Culture Wikia
Culture Wikia

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Events

Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" acronym.

January

  • January–August – 10,072 men, women and children with mental and physical disabilities are asphyxiated with carbon monoxide in a gas chamber at Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Nazi Germany in the first phase of mass killings under the Action T4 program here.
  • January 1Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January 1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year (thus the previous year that began April 1 had only 9 months).
  • January 3 – A decree (Normalschrifterlass) promulgated in Nazi Germany by Martin Bormann on behalf of Adolf Hitler requires replacement of blackletter typefaces by Antiqua.[1]
  • January 4 – The short subject Elmer's Pet Rabbit is released, marking the second appearance of Bugs Bunny, and also the first to have his name on a title card.
  • January 5 – WWII: At the Battle of Bardia in Libya, Australian and British troops defeat Italian forces, the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation takes part.
  • January 6 – The keel of the Template:Ship is laid at the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn.
  • January 10 – The Lend-Lease Act is introduced into the United States Congress.
  • January 11 – The British Royal Navy light cruiser Template:HMS is sunk off Malta.
  • January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law.[2]
  • January 14 – WWII: Commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin captures the Norwegian whaling fleet near Bouvet Island, effectively ending Southern Ocean whaling for the duration of the war.[3]
  • January 15John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry describe the workings of the Atanasoff–Berry computer in print.
  • January 19 – WWII: British troops attack Italian-held Eritrea.
  • January 20Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in for a third term as President of the United States.
  • January 22
    • WWII: Battle of Tobruk: Australian and British forces capture Tobruk from the Italians.
    • In Sweden, Victor Hasselblad registers the Hasselblad camera company.
  • January 23 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
  • January 27 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the U.S. ambassador to Japan, reports to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception concerning a planned surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • January 30 – WWII: Australians capture Derna, Libya, from the Italians.

February

  • February 3 – WWII: The Nazis forcibly restore Pierre Laval to office in occupied Vichy France.Script error: No such module "Unsubst".
  • February 4 – WWII: The United Service Organization (USO) is created to entertain American troops.
  • February 5Air Training Corps: The Air Training Corps is formed in the United Kingdom.
  • February 5April 1 – WWII: Battle of Keren – British and Free French Forces fight hard to capture the strategic town of Keren in Italian Eritrea.
  • February 6 – WWII: Fall of Benghazi to the Western Desert Force. Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel is appointed commander of Afrika Korps.
  • February 8 – WWII: The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Lend-Lease Act.[4]
  • February 9Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, tells the United States to show its support by sending arms to the British: "Give us the tools, and we will finish the job."
  • February 12
    • WWII: Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli.
    • Reserve Constable Albert Alexander, a patient at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, becomes the first person treated with penicillin intravenously, by Howard Florey's team. He reacts positively but there is insufficient supply of the drug to reverse his terminal infection. A successful treatment is achieved during May.[5]
  • February 13 – Aircraft from Template:HMS attack Massawa in Eritrea.
  • February 14 – WWII: Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura begins his duties as Japanese Ambassador to the United States.
  • February 1922 – WWII: Three Nights' Blitz over Swansea, South Wales: Over these 3 nights of intensive bombing, which lasted a total of 13 hours and 48 minutes, Swansea's town centre is almost completely obliterated by the 896 high explosive bombs employed by the Luftwaffe; 397 casualties and 230 deaths reported.
  • February 22 – WWII: Template:HMS bombards Barawa, on the coast between Kismayo and Mogadishu.
  • February 23Glenn T. Seaborg isolates and discovers plutonium.
  • February 25 – WWII:
    • The occupied Netherlands starts the first popular uprising in Europe against the Axis powers, the "February strike" against German deportation of Jews in Amsterdam and surroundings.
    • British submarine Template:HMS attacks an Italian convoy, sinking the cruiser Armando Diaz.
  • February 27 – WWII: The New Zealand Division cruiser HMS Leander (1931) sinks Italian armed merchant raider Ramb I off the Maldives.

March

  • March 1
    • WWII: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, thus joining the Axis powers.
    • Arthur L. Bristol becomes Rear Admiral for the United States Navy's Support Force, Atlantic Fleet.
  • March 4 – WWII: Operation Claymore – British Commandos carry out a successful raid on the Lofoten Islands off the north coast of Norway.
  • March 8 – WWII: The U.S. Senate passes the Lend-Lease Act.
  • March 11 – WWII: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, providing for the U.S. to provide Lend-Lease aid to the Allies.
  • March 15Richard C. Hottelet is arrested by the Gestapo on "suspicion of espionage", but eventually released in July as part of a prisoner exchange with the U.S.
  • March 16 – A group of U.S. warships arrive in Auckland, New Zealand, on a goodwill visit. On March 20, they arrive in Sydney, Australia.
  • March 17
    • In Washington, D.C., the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    • British Minister of Labour Ernest Bevin calls for women to fill vital jobs.
  • March 22Washington state's Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
  • March 24 – WWII: Rommel launches his first offensive in Cyrenaica.
  • March 25 – WWII: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers in Vienna.
  • March 27 – WWII:
    • Battle of Cape Matapan: Off the Peloponnese coast in the Mediterranean, British naval forces defeat those of Italy, sinking 5 warships. Battle ends on March 29.
    • An anti-Axis coup d'état in Yugoslavia forces Prince Paul into exile; 17-year-old King Peter II assumes power.
    • Japanese spy Takeo Yoshikawa arrives in Honolulu to study the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in preparation for a future attack.
  • March 30 – WWII:
    • All German, Italian and Danish ships anchored in United States waters are taken into "protective custody".
    • A German Lorenz cipher machine operator sends a 4,000-character message twice, allowing British mathematician Bill Tutte to decipher the machine's coding mechanism.[6]

April

  • April – The Valley of Geysers is discovered on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia by Tatyana Ustinova.
  • April 4 – WWII: Axis forces capture Benghazi.
  • April 6 – WWII: Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • April 9 – The U.S. acquires full military defense rights in Greenland.
  • April 10 – WWII:
    • The U.S. destroyer Template:Ship, while picking up survivors from a sunken Dutch freighter, drops depth charges on a German U-boat (the first "shot in anger" fired by America against Germany).Script error: No such module "Unsubst".
    • The Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of the Axis powers, is established with Ustaše leader Ante Pavelić as head (Poglavnik) of the government.
  • April 12 – WWII: German troops enter Belgrade.
  • April 13Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact signed.[7]
  • April 15 – WWII: Axis forces reach Halfaya Pass on the Libyan-Egyptian frontier.
  • April 17 – WWII: The Yugoslav Royal Army capitulates.
  • April 18 – WWII: Prime Minister of Greece Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide as German troops approach Athens.
  • April 19Bertolt Brecht's anti-war play Mother Courage and Her Children (Script error: No such module "lang".) receives its first theatrical production at the Schauspielhaus Zürich.
  • April 21 – WWII: Greece capitulates. Commonwealth troops and some elements of the Greek Army withdraw to Crete.
  • April 23 – The America First Committee holds its first mass rally in New York City, with Charles Lindbergh as keynote speaker.
  • April 25Franklin D. Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, criticizes Charles Lindbergh by comparing him to the Copperheads of the Civil War period. In response, Lindbergh resigns his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve on April 28.
  • April 27 – WWII: German troops enter Athens.

May

  • May 1
    • The breakfast cereal Cheerios is introduced as CheeriOats by General Mills.
    • Orson Welles' film Citizen Kane premieres in New York City.
    • The first Defense Bonds and Defense Savings Stamps go on sale in the United States, to help fund the greatly increased production of military equipment.
  • May 2Anglo-Iraqi War: British combat operations against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq begin.[8]
  • May 5 – WWII: Emperor Haile Selassie enters Addis Ababa, which has been liberated from Italian forces; this date is subsequently commemorated as Liberation Day in Ethiopia.
  • May 6 – At California's March Field, entertainer Bob Hope performs his first USO Show.
  • May 8 – WWII: The German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin is sunk by Template:HMS in the Indian Ocean.
  • May 9 – WWII: The Template:Ship is captured by the British Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine, which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.
  • May 10
    • WWII: The British House of Commons is damaged by the Luftwaffe in an air raid.
    • Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland, claiming to be on a peace mission.
  • May 11/May 12 – WWII: The Ustaše massacre 260–373 Serb men in a Catholic church in Glina, Croatia where the men had assembled to be received into the Catholic faith in exchange for their lives.
  • May 12Konrad Zuse presents the Z3, the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer, in Berlin.
  • May 15
    • The first British jet aircraft, the Gloster E.28/39, is flown.
    • Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak begins as the New York Yankees' center fielder goes one for four against Chicago White Sox Pitcher Eddie Smith.
  • May 19 – The Viet Minh is formed in at Pác Bó in Vietnam to overthrow French rule of the nation as an alliance between the Indochina Communist party, led by Ho Chi Minh, and the Nationalist party. It will become the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.
  • May 20 – WWII: The Battle of Crete begins as Germany launches an airborne invasion of Crete, the first mainly airborne invasion in military history.
  • May 21Template:Ship sinks the U.S.-flagged Template:SS off the west African coast, having allowed the passengers and crew to disembark.
  • May 24
    • WWII: In the North Atlantic, Template:Ship sinks battlecruiser Template:HMS, killing all but 3 crewmen from a total of 1,418 aboard the pride of the Royal Navy.
    • The British submarine Template:HMS torpedoes and sinks the Italian ocean liner Template:SS.
  • May 26 – WWII: In the North Atlantic, Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the carrier Template:HMS cripple the steering of Template:Ship in an aerial torpedo attack.
  • May 27
    • WWII: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, proclaims an "unlimited national emergency."[9]
    • WWII: German battleship Bismarck is sunk in the North Atlantic, killing 2,300. It is eventually found in 1989.
    • The Swiss Socialist Federation is banned.[10]
  • May 30 – WWII: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas tear down the Nazi swastika on the Acropolis in Athens, and replace it with the Greek flag.
  • May 31Anglo-Iraqi War: British troops complete the re-occupation of the Kingdom of Iraq, returning Prince 'Abd al-Ilah to power as regent for Faisal II.

June

  • June 1 – WWII: The Battle of Crete ends as Crete surrenders to invading German forces.
  • June 5
    • Second Sino-Japanese War: Four thousand Chongqing residents are asphyxiated in a bomb shelter during the Bombing of Chongqing.
    • A Serbian ammunition depot explodes at Smederevo on the outskirts of Belgrade, Serbia, killing 2,500, and injuring over 4,500.
  • June 8 – WWII: British and Free French forces invade Syria.
  • June 13TASS, the official Soviet news agency, denies reports of tension between Germany and the Soviet Union.
  • June 14
    • June deportation: Soviet officials deport about 65,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to Siberia.
    • All German and Italian assets in the United States are frozen.
  • June 16
    • All German and Italian consulates in the United States are ordered closed and their staffs to leave the country by July 10.
    • WWII: British Fleet Air Arm aircraft sink the Vichy Template:Ship.
  • June 20
    • United States Army Air Corps becomes the United States Army Air Forces.
    • Walt Disney's live-action animated feature The Reluctant Dragon is released.
  • June 22 – WWII:
    • Operation Barbarossa: Germany invades the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill promises all possible British assistance to the Soviet Union in a worldwide broadcast: "Any man or state who fights against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe." Italy and Romania declare war on the Soviet Union.
    • On the same day as the Operation Barbarossa starts, Rapid Vienna beats Schalke 04 at the Final of the German Fottballchampionship after 0:3 with 4:3.
    • The First Sisak Partisan Brigade, the first anti-fascist armed unit in occupied Europe, is founded by Yugoslav partisans near Sisak, Croatia.
    • June Uprising in Lithuania and establishment of a Provisional Government of Lithuania begun by the Lithuanian Activist Front in an attempt to liberate Lithuania from Soviet occupation.
  • June 23 – WWII: Hungary and Slovakia declare war on the Soviet Union.
  • June 24 – The Soviet Information Bureau, predecessor of RIA Novosti, is founded.
  • June 25 – WWII: Finland as a co-belligerent with Germany attacks the Soviet Union to start the Continuation War.
  • June 28 – WWII: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
  • June 29 – WWII: Hitler's second-in-command Reichsmarshall Hermann Göring is appointed as Hitler's successor in a written decree. The decree will come into effect should Hitler die in the middle of the war. (The decree becomes void in April 1945 after Göring tries to assume power while Hitler is still alive, leading to Göring's expulsion from the Nazi Party.)

July

  • July – The British Army's Special Air Service is formed.
  • July 1
    • Commercial TV authorized by the FCC.
    • NBC television begins commercial operation on WNBT on channel 1. The world's first legal TV commercial, for Bulova watches, occurs at 2:29 PM over WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The 10-second spot displays a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States, accompanied by the voice-over "America runs on Bulova time." [11][12] As a one-off special, the first quiz show called "Uncle Bee" is telecast on WNBT's inaugural broadcast day, followed later the same day by Ralph Edwards hosting the second game show broadcast on U.S. television, Truth or Consequences, as simulcast on radio and TV and sponsored by Ivory soap. Weekly broadcasts of the show commence in 1956, with Bob Barker.
    • CBS television begins commercial operation on New York station WCBW (modern-day WCBS-TV) on channel 2.
  • July 2 – WWII: Empire of Japan calls up 1 million men for military service.
  • July 3 – WWII: Joseph Stalin, in his first address since the German invasion, calls upon the Soviet people to carry out a "scorched earth" policy of resistance to the bitter end.
  • July 4The Holocaust: The massacre of Polish scientists and writers is committed by Nazi German troops in the occupied Polish city of Lwów.
  • July 5 – WWII:
    • Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper River.
    • British troopship Template:SS is torpedoed and sunk by Template:Ship in the Atlantic Ocean with the loss of around 250 out of about 1310 on board.
  • July 531: War is fought between Peru and Ecuador.
  • July 7 – WWII: American forces take over the defense of Iceland from the British.
  • July 10 – The Holocaust: Jedwabne pogrom: Local ethnic Poles massacre at least 340 Jewish residents of Jedwabne in occupied Poland.[13]
  • July 11 – The Northern Rhodesian Labour Party holds its first congress in Nkana.[14]
  • July 13 – WWII: Uprising in Montenegro against the Axis powers starts; the second popular uprising in Europe (the first being the "February strike" of February 25 (above) in the Netherlands).
  • July 14 – WWII: Vichy France signs armistice terms ending all fighting in Syria and Lebanon.
  • July 17Joe DiMaggio's 56 game hitting streak ends.
  • July 19
    • WWII: A BBC broadcast by "Colonel Britton" calls on the people of occupied Europe to resist the Nazis under the slogan "V for Victory".
    • The first episode The Midnight Snack in which Tom and Jerry are officially named, more than a year after their first production Puss Gets the Boot
  • July 23 – WWII: Italian aircraft damage the British destroyer Template:HMS which has to be sunk.
  • July 25 – Introduction of postal codes in Germany.
  • July 26 – WWII:
    • In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.
    • General Douglas MacArthur is named commander of all U.S. forces in the Philippines; the Philippines Army is ordered nationalized by President Roosevelt.
  • July 29 – The Vichy Regime signs the Protocol Concerning Joint Defense and Joint Military Cooperation with the Empire of Japan, giving the Japanese a total of eight airfields, allowing them greater troop presence and the use of the Indochinese financial system in return for continued French autonomy.
  • July 30 – WWII: The Holocaust: Glina massacre of July–August 1941 – The Ustaše brutally kill 200 Serbs inside a Serbian Orthodox church in Glina, Croatia, with a total of 700–1,200 being killed in the area of the next few days.
  • July 31 – WWII: The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring orders S.S. General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question."[15]

August

  • August – Political Warfare Executive is formed in the United Kingdom.
  • August 1 – First production Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep.
  • August 5Provisional Government of Lithuania dissolved.
  • August 6 – Six-year-old Elaine Esposito goes to have an appendix operation in Florida and lapses into a coma, dying 37 years later, still comatose.
  • August 7 – WWII: British submarine Template:HMS sinks an Italian Marconi-class submarine.
  • August 9Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet onboard ship at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter (released August 14), setting goals for postwar international cooperation, is created as a result.
  • August 16Template:HMS Royal Navy Signals School and Combined Signals School opens at Leydene, near Petersfield, Hampshire, England.
  • August 22 – WWII: France: The German Occupation Authority announces that anyone working for or aiding the Free French will be sentenced to death.
  • August 24
    • WWII: A Luftwaffe bomb hits the Estonian steamer Eestirand with 3,500 Soviet-mobilized Estonian men on board, killing 598 of them.
    • Adolf Hitler orders a halt to the Action T4 program, Nazi Germany's systematic euthanasia of the mentally ill and handicapped, due to protests from the churches. However, graduates of the program are then transferred to Nazi concentration camps where they continue the killings.
  • August 25 – WWII: The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran begins.
  • August 27 – WWII: Pierre Laval is shot in an assassination attempt at Versailles, France.
  • August 28 – WWII:
    • German troops capture Tallinn, Estonia from the Soviet Union, while attacks on the evacuating Soviet ships leave more than 12,000 dead in one of the bloodiest naval battles of World War II. German forces will capture the entire Estonian territory by 6 December.
    • The Soviet Union announces blowing up of the massive Dnieper Hydroelectric Station and dam at Zaporizhia to prevent its capture by the Germans.
  • August 30 – German Troopship Bahia Laura is sunk by the HMS Trident (N52), 450 are killed.
  • August 31The Great Gildersleeve debuts on NBC Radio in the United States.

September

  • September 3The Holocaust: SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch first uses the pesticide Zyklon B to execute Soviet prisoners of war en masse at Auschwitz concentration camp; eventually it will be used to kill about 1.2 million people.
  • September 6 – The Holocaust: The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word "Jew" inscribed, is extended to all Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas.
  • September 8 – WWII: The Siege of Leningrad begins: German forces begin a siege against the Soviet Union's second-largest city, Leningrad. Stalin orders the Volga Germans deported to Siberia.
  • September 11 – WWII: Charles Lindbergh, at an America First Committee rally in Des Moines, Iowa, accuses "the British, the Jewish, and the Roosevelt administration" of leading the United States toward war. Widespread condemnation of Lindbergh follows.
    • The Medvedev Forest massacre takes place at the Oryol Prison.
  • September 12 – WWII: The first snowfall is reported on the Russian front.
    • Construction on the Pentagon Building begins.
    • Franklin Roosevelt gives a fireside chat on the USS Greer incident
  • September 14 – The State of Vermont "declares war" on Germany, by defining the United States to be in "armed conflict" in order to extend a wartime bonus to Vermonters in the service.[16]
  • September 15 – The Estonian Self-Administration, headed by Hjalmar Mäe, is appointed by the German military administration.
  • September 16Rezā Shāh of Iran is forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, under pressure from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union.
  • September 22 – The town of Reshetylivka in the Soviet Union is occupied by German forces.
  • September 27 – The first liberty ship, the Template:SS, is launched at Baltimore.
  • September 28 – WWII: The Drama Uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece begins.
  • September 29 – WWII: The Moscow Conference begins; U.S. representative Averell Harriman and British representative Lord Beaverbrook meet with Soviet foreign minister Molotov to arrange urgent assistance for Russia.
  • September 29September 30 – The Holocaust: Babi Yar massacre – German troops, assisted by Ukrainian police and local collaborators, kill 33,771 Jews.

October

  • October 1
    • The Holocaust: The Nazi German Majdanek concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Lublin) opens in occupied Poland on the outskirts of the town Lublin. Between October 1941 and July 1944 at least 200,000 people will be killed in the camp.
    • New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy becomes the Royal New Zealand Navy
  • October 2 – WWII: Operation Typhoon begins as Germany launches an all-out offensive against Moscow.
  • October 7John Curtin becomes the 14th Prime Minister of Australia.
  • October 8 – WWII: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.
  • October 11 – WWII: Armed insurgents from the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia attacked Axis-occupied zones in the city of Prilep, beginning the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
  • October 1112 – Fire destroys a Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. plant in Fall River, Massachusetts, consuming 15,850 tons of rubber and causing a setback to the United States war effort.[17]
  • October 13The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler instructs SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik to begin construction of Bełżec; the first of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps.
  • October 15 – British submarine Template:HMS bombards the port of Apollonia, Cyrenaica in Italian Libya.
  • Mid-October – First production P-38E Lightning fighter produced by Lockheed.
  • October 16 – WWII: The Soviet government moves to Kuibyshev (modern Samara), but Stalin remains in Moscow.
  • October 17 – WWII: The destroyer Template:Ship is torpedoed and damaged near Iceland, killing 11 sailors (the first American military casualties of the war).
  • October 18 – General Hideki Tōjō becomes the 40th Prime Minister of Japan.
  • October 2021 – WWII: Kragujevac massacre – German soldiers and local auxiliaries massacre more than 2000 civilian men at Kragujevac in Nazi-occupied Serbia.
  • October 23Walt Disney's fourth animated film Dumbo is released.
  • October 25Franz von Werra disappears during a flight over the North Sea.
  • October 30 – WWII: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union.
  • October 31
    • WWII: The destroyer Template:Ship is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 United States Navy sailors.
    • Last day of carving on Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.

November

  • November 5 – WWII: US holds peace talks with Japan
  • November 6 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time was earlier this year on July 2). He states that 350,000 Soviet troops have been killed in German attacks but that the Germans have lost 4.5 millionScript error: No such module "Unsubst". soldiers (a gross exaggeration) and that Soviet victory is near.
  • November 7 – WWII: The Soviet hospital ship Armenia is sunk by German aircraft while evacuating refugees, wounded military and the staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that more than 5,000 die in the sinking.
  • November 10 – In a speech at the Mansion House, London, Winston Churchill promises "should the United States become involved in war with Japan, the British declaration will follow within the hour".
  • November 12 – WWII:
    • As the Battle of Moscow begins, temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 °C, and the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing German forces near the city.
    • The Soviet cruiser Chervona Ukraina is hit three times in the Severnaya Bay by bombs from German Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers from II./StG 77 during the Siege of Sevastopol.[18]
  • November 14 – WWII:
    • The British aircraft carrier Template:HMS sinks under tow off Gibraltar after being torpedoed the previous day by Template:Ship.
    • The Holocaust: In Slonim (Byelorussian SSR), German forces engaged in Operation Barbarossa murder 9000 Jews this day.
  • November 17 – WWII: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables to Washington, D.C., a warning that Japan may strike suddenly and unexpectedly.
  • November 18 – WWII: Operation Crusader, a British Eighth Army operation to relieve the Siege of Tobruk in North Africa, begins.
  • November 19 – WWII: Both commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran and Australian cruiser Template:HMAS sink following a battle off the coast of Western Australia. There are no survivors from the 645 Australian sailors aboard Sydney.[19]
  • November 21 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it later becomes the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
  • November 22 – WWII: Template:HMS sinks commerce raiding Template:Ship, ending the longest warship cruise of the war (622 days without in-port replenishment or repair).[20]
  • November 26 – WWII:
    • The Hull note (Outline of Proposed Basis for Agreement Between the United States and Japan), named for Secretary of State Cordell Hull, is delivered to the Empire of Japan by the United States.
    • A fleet of 6 aircraft carriers commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Chūichi Nagumo leaves Hitokapu Bay for Pearl Harbor under strict radio silence.
  • November 27
    • WWII: Germans reach their closest approach to Moscow. They are subsequently frozen by cold weather and attacks by the Soviets.
    • A group of young men stop traffic on U.S. Highway 99 south of Yreka, California, handing out fliers proclaiming the establishment of the State of Jefferson.

December

File:The USS Arizona (BB-39) burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor - NARA 195617 - Edit.jpg

Template:Ship ablaze after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

  • December 1 – WWII:
    • Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol under the authority of the United States Army Air Forces.
    • A state of emergency is declared in British Malaya and the Straits Settlements.
  • December 2 – WWII: The code message "Climb Mount Niitaka" is transmitted to the Japanese task force, indicating that negotiations have broken down and that the attack on Pearl Harbor is to be carried out according to plan.
  • December 4 – The State of Jefferson is declared in Yreka, California, with a judge, John Childs, as governor.
  • December 6 – WWII:
    • Soviet counterattacks begin against German troops encircling Moscow. The Wehrmacht is subsequently pushed back over 200 miles.
    • The United Kingdom declares war on Finland and Romania.
  • December 6 – WWII: British submarine Template:HMS is sunk by a mine off Cephalonia.
  • December 7 (December 8 – 3:18 a.m., Japan Standard Time) – WWII:
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor: Aircraft flying from Imperial Japanese Navy carriers launch a surprise attack on the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, thus drawing the United States into World War II. The attack begins at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Standard Time and is announced on radio stations in the U.S. at about 11:26 p.m. PST (19.26 GMT).
    • The Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire is published in Japanese evening newspapers but not formally delivered to the U.S. until the following day. Canada declares war on Japan.
    • Adolf Hitler makes his Nacht und Nebel decree, declaring that all political prisoners and those involved in both German resistance to Nazism and resistance to Nazism throughout German-occupied Europe were to be apprehended by the Gestapo, Sicherheitsdienst and other security forces under Heinrich Himmler's control.
    • Tobruk's British and Commonwealth garrison is relieved after Axis forces under Rommel withdraw.
  • December 8
    • WWII: The Battle of Hong Kong begins shortly after 8:00 a.m. (local time), less than eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Japanese forces invade Hong Kong, which is defended by British, Canadian and local troops. The United Kingdom officially declares war on the Empire of Japan.
    • WWII: Japanese Invasion of Shanghai International Settlement, Began to occupy the British and the American sectors after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    • WWII: The Japanese occupation of the Philippines begins ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor when Japanese forces invade Luzon and destroy U.S. aircraft on Clark Field.[21]
    • WWII: President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his "Infamy Speech" to a Joint session of the United States Congress at 12:30 p.m. EST (17.30 GMT). Transmitted live over all four major national networks it attracts the largest audience ever for an American radio broadcast, over 81% of homes.[22] Within an hour, Congress agrees to the President's request for a United States declaration of war upon Japan and he signs it at 4:10 p.m.
    • WWII: Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, the Free French, Yugoslavia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras also officially declare war on Japan, and the Republic of China declares war on the Axis powers.[21]
    • WWII: Japanese also attack British Malaya and Thailand.[21]
    • WWII: The German advance on Moscow (Operation Typhoon) is suspended for the winter.[21]
    • The Holocaust: the Nazi German Chełmno extermination camp opens in occupied Poland near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem. Between December 1941-April 1943 and June 1944-January 1945 at least 153,000 people will be killed in the camp.
    • The Holocaust The first mass gassing of Jews began in Chełmno extermination camp on 8 December 1941, when the Nazis used gas vans to murder people from the Lodz ghetto.
  • December 10 – WWII:
    • The British battleship Template:HMS and battlecruiser HMS Repulse are sunk by Japanese aircraft in the South China Sea north of Singapore.
    • The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea officially declares war on Japan.
  • December 11 – WWII:
    • Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. The U.S. responds in kind.
    • Mildred Gillars ("Axis Sally") delivers her first propaganda broadcast to Allied troops.
  • December 12 – WWII:
    • Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
    • British India declares war on the Empire of Japan.
    • The United States seizes the French ship Template:SS.
    • The Kimura Detachment of the Japanese Imperial forces is occupied in Legaspi, Albay, Philippines.
  • December 13 – Sweden's low temperature record of -53 °C is set in a village within the Vilhelmina Municipality.
  • December 14 – WWII: The Independent State of Croatia declares war on the United States and the United Kingdom.
  • December 19 – WWII:
    • Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the German Army.
    • Twelve days after the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor, the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland graduates its "Class of 1942" a semester early so as to induct the graduating students without delay into the U.S. Navy and/or Marine Corps as officers, for immediate stationing in the war.[23]
  • December 21
    • Thailand and Japan sign a military alliance.
    • The Holocaust: Stanisławów Ghetto established.
  • December 22 – WWII: Arcadia Conference opens in Washington, D.C., the first meeting on military strategy between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States following the latter's entry into the war.
  • December 23 – WWII: A second Japanese landing attempt on Wake Island is successful, and the American garrison surrenders after a full night and morning of fighting.
  • December 24 – WWII:
    • British forces capture Benghazi.
    • Dutch submarine HNLMS K XVI is the first Allied ship to sink a Japanese warship, sinking the destroyer Sagiri near Sarawak; K XVI is herself torpedoed the following day by Japanese submarine I 66.
  • December 25 – WWII:
    • The Battle of Hong Kong ends after 17 days with surrender of the British Crown colony to the Japanese.
    • Admiral Émile Muselier seizes the archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the first part of France to be liberated by the Free French Forces.
  • December 26 – WWII: Winston Churchill becomes the first British Prime Minister to address a joint session of the United States Congress.
  • December 27 – WWII: British Commandos raid the Norwegian port of Vaagso, causing Hitler to reinforce the garrison and defenses, drawing vital troops away from other areas.

Date unknown

  • Classic Comics series launched in the United States with a version of The Three Musketeers.

Births

January

File:Hayao Miyazaki.jpg

Hayao Miyazaki

File:Joan Baez 1966.jpg

Joan Baez

File:Faye Dunaway 1994.jpg

Faye Dunaway

File:NielDiamondHWOFAug2012.jpg

Neil Diamond

File:Scott Glenn 2011 Shankbone.JPG

Scott Glenn

File:46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg

Dick Cheney

  • January 1
  • January 5Hayao Miyazaki, Japanese film director
  • January 7
    • Iona Brown, British violinist and conductor (d. 2004)
    • Manfred Schellscheidt, German American soccer coach
    • John E. Walker, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • January 8Graham Chapman, English comedian (d. 1989)
  • January 9
    • Joan Baez, American singer and activist
    • Robert D. Putnam, American political scientist
  • January 11
    • Dave Edwards, American musician (d. 2000)
    • Jimmy Velvit, American singer/songwriter
  • January 12Long John Baldry, British singer (d. 2005)
  • January 14
    • Faye Dunaway, American actress
    • Milan Kučan, Slovenian politician and statesman
  • January 15Captain Beefheart, American singer (d. 2010)
  • January 18David Ruffin, American singer (The Temptations) (d. 1991)
  • January 19Pat Patterson, Canadian professional wrestler
  • January 20
    • Clift Tsuji, American politician
    • Allan Young, English footballer (d. 2009)
  • January 21
    • Plácido Domingo, Spanish-born tenor
    • Richie Havens, American musician (d. 2013)
  • January 24
    • Neil Diamond, American singer-songwriter
    • Aaron Neville, American singer
    • Dan Shechtman, Israeli chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • January 25Theo Berger, German criminal (d. 2003)
  • January 26Scott Glenn, American actor
  • January 27Beatrice Tinsley, English astronomer (d. 1981)
  • January 30
    • Dick Cheney, American politician (R-WY); 46th Vice President of the United States
    • Tineke Lagerberg, Dutch swimmer
  • January 31
    • Lynne Abraham, American lawyer; former District Attorney of Philadelphia (1991–2010)
    • Dick Gephardt, American politician
    • Eugène Terre'Blanche, South African pro-apartheid politician, farmer (d. 2010)
    • Jessica Walter, American actress

February

File:NickNolte(cannesPhotocall).jpg

Nick Nolte

File:Hipolito mejia.jpg

Hipolito Mejia

  • February 1
    • Jerry Spinelli, American children's author
    • Karl Dall, German comedian, singer and television presenter
  • February 3
    • Dory Funk, Jr., American professional wrestler
    • Howard Phillips, American politician
  • February 5
    • Stephen J. Cannell, American director and producer (d. 2010)
    • David Selby, American actor
    • Kaspar Villiger, Swiss politician
  • February 8Nick Nolte, American actor
  • February 10Michael Apted, English film director
  • February 12Naomi Uemura, Japanese adventurer (d. 1984)
  • February 13
    • David Jeremiah, American televangelist
    • Sigmar Polke, German painter
  • February 19David Gross, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • February 20Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian singer
  • February 22Hipólito Mejía, President of the Dominican Republic
  • February 27Lord Ashdown, British politician and life peer
  • February 28Suzanne Mubarak, Egyptian first lady

March

File:Richard Dawkins Cooper Union Shankbone.jpg

Richard Dawkins

  • March 1Joo Hyun, South Korean actor
  • March 4
    • John Aprea, American actor
    • Adrian Lyne, English film director
  • March 9Ernesto Miranda, American criminal (d. 1976)
  • March 12Erkki Salmenhaara, Finnish composer (d. 2002)
  • March 14Wolfgang Petersen, German film director
  • March 15Mike Love, American musician
  • March 16
    • Robert Guéï, military ruler of Côte d'Ivoire (d. 2002)
    • Chuck Woolery, American game show host
  • March 17Paul Kantner, American rock guitarist (d. 2016)
  • March 18Wilson Pickett, American singer (d. 2006)
  • March 20Kenji Kimihara, Japanese long-distance runner
  • March 23Jim Trelease, American educator and author
  • March 26Richard Dawkins, British scientist
  • March 28
    • Philip Fang, Hong Kong simultaneous interpretation specialist, United Nations official (d. 2013)
    • Jim Turner, American football player
  • March 29Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • March 30
    • Wasim Sajjad, President of Pakistan
    • Graeme Edge, English rock drummer and songwriter (The Moody Blues)

April

File:Michael D. Higgins 2006.jpg

Michael D. Higgins

File:Paavo Lipponen 2004.jpg

Paavo Lipponen

  • April 2Dr. Demento (né Barret Eugene Hansen), American radio disc jockey, novelty music collector
  • April 3
    • Eric Braeden, German-born American actor
    • Jorma Hynninen, Finnish baritone
    • Philippé Wynne, American musician (d. 1984)
  • April 8Peggy Lennon, American singer (The Lennon Sisters)
  • April 9Kay Adams, American country singer
  • April 11Shirley Stelfox, English actress (d. 2015)
  • April 12Bobby Moore, English football player; World Cup winning captain (d. 1993)
  • April 13Michael Stuart Brown, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • April 14Pete Rose, American baseball player
  • April 18Michael D. Higgins, 9th President of Ireland
  • April 20Ryan O'Neal, American actor
  • April 21David L. Boren, U.S. Senator from Oklahoma
  • April 23
    • Paavo Lipponen, Prime Minister of Finland
    • Ed Stewart, English disc jockey (d. 2016)
    • Ray Tomlinson, American computer programmer (d. 2016)
  • April 24
    • Richard Holbrooke, American diplomat (d. 2010)
    • John Williams, Australian guitarist
  • April 27Lee Roy Jordan, American football player
  • April 28
    • Ann-Margret, Swedish-born American actress, singer and dancer
    • K. Barry Sharpless, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
    • Iryna Zhylenko, Ukrainian poet (d. 2013)

May

File:GohChokTong-WashingtonDC-20010614.jpg

Goh Chok Tong

File:Bob Dylan - Azkena Rock Festival 2010 1.jpg

Bob Dylan

  • May 3Nona Gaprindashvili, Georgian chess player
  • May 5Alexander Ragulin, Russian hockey player (d. 2004)
  • May 6Ivica Osim, Bosnian football player and manager
  • May 10Aydın Güven Gürkan, Turkish academic and politician (d. 2006)
  • May 11Eric Burdon, English singer
  • May 13
    • Senta Berger, Austrian actress
    • Ritchie Valens, American singer (d. 1959)
  • May 19
    • Bobby Burgess, American dancer and singer
    • Nora Ephron, American film producer, director, and screenwriter (d. 2012)
  • May 20Goh Chok Tong, 2nd Prime Minister of Singapore
  • May 21Bobby Cox, American baseball manager
  • May 22
  • May 24Bob Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman, American poet and musician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature
  • May 26John Kaufman, English sculptor
  • May 27Teppo Hauta-aho, Finnish double bassist and composer
  • May 31Louis Ignarro, American pharmacologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

June

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Vaclav Klaus

  • June 1
    • Wayne Kemp, American country music singer (d. 2015)
    • Alexander Zakharov, Soviet (later Russian) deputy scientist and astronomer
  • June 2
  • June 5
    • Martha Argerich, Argentine pianist
    • Spalding Gray, American actor and screenwriter (d. 2004)
  • June 7Tony Ray-Jones, British photographer (d. 1972)
  • June 8
    • Robert Bradford, Northern Irish politician (d. 1981)
    • Fuzzy Haskins, American musician (P-Funk)
  • June 9Jon Lord, organist of Deep Purple (d. 2012)
  • June 10
    • Mickey Jones, American actor and musician
    • James A. Paul, American writer and non-profit executive
    • Jürgen Prochnow, German actor
  • June 12Marv Albert, American sports announcer
  • June 14Roy Harper, English guitarist
  • June 15
  • June 16
    • Rosalind Baker, Australian author
  • June 19
    • Conchita Carpio-Morales, Filipino Supreme Court jurist
    • Václav Klaus, President of the Czech Republic
  • June 21
    • Joe Flaherty, American-Canadian actor and comedian
    • Valeri Zolotukhin, Soviet/Russian actor
  • June 22
    • Ed Bradley, American journalist (d. 2006)
    • Michael Lerner, American actor
    • Terttu Savola, Finnish politician
  • June 24
    • Erkin Koray, Turkish musician
    • Bill Reardon, American politician and educator
    • Charles Whitman, American mass murderer (d. 1966)
  • June 27Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (d. 1996)
  • June 28
    • Joseph Goguen, American computer scientist (d. 2006)
    • David Johnston, 28th Governor General of Canada
  • June 30Otto Sander, German actor (d. 2013)

July

File:Epeli Nailatikau 2014.jpg

Epeli Nailatikau

File:PaulAnka07.jpg

Paul Anka

  • July 1
  • July 5Epeli Nailatikau, Fijian chief, President of Fiji
  • July 6Harold Leighton Weller, American conductor
  • July 7
    • Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, Welsh politician
    • Bill Oddie, English writer, composer, musician, comedian
  • July 10Jackie Lane, English actress
  • July 11Tommy Vance, English disc jockey (d. 2005)
  • July 12
    • John Lahr, American drama critic
    • Benny Parsons, American race car driver (d. 2007)
  • July 13
    • Robert Forster, American Actor
  • July 14
    • Maulana Karenga, American author and activist
    • Andreas Khol, Austrian politician
  • July 16Hans Wiegel, Dutch politician
  • July 18Frank Farian, German record producer and songwriter
  • July 19
    • Vikki Carr, American singer
    • Neelie Kroes, Dutch politician
  • July 22George Clinton, American musician
  • July 23Sergio Mattarella, Italian lawyer, judge and politician, 12th President of Italy
  • July 27Bill Baxley, Alabama politician
  • July 28
    • Peter Cullen, Canadian voice actor
    • Riccardo Muti, Italian conductor
  • July 29
    • Jennifer Dunn, American politician (d. 2007)
    • David Warner, English actor
  • July 30Paul Anka, Canadian-American singer and songwriter
  • July 31Amarsinh Chaudhary, Indian politician

August

Template:Double image

File:Ibrahim Babangida (cropped).jpg

Ibrahim Babangida

  • August 2Ede Staal, Dutch singer-songwriter
  • August 3
    • Martha Stewart, American television personality and media entrepreneur
    • Hage Geingob, President of Namibia
  • August 4Ted Strickland, American politician
  • August 6Lyle Berman, American poker player
  • August 8George Tiller, American physician (d. 2009)
  • August 9Shirlee Busbee, American novelist.
  • August 12Deborah Walley, American actress (d. 2001)
  • August 14
    • David Crosby, American musician
    • Connie Smith, American singer
  • August 16
    • Théoneste Bagosora, former Rwandan army officer and alleged planner of the Rwandan Genocide
    • David Dickinson, British antiques expert and television presenter
  • August 17
    • Ibrahim Babangida, former President of Nigeria
    • Lothar Bisky, German politician (d. 2013)
    • Fritz Wepper, German actor
  • August 20Slobodan Milošević, President of Serbia (d. 2006)

September

File:Bernie Sanders New Orleans rally crop.jpg

Bernie Sanders

File:Ahmet Necdet Sezer.jpg

Ahmet Necdet Sezer

  • September 1George Saimes, American football player
  • September 2
    • David Bale, South African-born businessman; father of actor Christian Bale and husband of feminist activist Gloria Steinem (d. 2003)
    • Jyrki Otila, Finnish quiz show judge and Member of the European Parliament (d. 2003)
    • John Thompson, American basketball coach
  • September 3Sergei Dovlatov, Russian short-story writer and novelist (d. 1990)
  • September 4Sushilkumar Shinde, Indian politician
  • September 8Bernie Sanders, American politician, U.S. Senator (D-Vt.), and 2016 presidential candidate
  • September 9
  • September 10
    • Christopher Hogwood, English conductor and harpsichordist (d. 2014)
    • Gunpei Yokoi, Japanese computer game producer (d. 1997)
  • September 13
    • Tadao Ando, Japanese architect
    • Ahmet Necdet Sezer, former President of Turkey
  • September 14Alberto Naranjo, Venezuelan musician
  • September 15Mirosław Hermaszewski, first Polish cosmonaut in space
  • September 17Bob Matsui, U.S. Congressman from California (d. 2005)
  • September 19Cass Elliot, American singer (d. 1974)
  • September 20Dale Chihuly, American glass sculptor
  • September 24
    • Guy Hovis, American singer
    • Linda McCartney, American activist, musician and photographer (d. 1998)
  • September 26Martine Beswick, British actress and model
  • September 27
    • Gay Kayler Ashcroft, Australian country music singer
    • Sam Zell, American publisher and investor
  • September 28Edmund Stoiber, German politician
  • September 29Fred West, English serial killer (d. 1995)
  • September 30Angela Pleasence, English actress

October

File:Duhalde23012007.jpg

Eduardo Duhalde

File:Paul Simon at the 9-30 Club (b).jpg

Paul Simon

  • October 2Zareh Baronian, Archimandrite theologian
  • October 3Chubby Checker, American singer
  • October 4
    • Roy Blount, Jr., American writer and comedian
    • Elizabeth Eckford, American activist
    • Anne Rice, American writer
  • October 5Eduardo Duhalde, President of Argentina
  • October 8Jesse Jackson, American clergyman and civil rights activist
  • October 9Trent Lott, former United States Senator (R-MS)
  • October 10Peter Coyote, American actor
  • October 13Paul Simon, American singer and composer
  • October 16Tim McCarver, American baseball commentator
  • October 20Anneke Wills, British actress
  • October 23Mel Winkler, American actor
  • October 25
    • Helen Reddy, Australian singer and actress
    • Anne Tyler, American novelist
  • October 27Gerd Brantenberg, Norwegian feminist author and gay rights activist
  • October 28
    • John Hallam, Irish actor
    • Jochen Hasenmayer, German cave diver
    • Hank Marvin, British guitarist, singer and songwriter (The Shadows)
  • October 30Theodor W. Hänsch, German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics
  • October 31Sally Kirkland, American actress

November

File:Franco Nero.jpg

Franco Nero

  • November 1
    • Marina Baura, Spanish-Venezuelan film and television actress
    • Nigel Dempster, British journalist, author, broadcaster and diarist (d. 2007)
    • Robert Foxworth, American actor
  • November 2Bruce Welch, British guitarist, singer and songwriter
  • November 5Art Garfunkel, American singer
  • November 6
    • Guy Clark, American singer-songwriter (d. 2016)
    • Doug Sahm, American musician (d. 1999)
  • November 7Angelo Scola, Italian cardinal
  • November 9Tom Fogerty, American guitarist (Creedence Clearwater Revival) (d. 1990)
  • November 13Joseph L. Galloway, American newspaper columnist and Vietnam War historian
  • November 17Tova Traesnaes, Norwegian-American cosmetician and businesswoman; widow of actor Ernest Borgnine
  • November 19Dan Haggerty, American actor (d. 2016)
  • November 21Juliet Mills, English actress
  • November 22Tom Conti, Scottish actor and theatre director
  • November 23
    • Derek Mahon, Irish poet
    • Franco Nero, Italian actor
  • November 24Pete Best, English drummer
  • November 25
    • Ralph Haben, American politician, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives
    • Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Sufi, author, poet
  • November 26G. Alan Marlatt, Canadian-born American psychologist
  • November 27
    • Eddie Rabbitt, American country musician (d. 1998)
    • Henry Carr, American Olympic athlete (d. 2015)
  • November 28Laura Antonelli, Italian actress (d. 2015)
  • November 29Bill Freehan, American baseball player

December

File:Sebastián Piñera - Lee Myung-bak (cropped).jpg

Lee Myung-bak

File:Alex Ferguson 02 (cropped).jpg

Sir Alex Ferguson

  • December 4David Johnston, Australian newsreader
  • December 6
    • Vittorio Mezzogiorno, Italian actor (d. 1994)
    • Richard Speck, American mass murderer (d. 1991)
  • December 9Beau Bridges, American actor
  • December 10Kyu Sakamoto, Japanese singer and actor (d. 1985)
  • December 11J. Frank Wilson, American singer (J. Frank Wilson and the Cavaliers) (d. 1991)
  • December 13John Davidson, American singer and actor
  • December 18Prince William of Gloucester, member of the English royal family
  • December 19
    • Lee Myung-bak, 17th President of South Korea
    • Maurice White, American singer, songwriter, musician and record producer, founder of Earth, Wind & Fire (d. 2016)
  • December 21Lo Hoi-pang, Hong Kong-born Chinese actor
  • December 23
    • Ron Bushy, American rock musician
    • Tim Hardin, American musician (d. 1980)
  • December 24John Levene, English actor
  • December 27Miles Aiken, American basketball player and coach
  • December 30Mel Renfro, American football player
  • December 31Sir Alex Ferguson, Scottish football manager (Manchester United)

Deaths

January

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James Joyce

February

File:Fredrick banting.jpg

Frederick Banting

File:Timbre AlphonseXIII surcharge RepublEspanola.jpg

King Alfonso XIII of Spain

March

File:Gutzon Borglum 1919.jpg

Gutzon Borglum

File:George Charles Beresford - Virginia Woolf in 1902 - Restoration.jpg

Virginia Woolf

  • March 6Gutzon Borglum, American sculptor (Mount Rushmore) (b. 1867)
  • March 7Günther Prien, German submarine commander (killed in action) (b. 1908)
  • March 8Sherwood Anderson, American author (b. 1876)
  • March 15Alexej von Jawlensky, Russian painter (b. 1864)
  • March 17Joachim Schepke, German submarine commander (killed in action) (b. 1912)
  • March 28
    • Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian police commissioner (b. 1887)
    • Virginia Woolf, English writer (b. 1882)
  • March 30Vasil Kutinchev, Bulgarian general (b. 1859)

April

  • April 5 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer (Flying Scotsman and Mallard) (b. 1876)
  • April 13Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (b. 1863)
  • April 16Josiah Stamp, British baron, banker, civil servant, industrialist, economist and statistician (b.1880)
  • April 24Karin Boye, Swedish poet (suicide) (b. 1900)
  • April 30Edwin S. Porter, American film director (b. 1870)

May

  • May 6Shūzō Kuki, Japanese philosopher (b. 1888)
  • May 7James George Frazer, Scottish social anthropologist (b. 1854)
  • May 11Peggy Shannon, American actress (b. 1910)
  • May 12Ruth Stonehouse, American actress (b. 1892)
  • May 16Minnie Vautrin, American missionary and heroine of the Nanjing Massacre (b. 1887)
  • May 24Lancelot Holland, British admiral (b. 1887)
  • May 27Günther Lütjens, German admiral (b. 1889)
  • May 30Prajadhipok, Rama VII, king of Thailand (b. 1893)

June

File:HansBerger Univ Jena.jpeg

Hans Berger

File:Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg

Wilhelm II

  • June 1
    • Hans Berger, German neurologist (b. 1873)
    • Jenny Dolly, American singer (b. 1892)
    • Hugh Walpole, British writer (b. 1884)
  • June 2Lou Gehrig, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1903)
  • June 4Wilhelm II, last Emperor of Germany (b. 1859)
  • June 6Louis Chevrolet, Swiss-born automobile builder and race car driver (b. 1878)
  • June 15Evelyn Underhill, British writer (b. 1875)
  • June 21Elliott Dexter, American actor (b. 1870)
  • June 29Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Polish pianist, composer, and third Prime Minister of Poland (b. 1860)

July

File:Rudolf Ramek Svenska Dagbladets årsbok 1924.png

Rudolf Ramek

  • July 3Friedrich Akel, Estonian diplomat and politician (b. 1871)
  • July 4Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)
  • July 10Jelly Roll Morton, African-American jazz musician and composer (b. 1890)
  • July 11Arthur Evans, English archaeologist (b. 1851)
  • July 15Walter Ruttmann, German director (b. 1887)
  • July 20Lew Fields, American vaudeville performer (b. 1867)
  • July 23José Quiñones Gonzales, Peruvian aviator (b. 1914)
  • July 24Rudolf Ramek, 6th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1881)
  • July 25Allan Forrest, American actor (b. 1885)
  • July 26Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (b. 1875)
  • July 29James Stephenson, British actor (b. 1889)
  • July 30Mickey Welch, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1859)

August

File:Fr.Maximilian Kolbe 1939.jpg

Maximilian Kolbe

  • August 7Rabindranath Tagore, Indian author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1861)
  • August 13James Stuart Blackton, American film producer (b. 1875)
  • August 14
    • Paul Sabatier, French chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1854)
    • Maximilian Kolbe, German Franciscan (voluntary execution) (b. 1894)
  • August 20John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven, British politician, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1874)
  • August 30Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish engineer and physicist (b. 1874)
  • August 31Marina Tsvetaeva, Russian poet (suicide) (b. 1892)

September

File:Hans Spemann nobel.jpg

Hans Spemann

October

  • October 5Louis Brandeis, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1856)
  • October 8
    • Gus Kahn, German songwriter (b. 1886)
    • Valentine O'Hara, Irish author (b. 1875)
  • October 9Helen Morgan, American singer and actress (b. 1900)
  • October 25Robert Delaunay, French painter (b. 1885)
  • October 26
    • Arkady Gaidar, Russian writer (b. 1904)
    • Victor Schertzinger, American composer and director (b. 1888)
  • October 29Harvey Hendrick, American baseball player (b. 1897)

November

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File:Pedro Aguirre Cerda.jpg

Pedro Aguirre Cerda

  • November 7Frank Pick, British transport administrator and designer (b. 1878)
  • November 16Miina Härma, Estonian composer (b. 1864)
  • November 17Ernst Udet, German World War I fighter ace and Nazi Luftwaffe official (suicide) (b. 1896)
  • November 18
    • Émile Nelligan, Canadian poet (b. 1879)
    • Walther Nernst, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1864)
    • Chris Watson, 3rd Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1867)
  • November 22
    • Werner Mölders, German fighter pilot (b. 1913)
    • Kurt Koffka, German psychologist (b. 1886)
  • November 23Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist, dramatist, impersonator, public speaker (b. 1860)
  • November 25Pedro Aguirre Cerda, President of Chile (b. 1879)
  • November 26Niels Hansen Jacobsen, Danish sculptor and ceramist (b. 1861)
  • November 27Charles James Briggs, British general (b. 1865)
  • November 30Esmond Romilly, British socialist (b. 1918)

December

Nobel Prizes

References

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  16. Vermont declares war on Germany, harpagofito.wordpress.com; accessed December 4, 2014.
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  18. Robert Forczyk (2008). Sevastopol 1942, Von Manstein's triumph, p. 40. ISBN 978-1-84603-221-9
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Links