • In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in 2 days.
  • February 9 – WWII:
    • Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands ends with United States forces in command of Guadalcanal, the evacuation of Japanese forces in Operation Ke having been completed two days earlier.
    • Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army begin with the Parośla I massacre within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
  • February 10March 3Mohandas Gandhi (under arrest by forces of the British Raj in Pune as a member of the Quit India Movement) keeps a hunger strike to protest at his imprisonment.
  • February 14 – WWII: Rostov-on-Don in Russia is liberated.
  • February 1417 – WWII: Battle of Sidi Bou Zid: In the Tunisia Campaign, German Panzer divisions commanded by Hans-Jürgen von Arnim are victorious over the United States Army.
  • February 16 – WWII: The Soviet Union reconquers Kharkov, but is later driven out in the Third Battle of Kharkov.
  • February 18
    • In a Sportpalast speech in Berlin, German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels declares a "total war" against the Allies, tacitly admitting that Nazi Germany faces serious dangers.
    • The Nazis arrest the members of the White Rose German Resistance movement.
  • February 1925 – WWII: Battle of Kasserine Pass: German General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps and other Axis forces launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia; it is the United States' first major battle defeat of the war. On February 22 an Anglo-American force halts the German advance near Thala, forcing the Germans to retreat, US bombers harass the retreating Panzers.
  • February 20
    • American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies.
    • The Parícutin volcano begins to appear in a cornfield in Mexico.[2][3][4]
  • February 21 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy ON 166 is attacked by U-boats sinking eleven ships.[5]
  • February 22 – Members of White Rose are executed in Nazi Germany.
  • February 2324Cavan Orphanage Fire: 35 girls and a cook from St Joseph's Orphanage, an industrial school at Cavan, Ireland, are killed in a fire in their dormitories. A subsequent inquiry absolves the Poor Clares of blame.
  • February 27Smith Mine disaster: an explosion at Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, United States kills 74 coal miners.
  • February 28Operation Gunnerside: 6 Norwegians led by Joachim Rønneberg successfully attack the heavy water plant at Vemork.

March

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File:A20BismarckSea.jpg

A low level attack on a Japanese ship during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea

File:Krakow Ghetto 06694.jpg

Jewish prisoners being deported from the Kraków Ghetto

  • March – Publication in New York of exiled French aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's self-illustrated children's novella The Little Prince, the all-time best-selling book originated in French.
  • March–December – History of computing hardware: Construction of British prototype Mark I Colossus computer, the world's first totally electronic programmable computing device, to assist in cryptanalysis of German signals at Bletchley Park.[6]
  • March 1Heinz Guderian becomes the Inspector-General of the Armoured Troops for the German Army.
  • March 12 – WWII: Koriukivka massacre – Mass murder of 6,700 inhabitants of Koriukivka in the Ukraine by a German SS unit.
  • March 2 – WWII: Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.
  • March 3 – 173 people are killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green, London.
  • March 4 – The 15th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles. Mrs. Miniver wins the Best Picture award.
  • March 5 – The Gloster Meteor, the first operational military jet aircraft for the Allies, has its first test flight, in England.
  • March 9-10 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy SC 121 is attacked by U-boats sinking seven ships.[7]
  • March 9Şükrü Saracoğlu forms the new government of Turkey (14th government; Şükrü Saracoğlu had served twice as a prime minister).
  • March 10Banco Bradesco is founded in Marília, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • March 13The Holocaust: Nazi German forces liquidate the Jews of the Kraków Ghetto in Occupied Poland.
  • March 14 – WWII: British submarine HMS Thunderbolt is sunk off Sicily by an Italian corvette, the second time this vessel has been lost with all hands.[8][9]
  • March 15 – WWII:
    • The Italian submarine Leonardo da Vinci sinks the Canadian Pacific liner RMS Empress of Canada off Sierra Leone. Nearly half of the 392 fatalities are Italian prisoners of war.
    • German forces recapture Kharkov after four days of house-to-house fighting against Soviet troops, ending the month-long Third Battle of Kharkov.
  • March 1619 – WWII: 22 ships from Convoys HX 229/SC 122 and one U-boat are sunk in the largest North Atlantic U-boat "wolfpack" attack of the war.
  • March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Éamon de Valera, Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, makes the speech "The Ireland That We Dreamed Of", commonly called the "comely maidens" speech, in Dublin Castle.
  • March 22 – WWII: Khatyn massacre – The entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by the German occupation forces.
  • March 23 – The drugs Vicodin and Lortab are first produced in Germany.
  • March 26 – WWII: Battle of the Komandorski Islands: In the Aleutian Islands, the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese troops attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.
  • March 27 – WWII: British Royal Navy escort carrier Template:HMS is destroyed by an accidental explosion in the Firth of Clyde, killing 379 of the crew of 528.
  • March 28 – In Italy a ship full of weapons and ammunition explodes in the port of Naples, killing 600.
  • March 31Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! opens on Broadway, heralds a new era in "integrated" stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time (1948).

April

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  • April 3 – Shipwrecked steward Poon Lim is rescued by Brazilian fishermen after being adrift for 130 days.
  • April 13 – WWII: Radio Berlin announces the discovery by Wehrmacht of mass graves of Poles killed by Soviets in the Katyn massacre.
  • April 19Albert Hofmann self-administers the psychedelic drug LSD (which he first synthesized in 1938) for the first time in history, and records the details of his experience.[10] Script error: No such module "main".
  • April 19The Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins when Nazi troops enter the Warsaw Ghetto to round up remaining Jews.
  • April 21 – WWII: Worst bombing of Aberdeen, Scotland, killing 125 people.[11]
  • April 25Easter occurs on the latest possible date (last time 1886; next time 2038) in the Western Christian Church.
  • April 26 – The Easter Riots in Uppsala, Sweden.
  • April 27 – The U.S. Federal Writers' Project ceases operation.

May

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File:Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 08.jpg

This photograph, from the Stroop Report, shows captured fighters in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

File:Mohne Dam Breached.jpg

The Möhne Dam breached following Operation Chastise, carried out by the "Dambusters" of the RAF.

  • May 6 – WWII: Six U-boats are sunk after sinking 12 ships from Convoy ONS 5 in the last major North Atlantic U-boat "wolfpack" attack of the war.
  • May 912 – Japanese troops carry out the Changjiao massacre in Changjiao, Hunan, China.
  • May 11 – WWII: American troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands, in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces.
  • May 12 – The Trident Conference begins in Washington, D.C., with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill taking part.
  • May 13 – WWII: German Afrika Korps and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allied forces.
  • May 14
    • The Australian Hospital Ship Centaur is sunk off the coast of Queensland by Template:Ship, killing 268 of the 332 medical personnel and civilian crew aboard.
    • 358th Bombardment Squadron, 303d Bombardment Group B-17F Hell's Angels is the first USAAF bomber to complete 25 missions.
  • May 15 – The Comintern is dissolved in Moscow.
  • May 1617 – WWII: Operation Chastise (the 'Dambuster Raid') takes place: No. 617 Squadron RAF use bouncing bombs to breach German dams in the Ruhr Valley.
  • May 16Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ends.
  • May 17 – WWII:
    • The United States Army contracts with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop the computer ENIAC.
    • The Memphis Belle's crew becomes the first aircrew in the 8th Air Force to complete its 25-mission tour of duty. The aircraft and crew are the first to return to the U.S. intact for a War Bond drive.
  • May 19Winston Churchill addresses a joint session of the United States Congress.
  • May 29Norman Rockwell's illustration of Rosie the Riveter first appears on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post.
  • May 30The Holocaust: Dr. Josef Mengele begins his service as a medical officer in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

June

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  • June 1BOAC Flight 777, a DC-3 with registration G-AGBB (formerly KLM PH-ALI, Ibis), on a scheduled passenger flight, is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by eight German Junkers Ju 88s; all 17 persons aboard perish, including the actor Leslie Howard. There is speculation that the downing is an attempt to kill the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, as the Germans may have had wrong information he was aboard.
  • June 3 – The Zoot Suit Riots erupt between military personnel and Mexican American youths in East Los Angeles.[12]
  • June 4 – A military coup d'état in Argentina ousts Ramón Castillo.
  • June 8 – WWII: Japanese battleship Mutsu is destroyed by an accidental magazine explosion in Hashirajima anchorage
  • June 2023 – The Detroit race riot of 1943 in the United States kills 34 people — 25 African Americans, nine whites — wounds hundreds more and damages and destroys property worth millions.[13]
  • June 21 – WWII: British saboteurs blow up the strategically significant railway viaduct at Asopos in Greece.
  • June 22 – WWII: The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division lands in North Africa, prior to training at Arzew, French Morocco.
  • June 30 – United States Civilian Conservation Corps abolished.
  • June (late) – The Holocaust: The last trainload of Jewish prisoners is moved from Bełżec extermination camp in Occupied Poland (for gassing at Sobibór) and for the remainder of the year the Nazis make efforts to obliterate the site.[14][15]

July

File:SC180476.jpg

The U.S. Liberty ship SS Robert Rowan explodes during the Allied invasion of Sicily, July 11, 1943.

File:Bombing of Hamburg.ogg

The bombing of Hamburg during 1943.

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  • July 1 – United States Women's Army Corps (WAC) converted to full status.
  • July 41943 Gibraltar B-24 crash: The aircraft carrying General Władysław Sikorski, Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile, crashes, killing him and fifteen others, leading to a lasting controversy over the circumstances.
  • July 5 – WWII:
    • Battle of Kursk – The largest tank battle in history begins.
    • A fleet sets sail for the Allied invasion of Sicily.
    • Conclusion of the National Bands Agreement in Greece.
  • July 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the Battle of Kula Gulf off Kolombangara.
  • July 10 (0245 GMT (4:45 am local time)) – WWII: Allied invasion of Sicily: The Allied invasion of Axis-controlled Europe begins with landings on the island of Sicily off mainland Italy by the Seventh United States Army and the British Eighth Army including the 1st Canadian Infantry Division.
  • July 11 – WWII:
    • United States Army forces make an assault on Piano Lupo, just outside Gela, Sicily.
    • Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Volhynia) peak.
  • July 12 – WWII: Main engagement of the Battle of Prokhorovka – The Wehrmacht and the Red Army fight to a draw in one of the largest tank battles in military history.
  • July 19 – WWII: Rome is bombed by the Allies for the first time in the war.
  • July 24 – WWII: Operation Gomorrha begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night; the American planes bomb the city by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 42,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.
File:Mussolini mezzobusto.jpg

Mussolini

  • July 25Benito Mussolini, the Fascist Prime Minister of Italy since 1925, is arrested after the Grand Council of Fascism withdraws its support. "Il Duce" is replaced by General Pietro Badoglio.

August

File:B-24D's fly over Polesti during World War II.jpg

B-24d's fly over Ploieşti during Operation Tidal Wave.

File:Quebec conference 1943.png

Mackenzie King, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at the 1943 Quebec Conference.

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  • August 1Operation Tidal Wave: 177 B-24 Liberator bombers from the U.S. Army Air Force bomb oil refineries at Ploiești, Romania.
  • August 2 – WWII: John F. Kennedy's Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 is rammed by a destroyer.
  • August 4 – WWII: The aircraft carrier Template:Ship is launched at Newport News, Virginia.
  • August 5 – WWII:
    • United States Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) formed, consolidating the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS) and Women Airforce Service Pilots (WFTD).
    • John F. Kennedy and crew are found by Solomon Islands coastwatchers Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana with their dugout canoe.
  • August 6 – WWII: Battle of Vella Gulf: Americans defeat a Japanese convoy off Kolombangara, as the U.S. Army drives the Japanese out of Munda airfield on New Georgia.
  • August 14 – WWII: Rome is declared an open city by the Italian government, with Italy offering to demilitarize the capital in return for an Allied agreement not to bomb the city further.[16]
  • August 14 – The Quadrant Conference begins in Quebec City; Canadian Prime Minister MacKenzie King meets with Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • August 17 – WWII:
    • The US 7th Army under General George S. Patton meets the British 8th Army under General Montgomery in Messina, Sicily, completing the Allied invasion of Sicily.
    • Operation Hydra: The British Royal Air Force sets out to bomb the Peenemünde Army Research Center to disrupt the German V-weapons programme.
  • August 23 – WWII: The Battle of Kursk ends with a serious strategic defeat for the German forces.
  • August 24 – WWII: – Heinrich Himmler is named Reichminister of the Interior in Germany .
  • August 26 – WWII: Lord Mountbatten named Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia.
  • August 28 – WWII: King Boris III of Bulgaria dies under suspicious circumstances; his 6-year-old son, Simeon II (who would be elected in 2001 as Prime Minister under the name Simeon Sakskoburggotski), ascends to the throne.
  • August 29 – WWII: Occupation of Denmark – Germany dissolves the Danish government after it refuses to deal with a wave of strikes and disturbances to the satisfaction of the German authorities.

September

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  • September 3 – WWII: Allied invasion of Italy: Mainland Italy is invaded by Allied forces under General Sir Bernard Montgomery, for the first time in the war.
  • September 5 – WWII: The 503rd Parachute Regiment under American General Douglas MacArthur lands and occupies Nadzab, just east of the port city of Lae in northeastern Papua New Guinea.
  • September 7Gulf Hotel fire: A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston, Texas kills 55.
  • September 8
    • WWII: United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower publicly announces the surrender of Italy to the Allies.
    • WWII: Frascati air raid: The USAAF bombs the German General Headquarters for the Mediterranean zone.
    • The first classes commence at Grace University in Omaha, Nebraska.
  • September 9Bertolt Brecht's play Life of Galileo (Script error: No such module "lang".) receives its first theatrical production at the Schauspielhaus Zürich.
  • September 12 – WWII: Gran Sasso raid – German paratroopers rescue Mussolini from imprisonment, in Unternehmen Eiche ("Operation Oak").
  • September 16 – WWII: The Salerno Mutiny occurs when soldiers of the British Army's X Corps refuse postings to new units.
  • September 17 – WWII: Villefranche-de-Rouergue Mutiny – a group of pro-Partisan soldiers led by Ferid Džanić and others within the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian) training in Occupied France rise against Nazi German troops in the Division; the revolt is rapidly suppressed.
  • September 22October 2 – WWII: Landing at Scarlet Beach on the Huon Peninsula of New Guinea by Allied forces, the first time Australian troops have made an opposed amphibious landing since the Gallipoli Campaign of 1915.
  • September 23 – WWII: The Italian Social Republic ("Republic of Salò") is founded in northern Italy as a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
  • September 27 – WWII: Four days of Naples begins: a popular uprising drives German occupying forces from the city.

October

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  • October 1 – WWII: United States forces enter liberated Naples.
  • October 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Vella Lavella.
  • October 7 – WWII: The Naples post-office bombing kills 100.
  • October 10
    • WWII: Double Tenth incident (Japanese occupation of Singapore): The Japanese military police, the Kempeitai, arrest and torture more than 50 civilians and civilian internees on false suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
    • The Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky is instituted in the Soviet Union.
  • October 13 – WWII: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.
  • October 14
    • WWII: During the Second Raid on Schweinfurt, the United States Eighth Air Force suffers so many losses that it loses air supremacy over Germany for several months.
    • The Holocaust: Uprising in Sobibór extermination camp; about half the inmates escape. Three days later, the camp is closed.
    • José P. Laurel takes the oath of office as President of the Philippines (Second Philippine Republic).
  • October 17 – WWII:
    • The last commerce raider hilfskreuzer Michel, is sunk off Japan by United States submarine Tarpon.[17]
    • Completion of the Burma Railway between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (modern-day Myanmar) (Script error: No such module "convert".) by the Empire of Japan to support its forces in the Burma campaign using the forced labour of Asian civilians and Allied Prisoners of war.
  • October 18Chiang Kai-shek takes the oath of office as Chairman of the National Government of China.
  • October 19 – WWII: Allied aircraft sink the German-controlled cargo ship Template:MS in the Mediterranean, killing over 2,000 people, mostly Italian military internees.
  • October 21Lucie Aubrac and others in her French Resistance cell liberate Raymond Aubrac from Gestapo imprisonment.
  • October 22 – WWII: The British Royal Air Force delivers a highly destructive airstrike on the German industrial and population center of Kassel.
  • October 24 – WWII: British Royal Navy destroyer Template:HMS is sunk by a mine in the Aegean Sea with the loss of 119 of the ship's company and 134 troops.[18]
  • October 28 – Alleged date of the Philadelphia Experiment, in which the destroyer escort Template:Ship was supposed to be rendered invisible to human observers for a brief period.
  • October 30
    • WWII: Signing of Moscow Declarations: the Declaration of the Four Nations on general security, by the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and Republic of China; and the Declarations on Italy, Austria and Atrocities by the first three governments.
    • The Merrie Melodies animated cartoon Falling Hare, one of the only shorts with Bugs Bunny getting out-smarted, is released in the United States.

November

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File:Cairo conference.jpg

Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at the Cairo Conference, 25 November 1943.

File:Lebanese flag.JPG

The first Lebanese flag hand drawn and signed by the deputies of the Lebanese parliament, November 11, 1943. The French Mandate ends and Lebanon gains independence in November 1943.

File:Teheran conference-1943.jpg

Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill on the verandah of the Soviet Embassy in Tehran during the Tehran Conference

  • November 1 – WWII: Operation Goodtime: United States Marines land on Bougainville Island in the Solomon Islands.
  • November 2 – WWII:
    • In the early morning hours, American and Japanese ships fight the inconclusive Battle of Empress Augusta Bay off Bougainville Island.
    • WWII: British troops in Italy reach the Garigliano River.
  • November 3 – Holocaust: As part of Operation Harvest Festival, the single largest massacre of Jews in the entire war took place when over 43,000 Jews were shot or machine-gunned to death by the SS.
  • November 5 WWII: First Bombing of the Vatican: Four bombs are dropped on the neutral Vatican City; the aircraft responsible is never certainly identified.
  • November 9Agreement for foundation of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration signed by 44 countries in the White House, Washington, D.C.
  • November 10 – Execution of the Lübeck martyrs, four men of religion, for supposedly treasonable views.
  • November 14Leonard Bernstein, substituting at the last minute for ailing principal conductor Bruno Walter, directs the New York Philharmonic in its regular Sunday afternoon broadcast concert over CBS Radio. The event receives front-page coverage in The New York Times the following day.
  • November 15Porajmos: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies and "part-Gypsies" be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in Nazi concentration camps."
  • November 16
    • WWII: After flying from Britain, 160 American bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vemork, Norway.
    • WWII: A Japanese submarine sinks the surfaced U.S. submarine Template:Ship near Chuuk Lagoon (Truk).
  • November 18 – WWII: Battle of Berlin – The British Royal Air Force opens its bombing campaign against Berlin with 440 planes causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses 9 aircraft and 53 aviators.
  • November 19The Holocaust: Inmates of Janowska concentration camp near Lwów (at this time in German-occupied Poland), stage a failed uprising, after which the SS liquidates the camp, resulting in at least 6,000 deaths.
  • November 20 – WWII: Battle of Tarawa: United States Marines land on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati from 1979) and take heavy fire from Japanese shore guns.
  • November 2226 – WWII: Cairo Conference ("Sextant") – President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill and Chairman of the National Government of China Chiang Kai-shek meet at Cairo in Egypt to discuss ways to defeat Japan in the Pacific War.
  • November 22Lebanon gains independence on ending of the French Mandate.
  • November 23 – The Deutsches Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin district of Charlottenburg is destroyed in an air raid (It is reopened in 1961 as the Deutsche Oper Berlin).
  • November 25 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland.
  • November 26 – WWII: British troopship HMT Rohna is sunk off the north African coast by a Luftwaffe Henschel Hs 293 radio controlled glide bomb killing 1015.[19][20]
  • November 28 – WWII: Tehran Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy. On November 30, they establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe codenamed Operation Overlord.
  • November 29 – The second session of AVNOJ, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, is held in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to determine the post-war ordering of the country.

December

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  • December 2 – WWII: Bari chemical warfare disaster: A surprise Luftwaffe air raid on Bari in Italy sinks 28 Allied ships in the harbor, including the American Liberty ship Template:SS, releasing its secret cargo of mustard gas bombs, inflating the number of casualties.[21]
  • December 3
    • In reprisal for an act of sabotage, the SS and Gestapo execute 100 Warsaw Tramway workers.[22]
    • Edward R. Murrow delivers his classic "Orchestrated Hell" broadcast over CBS Radio, describing a Royal Air Force nighttime bombing raid on Berlin.
  • December 4
    • WWII: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government-in-exile.
    • The Great Depression officially ends in the United States: With unemployment figures falling fast due to WWII-related employment, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes the Works Progress Administration.
    • WWII: Bolivia declares war on Romania and Hungary.
  • December 7Chiara Lubich starts the humanitarian Focolare Movement in Trento, Italy.
  • December 13 – WWII: Massacre of Kalavryta: The occupying 117th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht) machine-gun all adult males from Kalavryta in Greece, subsequently burning the town.
  • December 15 – WWII: American and Australian forces began the Battle of Arawe as a diversion before a larger landing at Cape Gloucester on New Britain in Papua New Guinea.
  • December 20 – A military coup is staged in Bolivia.
  • December 24 – WWII: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Allied Commander Europe. He establishes Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in London.
  • December 30Subhas Chandra Bose sets up a pro-Japanese Indian government at Port Blair, India.

Date unknown

  • Bengal Famine.
  • History of the cooperative movement: Father José María Arizmendiarrieta sets up a polytechnic school at Mondragón in the Spanish Basque Country (predecessor of the University of Mondragón) which inspires creation of the Mondragon Corporation.
  • Arana Hall, a residential college of the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, is founded.
  • Jacques-Yves Cousteau co-invents, with Émile Gagnan, the first commercially successful open circuit type of scuba diving equipment, the Aqua-lung.[23]
  • Publication of Martin Noth's groundbreaking work of Old Testament scholarship Überlieferungsgeschichtliche Studien: Die sammelnden und bearbeitenden Geschichtswerke im Alten Testament.[24]

Births

January

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File:Sharon Tate photo.jpg

Sharon Tate

  • January 1
    • Stanley Kamel, American actor (d. 2008)
    • Don Novello (aka "Father Guido Sarducci"), American comedian
  • January 2Barış Manço, Turkish singer and television personality (d. 1999)
  • January 4Doris Kearns Goodwin, American writer
  • January 6Terry Venables, English football manager
  • January 7Sadako Sasaki, Japanese atomic bomb sickness victim (d. 1955)
  • January 9Freddie Starr, English comedian and singer
  • January 10Jim Croce, American surburbia musician (d. 1973)
  • January 11Jim Hightower, American radio host and author
  • January 13Richard Moll, American television actor
  • January 14
    • Ralph M. Steinman, Canadian immunologist and cell biologist; Nobel laureate (d. 2011)
    • Holland Taylor, American stage, film and television actress
    • José Luis Rodríguez, Venezuelan singer
  • January 15 – Dame Margaret Beckett, British politician
  • January 18Kay Granger, American politician
  • January 19
    • Janis Joplin, American rock singer (d. 1970)
    • Princess Margriet of the Netherlands
    • Haruo Yasuda, Japanese gollfer
  • January 20Mel Hague, English singer and author
  • January 22
    • Tamás Cseh, Hungarian composer, singer and actor (d. 2009)
    • Marília Pêra, Brazilian actress (d. 2015)
  • January 24
    • Janice Raymond, American second-wave feminist activist
    • Sharon Tate, American actress and model murdered by the "Manson Family" (d. 1969)
  • January 25
    • Dagmar Berghoff, German radio and television presenter
    • Roy Black, German singer (d. 1991)
    • Tobe Hooper, American film director
  • January 26César Gutiérrez, Venezuelan Major League Baseball player (d. 2005)
  • January 28John Beck, American actor
  • January 29
    • Tony Blackburn, British radio disc jockey
    • Rudy Regalado, Venezuelan musician (d. 2010)

February

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Blythe Danner

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Joe Pesci

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Horst Köhler

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George Harrison

  • February 2Erkan Geniş, Turkish artist
  • February 3Blythe Danner, American actress
  • February 4Alberto João Jardim, Portuguese politician
  • February 5
    • Nolan Bushnell, American video game pioneer
    • Michael Mann, American film director, writer, and producer
    • Craig Morton, American football player
  • February 8Creed Bratton, American actor and musician
  • February 9
    • Joe Pesci, American actor
    • Joseph E. Stiglitz, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • February 12Wacław Kisielewski, Polish pianist (d. 1986)
  • February 14Maceo Parker, American musician (James Brown, P-Funk)
  • February 15Elke Heidenreich, German author, TV presenter and journalist
  • February 18Graeme Garden, Scottish writer, comedian, and actor
  • February 19
  • February 20
    • Moshe Cotel, American composer and pianist (d. 2008)
    • Antonio Inoki, Japanese professional wrestler
    • Mike Leigh, British film director
  • February 21David Geffen, American record executive and film producer
  • February 22Horst Köhler, President of the Federal Republic of Germany
  • February 23Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach
  • February 24Hristo Prodanov, Bulgarian mountaineer
  • February 25George Harrison, British singer and guitarist (The Beatles) (d. 2001)
  • February 26Bill Duke, American actor and director
  • February 27Morten Lauridsen, American composer
  • February 28Donnie Iris, American rock singer and guitarist (The Jaggerz, Wild Cherry, Donnie Iris and the Cruisers)

March

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David Cronenberg

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Ratko Mladić

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Mario Monti

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George Benson

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Christopher Walken

  • March 1
    • Gil Amelio, American entrepreneur
    • Richard H. Price, American physicist
  • March 2
    • Zygfryd Blaut, Polish footballer (d. 2005)
    • Tony Meehan, British drummer (The Shadows) (d. 2005)
    • Peter Straub, American author
  • March 3Trond Mohn, Norwegian billionaire
  • March 4
    • Lucio Dalla, Italian singer and songwriter (d. 2012)
    • Zoltán Jeney, Hungarian composer
  • March 5Lucio Battisti, Italian singer and songwriter (d. 1998)
  • March 8Lynn Redgrave, English actress (d. 2010)
  • March 9
    • Bobby Fischer, American chess player (d. 2008)
    • Charles Gibson, American television journalist
  • March 12Ratko Mladic, Serbia military leader
  • March 13André Téchiné, French film director
  • March 15
    • David Cronenberg, Canadian film director
    • Sly Stone, American singer
  • March 16
    • Helen Armstrong, American violinist (d. 2006)
    • Kim Mu-saeng, South Korean actor (d. 2005)
  • March 18Kevin Dobson, American actor
  • March 19
    • Mario J. Molina, Mexican chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
    • Mario Monti, 54th Prime Minister of Italy (2011 – 2013), Italian Senator
  • March 20
    • Douglas Tompkins, American conservationist and businessman (d. 2015)
    • Gerard Malanga, American poet and photographer
  • March 21
    • István Gyulai, Hungarian sports official (d. 2006)
    • Vivian Stanshall, English comedian, writer, artist, broadcaster, and musician (d. 1995)
  • March 22
    • George Benson, American guitarist and singer-songwriter.
    • Keith Relf, British rock musician (The Yardbirds) (d. 1976)
  • March 25Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
  • March 26Bob Woodward, American journalist
  • March 29
    • Eric Idle, English actor, writer, and composer
    • John Major, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
    • Vangelis, Greek musician and composer
  • March 31
    • Motiur Rahman Nizami, Bangladeshi politician and convicted war criminal (d. 2016)
    • Christopher Walken, American actor

April

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John Eliot Gardiner

  • April 2Caterina Bueno, Italian singer (d. 2007)
  • April 3Hikaru Saeki, Japanese admiral, the first female star officer of the Japan Self-Defense Forces
  • April 5Max Gail, American actor
  • April 8Miller Farr, American football player
  • April 10
    • Andrzej Badeński, Polish athlete (d. 2008)
    • Margaret Pemberton, English writer
  • April 11Harley Race, American professional wrestler
  • April 16Petro Tyschtschenko, German businessman
  • April 19Claus Theo Gärtner, German actor
  • April 20John Eliot Gardiner, English conductor
  • April 22Louise Glück, American poet and 12th US Poet Laureate
  • April 23
    • Dominik Duka, Czech Roman Catholic bishop and theologian
    • Fighting Harada, Japanese boxer
    • Frans Koppelaar, Dutch painter
    • Hervé Villechaize, French-born actor (d. 1993)
  • April 24Richard Sterban, American singer (The Oak Ridge Boys)
  • April 25
    • Alan Feduccia, American paleornithologist
    • James G. Mitchell, Canadian computer scientist
  • April 28John O. Creighton, American astronaut
  • April 30Frederick Chiluba, former President of Zambia (d. 2011)

May

File:Michael Palin.jpg

Michael Palin

File:Olafur Ragnar Grimsson - Davos 2011.jpg

Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson

  • May 1Vassal Gadoengin, Nauruan politician (d. 2004)
  • May 5Michael Palin, English comedian and television presenter
  • May 6Grange Calveley, British writer and artist
  • May 10Richard (Dick) Darman, American federal government official and businessman
  • May 13Kurt Trampedach, Danish artist
  • May 14
    • Jack Bruce, British musician and songwriter (d. 2014)
    • Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, President of Iceland
  • May 17Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, King of Malaysia
  • May 22Betty Williams, Northern Irish political activist, co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • May 25Jessi Colter, American singer and composer
  • May 26Erica Terpstra, Dutch swimmer, politician and president of the Dutch Olympic Committee
  • May 27
    • Bruce Weitz, American actor
    • Cilla Black, English singer and entertainer (d. 2015)
  • May 30James Chaney, American civil rights worker (d. 1964)
  • May 31
    • Sharon Gless, American actress
    • Joe Namath, American football player

June

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Malcolm McDowell

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Barry Manilow

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Klaus von Klitzing

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Dieter Kottysch

  • June 1
    • Lorrie Wilmot, South African cricketer (d. 2004)
    • Kuki Gallmann, Kenyan writer and poet
  • June 2Ilayaraaja, Indian composer
  • June 3John Burgess, Australian game show host and actor
  • June 4Joyce Meyer, Christian author and speaker
  • June 6Richard Smalley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
  • June 7
    • Chan Hung-lit, Hong Kong actor (d. 2009)
    • Nikki Giovanni, American poet
  • June 8Colin Baker, British actor
  • June 13Malcolm McDowell, British actor
  • June 14Jim Sensenbrenner, American politician
  • June 15
    • Johnny Hallyday, French singer and actor
    • Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, Prime Minister of Denmark
  • June 16Joan Van Ark, American actress
  • June 17
    • Newt Gingrich, American politician
    • Barry Manilow, American pop musician
  • June 18Barry Evans, English actor (d. 1997)
  • June 21Marika Green, French-Swedish actress
  • June 22
    • Klaus Maria Brandauer, Austrian actor
    • J. Michael Kosterlitz, Scottish-born condensed matter physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • June 23
    • Patrick Bokanowski, French filmmaker
    • James Levine, American conductor
    • Vint Cerf, American internet pioneer
  • June 26John Beasley, American actor
  • June 27Rico Petrocelli, American baseball player
  • June 28
    • Jens Birkemose, Danish painter
    • Klaus von Klitzing, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • June 29
    • Maureen O'Brien, British actress
    • Soon-Tek Oh, Korean-American actor
  • June 30
    • Dieter Kottysch, West German Olympic boxer
    • Ahmed Sofa, Bangladeshi writer (d. 2001)

July

File:Jagger live Italy 2003.JPG

Mick Jagger

  • July 1Jeff Wayne, American musician
  • July 3
    • Judith Durham, Australian singer
    • Kurtwood Smith, American actor
  • July 4
    • Konrad "Conny" Bauer, German trombonist
    • Geraldo Rivera, American reporter and talk show host
  • July 5Curt Blefary, American baseball player (d. 2001)
  • July 7Joel Siegel, American film critic (d. 2007)
  • July 8Guido Marzulli, Italian painter
  • July 9Soledad Miranda, Spanish actress (d. 1970)
  • July 10Arthur Ashe, American tennis player (d. 1993)
  • July 12
    • Christine McVie, British rock keyboardist and singer (Fleetwood Mac)
    • Walter Murch, American film editor and sound designer
  • July 15Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astrophysicist
  • July 16
    • Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban writer (d. 1990)
    • Jimmy Johnson, American football coach and television analyst
  • July 19
    • David Griffin, British actor
    • Han Sai Por, Singaporean sculptor
  • July 20
    • Christopher Murney, American actor and vocal artist
    • Wendy Richard, British actress (d. 2009)
  • July 21
    • Edward Herrmann, American actor (d. 2014)
    • Henry McCullough, Northern Irish musician (Paul McCartney & Wings) (d. 2016)
    • Bob Shrum, political consultant
  • July 23
    • Dr. Randall Forsberg, American nuclear freeze advocate (d. 2007)
    • Bob Hilton, American game show announcer and host
    • Larry Manetti, American actor
  • July 25Erika Steinbach, German politician
  • July 26Mick Jagger, English rock singer
  • July 28Richard Wright, British musician (Pink Floyd) (d. 2008)

August

File:Pervez Musharraf 2004.jpg

Pervez Musharraf

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Roberto Micheletti

File:Robert De Niro Cannes 2016.jpg

Robert De Niro

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Pino Presti

  • August 2Max Wright, American actor
  • August 3Clarence Wijewardena, Sri Lankan musician (d. 1996)
  • August 4Barbara Saß-Viehweger, German politician, lawyer and civil law notary
  • August 4Bjørn Wirkola, Norwegian ski jumper
  • August 5Nelson Briles, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • August 6Jim Hardin, former Baltimore Orioles, New York Yankees and Atlanta Braves pitcher (d. 1991)
  • August 9Ken Norton, American boxer and actor (d. 2013)
  • August 11
    • Abigail Folger, American heiress and murder victim (d. 1969)
    • Pervez Musharraf, Pakistani general and leader
  • August 13Roberto Micheletti, President of Honduras
  • August 17
  • August 18Gianni Rivera, Italian footballer
  • August 20Sylvester McCoy, British actor
  • August 23
    • Bobby Diamond, American actor
    • Pino Presti, Italian bassist, arranger, composer, conductor, record producer
  • August 27Tuesday Weld, American actress
  • August 28
    • Surayud Chulanont, Thailand's 24th Prime Minister
    • Lou Piniella, American baseball player and manager
    • Jihad Al-Atrash, Lebanese actor and voice actor
  • August 29Arthur B. McDonald, Canadian astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • August 30
    • Tal Brody, American-born Israeli basketball player
    • R. Crumb, American artist and illustrator
    • Altovise Davis, American entertainer (d. 2009)
    • Jean-Claude Killy, French skier
  • August 31Leonid Ivashov, Russian general

September

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Julio Iglesias

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October

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Chevy Chase

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Catherine Deneuve

  • October 1Jean-Jacques Annaud, French film director
  • October 2Franklin Rosemont, American poet (d. 2009)
  • October 6Michael Durrell, American actor
  • October 7Oliver North, American military officer, military historian, political commentator, author and television host
  • October 8Chevy Chase, American comedian and actor
  • October 11John Nettles, English actor and writer
  • October 14Lois Hamilton, American model, actress and artist (d. 1999)
  • October 15Penny Marshall, American actress, director and producer
  • October 16Paul Rose, Canadian terrorist
  • October 18
    • Birthe Rønn Hornbech, Danish politician
    • Christine Charbonneau, Canadian francophone singer and songwriter (d. 2014)
  • October 20Noreen Corcoran, American child actress and director (d. 2016)
  • October 22Catherine Deneuve, French actress
  • October 27Carmen Argenziano, American actor
  • October 28Cornelia Froboess, German actress
  • October 29Don Simpson, American film producer, screenwriter, and actor (d. 1996)
  • October 31Paul Frampton, English physicist

November

File:Joni Mitchell 2004.jpg

Joni Mitchell

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Michael Spence

File:Denis Sassou Nguesso 2014.jpg

Denis Sassou Nguesso

  • November 1Jacques Attali, French economist
  • November 3Bert Jansch, Scottish folk musician (d. 2011)
  • November 4
    • Sundar Popo, Indo-Trinidadian chutney musician (d. 2000)
    • Chuck Scarborough, American news anchor
  • November 5
    • Friedman Paul Erhardt, German-American pioneering television chef (d. 2007)
    • Sam Shepard, American playwright and actor
  • November 7
    • Stephen Greenblatt, American literary critic
    • Joni Mitchell, Canadian musician
    • Michael Spence, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • November 11Doug Frost, Australian swimming coach
  • November 12Wallace Shawn, American actor
  • November 13
    • Roberto Boninsegna, Italian footballer
    • Jay Sigel, American golfer
  • November 14
    • Peter Norton, American software engineer and businessman
    • Rafael Leonardo Callejas, President of Honduras
  • November 17Lauren Hutton, American actress and model
  • November 19Aurelio Monteagudo, Cuban Major League Baseball player (d. 1990)
  • November 20
    • Mie Hama, Japanese actress
    • Marek Tomaszewski, Polish pianist
  • November 21Larry Mahan, American rodeo cowboy
  • November 22
    • Peter Adair, American filmmaker (d. 1996)
    • Yvan Cournoyer, Canadian ice hockey player
    • Billie Jean King, American tennis player
    • William Kotzwinkle, American novelist and screenwriter
  • November 23Denis Sassou Nguesso, President of the Republic of the Congo
  • November 24Dave Bing, American mayor and longtime NBA player
  • November 26Marilynne Robinson, American writer
  • November 28Randy Newman, American musician

December

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John Kerry

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Keith Richards

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Tarja Halonen

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Hanna Schygulla

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  • December 2
    • Wayne Allard, U.S Senator from Colorado
    • William Wegman, American photographer
  • December 5Eva Joly, Norwegian-born French magistrate
  • December 8
    • José Carbajal, Uruguayan singer, composer and guitarist (d. 2010)
    • Larry Martin, American paleontologist (d. 2013)
    • Jim Morrison, American rock musician (d. 1971)
    • Bodo Tümmler, German Olympic middle-distance runner
  • December 11John Kerry, American politician, longtime Massachusetts Senator (1985-2013), 2004 Democratic nominee for president, and current U.S. Secretary of State
  • December 12
    • Gianni Russo, American actor
    • Grover Washington, Jr., American saxophonist (d. 1999)
  • December 13Ferguson Jenkins, Canadian baseball player
  • December 13David W. Huff, Singer and guitarist of David and the Giants
  • December 15Lucien den Arend, Dutch sculptor
  • December 17Ron Geesin, British musician and songwriter (Pink Floyd)
  • December 18Keith Richards, English rock guitarist and songwriter
  • December 19
    • Sam Kelly, English actor (d. 2014)
    • Ross M. Lence, American political scientist (d. 2006)
    • Jimmy Mackay, Australian football player (d. 1998)
  • December 20Jacqueline Pearce, English actress
  • December 21Jack Nance, American actor (d. 1996)
  • December 23
    • Elizabeth Hartman, American actress (d. 1987)
    • Harry Shearer, American actor, comedian and screenwriter
  • December 24
    • Tarja Halonen, 11th President of Finland
    • James A. Johnson, American business leader and philanthropist
  • December 25Hanna Schygulla, German actress
  • December 28
    • Keith Floyd, British chef (d. 2009)
    • Craig MacIntosh, noted American comics illustrator
    • Richard Whiteley, English television presenter (d. 2005)
  • December 31

Date unknown

  • Kim Tai-chung, Korean martial artist and former actor and Bruce Lee double (d. 2011)
  • Tang Da Wu, Singaporean artist
  • James Goldstein, LA businessman and NBA basketball aficionado
  • Alfredo Rostgaard, Cuban visual artist (d. 2004)

Deaths

January

File:Tesla circa 1890.jpeg

Nikola Tesla

  • January 3Bid McPhee, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1859)
  • January 4Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish athlete and resistance member (b. 1911)
  • January 5George Washington Carver, African-American botanist (b. 1864)
  • January 7Nikola Tesla, Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor (b. 1856)
  • January 8Richard Hillary, Battle of Britain Spitfire pilot, author (The Last Enemy; b. 1919)
  • January 11Agustín Pedro Justo, 23rd President of Argentina (b. 1876)
  • January 12Jan Campert, Dutch journalist and writer (Neuengamme concentration camp; b. 1902)
  • January 13Henner Henkel, German tennis champion (b. 1915)
  • January 15Eric Knight, American author (b. 1897)
  • January 20 – Baron Max Wladimir von Beck, former Ministers-President of Austria (b. 1854)
  • January 21Robert Henry English, American admiral (b. 1888)
  • January 23Alexander Woollcott, American critic (b. 1887)
  • January 26Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist (b. 1887)
  • January 29
    • Henriette Caillaux, murderer, French socialite and wife of former French prime minister (b. 1874)
    • Vladimir Kokovtsov, 4th Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (b. 1853)

February

File:Hilbert.jpg

David Hilbert

  • February 1Foy Draper, American Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1911)
  • February 4Frank Calder, the first NHL President (b. 1877)
  • February 5
    • Sim Gokkes, Dutch composer (in Auschwitz concentration camp) (b. 1897)
    • W. S. Van Dyke, American director (b. 1889)
  • February 11Bess Houdini, American wife of Harry Houdini (b. 1876)
  • February 14David Hilbert, German mathematician (b. 1862)
  • February 20Ernest Guglielminetti, Swiss physician (b. 1862)
  • February 22
    • Tamara Drasin, Russian-born American signer and actress (b. ca. 1905)
    • Christoph Probst, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1919)
    • Ben Robertson, American novelist, journalist, and war correspondent (b. 1903)
    • Hans Scholl, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1918)
    • Sophie Scholl, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1921)
  • February 26Theodor Eicke, German Nazi official (killed in action) (b. 1892)

March

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Sergei Rachmaninoff

  • March 6Jimmy Collins, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1870)
  • March 9Otto Freundlich, German painter and sculptor (b. 1878)
  • March 10Tully Marshall, American actor (b. 1864)
  • March 19Frank Nitti, Italian-American gangster (suicide) (b. 1886)
  • March 20Heinrich Zimmer, German Indologist and historian (b. 1890)
  • March 27George Monckton-Arundell, 8th Viscount Galway, English politician, 5th Governor-General of New Zealand (b. 1882)
  • March 28
  • March 31Pavel Milyukov, Russian politician, founder and leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party (b. 1859)

April

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Isoroku Yamamoto

  • April 3Conrad Veidt, German actor (b. 1893)
  • April 7Alexandre Millerand, French president (b. 1859)
  • April 8
    • Harry Baur, French actor (b. 1880)
    • Richard Sears, American tennis champion (b. 1861)
  • April 9Philip Slier, Dutch Jewish typesetter (in Sobibór extermination camp) (b. 1923)
  • April 13Oskar Schlemmer, German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer (b. 1888)
  • April 18Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese admiral (b. 1884)
  • April 24
    • Kenneth Whiting, United States Navy officer and submarine and naval aviation pioneer (b. 1881)
    • Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord, German general (b. 1878)
  • April 30Beatrice Webb, English sociologist, economist, historian and social reformer (b. 1858)

May

  • May 1Johan Oscar Smith, Norwegian Christian leader, founder of Brunstad Christian Church (b. 1871)
  • May 3Frank Maxwell Andrews, American general (plane crash) (b. 1884)
  • May 7Fethi Okyar, former prime minister of Turkey (b. 1880)
  • May 17
    • Johanna Elberskirchen, German feminist (b. 1864)
    • Montagu Love, English actor (b. 1877)
  • May 19Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter and drawer (b. 1865)
  • May 20John Stone Stone, American physicist and inventor (b. 1869)
  • May 22Helen Taft, First Lady of the United States (b. 1861)
  • May 26Edsel Ford, American businessman, president of Ford Motor Company (b. 1893)
  • May 29Yasuyo Yamasaki, Imperial Japanese Army officer (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • May 31Helmut Kapp, German Gestapo official

June

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Karl Landsteiner

  • June 1Leslie Howard, British actor (b. 1893)
  • June 2Nile Kinnick, American athlete and Heisman Trophy winner (b. 1918)
  • June 4Kermit Roosevelt, American explorer and author (b. 1889)
  • June 11Heisuke Abe, Japanese general (b. 1886)
  • June 26Karl Landsteiner, Austrian biologist and physician (b. 1868)

July

  • July 4Władysław Sikorski, Polish politician (b. 1881)
  • July 6Teruo Akiyama, Japanese admiral (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • July 8
    • Jean Moulin, French resistance fighter (b. 1899)
    • Sir Harry Oakes, American-born English gold mine owner (murdered) (b. 1874)
  • July 12
    • Shunji Isaki, Japanese admiral (killed in action) (b. 1892)
    • Cecilia Loftus, stage actress (b. 1876)
  • July 13Luz Long, German long jump athlete (b. 1913)
  • July 21
    • Charley Paddock, American athlete (b. 1900)
    • Louis Vauxcelles, French art critic (b. 1870)

August

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Martyrs of Nowogrodek

File:BASA-3K-7-342-28-Boris III of Bulgaria.jpeg

Boris III of Bulgaria

September

October

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Carlos Blanco Galindo

File:Pieter Zeeman.jpg

Pieter Zeeman

  • October 2Carlos Blanco Galindo, 38th President of Bolivia (b. 1882)
  • October 5Leon Roppolo, American musician (b. 1902)
  • October 9Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
  • October 12Max Wertheimer, Austro-Hungarian psychologist (b. 1880)
  • October 14
    • Rudolf Beckmann, German SS officer (Sobibór uprising) (b. 1910)
    • Siegfried Graetschus, German SS officer (Sobibór uprising) (b. 1916)
    • Johann Niemann, German SS officer (Sobibór uprising) (b. 1913)
  • October 19Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
  • October 21Dudley Pound, British admiral (b. 1877)
  • October 23Ben Bernie, American jazz violinist (b. 1891)
  • October 30Max Reinhardt, Austrian director (b. 1873)

November

File:Idhomene Kosturi.jpg

Idhomene Kosturi

  • November 5Idhomene Kosturi, 9th Prime Minister of Albania (b. 1873)
  • November 7Dwight Frye, American actor (b. 1899)
  • November 13Maurice Denis, French painter (b. 1870)
  • November 22
    • Lorenz Hart, American lyricist (b. 1895)
    • Keiji Shibazaki, Japanese admiral (killed in action) (b. 1894)
  • November 23Charles Ray, American actor (b. 1891)
  • November 24
    • Doris "Dorie" Miller, American sailor, Pearl Harbor survivor (killed in action) (b. 1919)
    • Henry M. Mullinnix, American admiral (killed in action) (b. 1892)
  • November 26
    • Kiyoto Kagawa, Japanese admiral (killed in action) (b. 1895)
    • Edward "Butch" O'Hare, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1914)

December

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John Harvey Kellogg

  • December 1Damrong Rajanubhab, Thai prince and historian (b. 1862)
  • December 9Georges Dufrénoy, French post-impressionist painter (b. 1870)
  • December 14John Harvey Kellogg, American doctor (b. 1852)
  • December 15Fats Waller, African-American jazz pianist (b. 1904)
  • December 20Edward L. Beach, Sr., American naval officer and author (b. 1867)
  • December 22Beatrix Potter, British children's author and illustrator (b. 1866)
  • December 25William Irving, German-born American film actor (b. 1893)
  • December 26Erich Bey, German admiral (killed in action in Battle of the North Cape) (b. 1898)
  • December 27Rupert Julian, New Zealand actor and director (b. 1879)
  • December 30Hobart Bosworth, American film actor, director, writer, and producer (b. 1867)

Nobel Prizes

References

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  10. How LSD Originated, Albert Hofmann.
  11. Bombing of Aberdeen, news.stv.tv; accessed 6 December 2014.
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  16. "Badolgio Declares Rome An 'Open City', Pittsburgh Press, August 15, 1943, p. 1
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  23. "Year by Year 1943" – History Channel International.
  24. [Schriften der Königsberger Gelehrten-Gesellschaft: Geisteswissenschaftliche Klasse; 18,2 (trans: "Writings of the Königsberg Scholarly Society: Spiritual Scientific Class No. 18.2")]: (Halle ["Halle an der Saale"]: M. Niemeyer, 1943.)

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External links