Culture Wikia

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1919 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1919
Ab urbe condita2672
Armenian calendar1368
Assyrian calendar6669
Bahá'í calendar75–76
Balinese saka calendar1840–1841
Bengali calendar1326
Berber calendar2869
British Regnal yearGeo. 5 – 10 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2463
Burmese calendar1281
Byzantine calendar7427–7428
Chinese calendar戊午(Earth Horse)
4615 or 4555
    — to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
4616 or 4556
Coptic calendar1635–1636
Discordian calendar3085
Ethiopian calendar1911–1912
Hebrew calendar5679–5680
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1975–1976
 - Shaka Samvat1840–1841
 - Kali Yuga5019–5020
Holocene calendar11919
Igbo calendar919–920
Iranian calendar1297–1298
Islamic calendar1337–1338
Japanese calendarTaishō 8
Javanese calendar1849–1850
Juche calendar8
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4252
Minguo calendarROC 8
Nanakshahi calendar451
Thai solar calendar2461–2462
Tibetan calendar阳土马年
(male Earth-Horse)
2045 or 1664 or 892
    — to —
(female Earth-Goat)
2046 or 1665 or 893

1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the , the 19th year of the , and the 10th and last year of the decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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January 1: Iolaire sinks.

  • January 1
    • The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the self-proclaimed "free city" of Pressburg (now Bratislava), enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia.[1]
    • HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland; 206 die.
    • Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company.
  • January 3 – The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal (representing the Arab Kingdom of Hejaz) and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.
  • January 5
    • Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution.
    • In Germany, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP), predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by merger of Anton Drexler's Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist Karl Harrer's Political Worker's Circle.
  • January 7
    • The beginning of the Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, which is suppressed by official forces.
    • Estonian War of Independence: With Soviet Russian forces just 40 km of the capital Tallinn, Estonian forces start a general and successful counter-offensive against the Red Army.
  • January 8 – The funeral of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, is held at Christ Church Oyster Bay, Long Island; Roosevelt had died in his sleep at the age of 60, two days earlier.[2]
  • January 9Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin.
  • January 1012 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin.
  • January 11
    • Romania annexes Transylvania.
    • Georgians genocide in Alagir.
  • January 13 – Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over.
  • January 14Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army.
  • January 15
    • Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising.
    • Great Molasses Flood: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150.
  • January 16
    • The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.
    • Pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes the second Prime Minister of Poland.
  • January 18
    • World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens at the Palace of Versailles, France.[3]
    • Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Narva, expelling the Red Army from Northern Estonia.
    • Bentley Motors Limited is founded in England.
  • January 19
    • The Monarchy of the North is established in Northern Portugal.
  • January 21
    • Dáil Éireann meets for the first time in the Mansion House, Dublin. It comprises Sinn Féin members elected in the 1918 general election who, in accordance with their manifesto, have not taken their seats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom but chosen to declare an independent Irish Republic. In the first shots of the Anglo-Irish War, two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary.
    • Gojong, the first emperor of the Korean Empire, dies.
  • January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine.
  • January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris, France.
  • January 31Battle of George Square: The British Army is called in to deal with riots and protests against high rents in Glasgow, Scotland.
File:1919 Battle of George Square - David Kirkwood.jpg

David Kirkwood being detained by police during the Battle of George Square


  • February 1Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Valga and Võru, expelling the Red Army from the entire territory of Estonia.
  • February 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine.
  • February 4-5 – Pressburg (Bratislava) becomes capital of Slovakia.[4]
  • February 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers.
  • February 11
    • Friedrich Ebert is elected first President of Germany (Reichspräsident) by the Weimar National Assembly.
    • The Seattle General Strike ends when Federal troops are summoned by the State of Washington's Attorney General.
  • February 12 – Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of Pressburg start a protest against its incorporation into Czechoslovakia but the Czechoslovak Legions open fire on the unarmed demonstrators.[5]
  • February 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.
  • February 16-21Estonian War of Independence: Uninformed peasants in Saaremaa rebel against the war in Estonia. The rebellion is crushed by government forces, leaving more than 200 dead.
  • February 25Oregon places a one cent per US gallon (0.26¢/liter) tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
  • February 26Grand Canyon National Park: An act of the United States Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park.
  • February 28
    • Amānullāh Khān becomes King of Afghanistan.
    • An independence mission to the U.S., funded by the Philippine legislature, sets out from Manila to present its case to Secretary of War Newton D. Baker.[6]


  • March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.
  • March 2Founding Congress of the Comintern opens in Moscow.
  • March 3 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction of Charles Schenck.
  • March 4 – The Communist International (Comintern) is founded.
  • March 45Kinmel Park Riots by troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force awaiting repatriation at Kinmel Camp, Bodelwyddan, in North Wales. Five men are killed, 28 injured, and 25 convicted of mutiny.[7]
  • March 5A. Mitchell Palmer becomes United States Attorney General through recess appointment.
  • March 8 – The Rowlatt Act is passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in London, indefinitely extending the emergency provisions of the Defence of India Act 1915.
  • March 9 – The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 breaks out.
  • March 1517 – Members of the American Expeditionary Forces convene in Paris for the first American Legion caucus.
  • March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun.
  • March 23 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
  • March 2324Charles I, last Emperor of Austria, leaves Austria for exile in Switzerland.
  • March 27 – The name Bratislava is officially adopted for the city of Pressburg.[8]
  • March 31 – A general strike begins in the Ruhr.


  • April 5Pinsk massacre, 35 Jews are killed without trial after being accused of Bolshevism.
  • April 67 – The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded.
  • April 10Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.
  • April 12 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested.
  • April 13
    • Amritsar Massacre: British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in the Punjab Province (British India).
    • Eugene V. Debs enters prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia for speaking out against the draft during World War I.
  • April 15Save the Children Fund is created in the UK to raise money for the relief of German and Austrian children.
  • April 20 – The French Army blows up the bridge over the Dniester at Bender, Moldova, to protect the city from the Bolsheviks.[9]
  • April 23 – The Estonian Constituent Assembly convenes its first session.
  • April 25
    • The Bauhaus architectural and design movement is founded in Weimar, Germany.
    • Anzac Day is observed for the first time in Australia.
    • Pancho Villa takes Parral, Chihuahua, in Mexico, and executes the mayor and his two sons by hanging.
  • April 30 – Several bombs are intercepted in the first wave of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.


  • May 1
    • A large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police.
    • Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested.
  • May 2Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
  • May 3Amānullāh Khān attacks British government in India.
  • May 4
    • The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China erupts.
    • The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris.
  • May 6 – Beginning of the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
  • May 8Edward George Honey proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate the Armistice of World War I.
  • May 827United States Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4 commanded by Albert Cushing Read makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 3031 it flies on to Plymouth in England.)
  • May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
  • May 14 – The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, establishes probably the world's first Chair in International Politics, endowed by David Davies and his sisters in honour of Woodrow Wilson, with Alfred Eckhard Zimmern as first professor.[10]
  • May 15
    • The Hellenic Army lands at Smyrna on ships of the British Royal Navy.
    • Law providing for full women's suffrage in the Netherlands is introduced.
    • Winnipeg general strike: workers in Winnipeg launch a strike for better wages and working conditions.
  • May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg general strike.
  • May 19
    • Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence. The anniversary of this event is also an official day of Turkish Youth.
    • Volcano Kelud erupts in Java, killing about 5,000.
  • May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
  • May 25Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces capture Pskov from the Red Army and soon hand it over to the White forces.
  • May 27
    • Fyodor Raskolnikov is exchanged for fourteen British prisoners of war.
    • Siege of Spin Boldak (Third Anglo-Afghan War): last time the British Army uses an escalade.[11]
  • May 29
    • Einstein's theory of general relativity is tested by Arthur Eddington's observation of the "bending of light" during a total solar eclipse in Príncipe, and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil (confirmed November 19).[12]
    • The Republic of Prekmurje formally declares independence from Hungary.
  • May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda-Urundi).


File:Council of Four Versailles.jpg

"The Big Four" during the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson).

  • June – Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
  • June 2 – Eight mail bombs are sent to prominent figures as part of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
  • June 4Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.
  • June 5Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The advancing pro-German Baltische Landeswehr initiates war against Estonia in Northern Latvia.
  • June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje.
  • June 7Sette Giugno on Malta: British troops fire on a mob protesting against the colonial government, killing four.
  • June 1415 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock DSC with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
  • June 15Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment cross the border to repulse Villa's forces away from American territory.
  • June 17 – English Police Sergeant Thomas Green killed during the Epsom Riot by Canadian troops
  • June 18 – The biggest football club in Central America, Liga Deportiva Alajuelense, is founded in Costa Rica.
  • June 21
    • Bloody Saturday of the Winnipeg general strike: Royal Northwest Mounted Police fire a volley of bullets into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two.
    • Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow: Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned in Scapa Flow, Scotland; nine German sailors are killed.
  • June 23Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The Estonian army defeats the pro-German Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cēsis in northern Latvia, forcing the Landeswehr to retreat towards Riga. The event will be celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia ever since.
  • June 26British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber which set off from England on June 21.
  • June 28
    • The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.[3] John Maynard Keynes, who had been present at the conference and was unhappy with the terms of the treaty, brings out his own analysis later in the year, entitled The Economic Consequences of the Peace.
    • International Labour Organization (ILO) is established as an agency of the League of Nations.


  • July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence.
  • July 26 – British airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York.
  • July 3Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The pro-German Baltische Landeswehr signs a peace treaty with Estonia and Latvia. The pro-German Prime Minister of Latvia Andrievs Niedra resigns and Latvian forces take over Riga on July 8.
  • July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced.
  • July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.
  • July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs.[13]
  • July 21Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed. However, two people parachute to the ground safely.[14]
  • July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.
  • July 31British police strike in London and Liverpool for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.



Romanian troops entering Budapest

  • August 1Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic collapses.
  • August 3 – Romanian army liberates Timișoara from the Hungarian occupation.
  • August 4 – Romanian army occupies Budapest.
  • August 8Treaty of Rawalpindi ends the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
  • August 11 – In Germany, the Weimar Constitution is proclaimed to be in effect (ratified).
  • August 1626First Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans.
  • August 18 – The Bolshevik fleet at Kronstadt, near Petrograd, Russia, on the Baltic Sea, is mostly destroyed by German warplanes and torpedo boats in a combined operation.
  • August 19Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom.
File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1978-042-11, Weimar, Vereidigung Reichspräsident Ebert.jpg

Friedrich Ebert becomes president in Weimar, Germany

  • August 21Friedrich Ebert becomes first president in Germany.
  • August 29Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Pskov from White forces.
  • August 31 – The American Communist Party is established.


  • September 3Jan Smuts becomes the second Prime Minister of South Africa.
  • September 6 – The U.S. Army expedition across America, which started July 7, ends in San Francisco.
  • September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Empire of Austria-Hungary.
  • September 1015: The Florida Keys hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas.
  • September 12Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.
  • September 17German South-West Africa is placed under South African administration.
  • September 21 – The Steel strike of 1919 begins across the United States.
  • September 27 – The last British Army troops leave Archangel and leave fighting to the Russians.


  • October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life (died 1924).
  • October 7 – The Dutch airline KLM is formed. From 2007 it will be the world's oldest airline still flying under its original name.
  • October 9 – In Major League Baseball, the Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, five games to three, over the Chicago White Sox, whose players are later found to have lost intentionally.
  • October 10Estonia adopts a radical land reform, nationalizing 97% of agrarian lands, mostly still belonging to Baltic Germans.
  • October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed.
  • October 16
    • In Germany, Adolf Hitler gives his first speech for the German Workers' Party (DAP).
    • The historic Condado Vanderbilt Hotel is inaugurated in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  • October 28Prohibition in the United States is authorized: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.


  • November 1 – The Coal Strike of 1919 begins in the United States by the United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis. Final agreement comes on December 10.
  • November 7 – The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different U.S. cities.
  • November 9Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, marking the first cartoon character to become popular.
  • November 10Supreme Court of the United States upholds conviction of Jacob Abrams for inciting resistance to the war effort against Soviet Russia.
  • November 1012 – The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis.
  • November 11
    • Russian Civil War: The Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to Estonia and is disarmed.
    • The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington (United States), originating at an Armistice Day parade, results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
    • First Remembrance Day observed in the British Empire with a two-minute silence at 11:00 hrs, following an original suggestion by Australian-born soldier and journalist Edward George Honey ("Warren Foster").[15]
  • November 16 – After Entente pressure, Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and allow Admiral Horthy to march in.
  • November 19 – The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It will never be ratified by the U.S.
  • November 27 – The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine is signed between the Allies and Bulgaria.
  • November 30 – Health officials declare the global "Spanish" flu pandemic has ceased.


  • December 1
    • American-born Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor, becomes the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, having become the second to be elected on November 28.[16]
    • XWA (now CINW), in Montreal, becomes the first public radio station in North America to go on the air.
  • December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana went up in flames on that night.
  • December 5 – The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
  • December 19 – The fictional character Ham Gravy makes his début in Thimble Theatre Comics.
  • December 21 – The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.
  • December 25Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge, Scotland, opens as the home of Albion Rovers F.C.. They lose the opening match 2–0 to St Mirren.

Date unknown[]

  • Les Champs Magnétiques, the first book produced using the techniques of surrealist automatism, is written by André Breton and Philippe Soupault.
  • Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
  • The International Astronomical Union is founded in Paris, France.
  • The World League Against Alcoholism is established by the Anti-Saloon League.
  • John Browning finalizes the design for the M1919 Browning machine gun (.30 caliber), the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the United States Military. It receives an official designation and production is started in the same year.
  • John T. Thompson finalizes the design of the Thompson submachine gun in the United States.
  • Severe inflation in Germany sees the Papiermark rise to 47 marks against the United States dollar by December, compared to 12 marks in April.[17]



File:Andreotti 1991.jpg

Giulio Andreotti

  • January 1J. D. Salinger, American novelist (The Catcher in the Rye) (d. 2010)
  • January 2Charles Willeford, American writer (d. 1988)
  • January 5Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan political theorist (d. 2012)
  • January 13Robert Stack, American actor (d. 2003)
  • January 14
    • Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician, 3-time Prime Minister of Italy (d. 2013)
    • Andy Rooney, American television personality (d. 2011)
  • January 15George Cadle Price, 2-Time Prime Minister of Belize (1981–84 and 1989–93) (d. 2011)
  • January 19Antonio Pietrangeli, Italian film director and screenwriter (d. 1968)
  • January 23
    • Frances Bay, Canadian actress (d. 2011)
    • Hans Hass, Austrian zoologist (d. 2013)
    • Ernie Kovacs, American comedian (d. 1962)
    • Bob Paisley, English footballer and manager (d. 1996)
  • January 24Leon Kirchner, American composer (d. 2009)
  • January 26Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer (d. 1949)
  • January 27Ross Bagdasarian, American musician and actor (Alvin and the Chipmunks) (d. 1972)
  • January 30John C. Elliott, American politician and 39th Governor of American Samoa (1952) (d. 2001)
  • January 31Jackie Robinson, African-American baseball player (d. 1972)


File:Red Buttons - 1959.jpg

Red Buttons

File:Forrest Tucker Music Man 1962.JPG

Forrest Tucker

File:Jack Palance - 1954.jpg

Jack Palance

  • February 1Artie Singer, American songwriter, music producer, and bandleader (d. 2008)
  • February 5
    • Red Buttons, American actor (d. 2006)
    • Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (1981–89 and 1993–96) (d. 1996)
  • February 11Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress, better known for her role in Green Acres (d. 1995)
  • February 12
    • Forrest Tucker, American actor, better known for his role in F Troop (d. 1986)
    • Ferruccio Valcareggi, Italian football player and manager (d. 2005)
  • February 13
  • February 18Jack Palance, American actor (d. 2006)
  • February 20
  • February 24Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
  • February 25
    • Karl H. Pribram, Austrian-American neuroscientist (d. 2015)
    • Monte Irvin, American baseball player (d. 2016)
  • February 26Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)


File:Jennifer Jones in Love Letters trailer.JPG

Jennifer Jones

  • March 2Jennifer Jones, American actress (d. 2009)
  • March 3Peter Abrahams, South African novelist and journalist
  • March 7M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
  • March 14Dickey Chapelle, American photojournalist (d. 1965)
  • March 17Nat King Cole, African-American singer ("Unforgettable") (d. 1965)
  • March 18Santiago Álvarez, Cuban filmmaker (d. 1998)
  • March 20Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983)


File:Madalyn Murray O'Hair.jpg

Madalyn Murray O'Hair


File:Liberace 7 Allan Warren.jpg


  • May 1
    • Manna Dey, Indian playback singer (d. 2013)
    • Mohammed Karim Lamrani, Prime Minister of Morocco
    • Dan O'Herlihy, Irish film actor (d. 2005)
  • May 3Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician (d. 2014)
  • May 4Dory Funk, American professional wrestler (d. 1973)
  • May 7
    • La Esterella, Flemish singer (d. 2011)
    • Eva Perón, wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (d. 1952)
  • May 8Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
  • May 15Eugenia Charles, 3rd Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2005)
  • May 16Liberace, American pianist (d. 1987)
  • May 17Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
  • May 18Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
  • May 19Arvid Andersson, Swedish weightlifter (d. 2011)
  • May 20George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
  • May 23
    • Betty Garrett, American actress and dancer (d. 2011)
    • Avraham Drori, Polish-born Israeli politician (d. 1964)
  • May 27Emvin Cremona, Maltese artist (d. 1987)


  • June 6Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, British politician
  • June 11Richard Todd, Irish-born British actor (d. 2009)
  • June 12Ahmed Abdallah, President of the Comoros (d. 1989)
  • June 21Gérard Pelletier, Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1997)
  • June 23Hermann Gmeiner, Austrian educator (d. 1986)
  • June 24Al Molinaro, American actor (d. 2015)
  • June 28Joseph P. Lordi, American government official (d. 1983)
  • June 29Slim Pickens, American film and television actor (d. 1983)


File:Walter Scheel 1971.jpg

Walter Scheel


Edmund Hillary

  • July 1Malik Dohan al-Hassan, Iraqi politician
  • July 7Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
  • July 8
    • Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (d. 2007)
    • Walter Scheel, President of Germany (d. 2016)
  • July 10Ian Wallace, British bass-baritone opera singer (d. 2009)
  • July 13
    • Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994)
    • Hau Pei-tsun, Premier of the Republic of China
  • July 15Iris Murdoch, Irish novelist (d. 1999)
  • July 18Lilia Dale, Italian actress
  • July 19
    • Nordine Ben Ali, Algerian-French former association football player and manager
    • Patricia Medina, English-born actress (d. 2012)
  • July 20Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer, conqueror of Mount Everest (d. 2008)
  • July 31
    • Maurice Boitel, French painter (d. 2007)
    • Primo Levi, Italian chemist and writer (d. 1987)


File:Joop den Uyl 1975.jpg

Joop den Uyl

File:George C Wallace.jpg

George Wallace

  • August 2
    • Nehemiah Persoff, Israeli-American character actor
    • Carlo Savina, Italian composer and conductor (d. 2002)
  • August 8Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010)
  • August 9Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973–77 (d. 1987)
  • August 11Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
  • August 13George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011)
  • August 15Benedict Kiely, Irish author and broadcaster (d. 2007)
  • August 18Walter Joseph Hickel, 2nd and 8th Governor of Alaska (d. 2010)
  • August 21Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
  • August 25George Wallace, 45th Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
  • August 28Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
  • August 30
    • Maurice Hilleman, American microbiologist and vaccinologist (d. 2005)
    • Wolfgang Wagner, German opera director (d. 2010)
  • August 31Amrita Pritam, Indian poet and author (d. 2005)



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Pierre Elliot Trudeau

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Doris Lessing

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  • October 3James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
  • October 5Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
  • October 6Mohamed Siad Barre, President of Somalia (d. 1995)
  • October 7Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011)
  • October 11Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
  • October 16Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
  • October 17Zhao Ziyang, Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China (d. 2005)
  • October 18
    • Anita O'Day, American jazz singer (d. 2006)
    • Pierre Elliott Trudeau, 15th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 2000)
  • October 22Doris Lessing, Persian-born English writer, winner of Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 2013)
  • October 23Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d 1992)
  • October 26
    • Edward Brooke, U. S. Senator from Massachusetts (d. 2015)
    • Princess Ashraf of Iran (d. 2016)
    • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1980)
    • Jacob Pressman, American rabbi, co-founder of American Jewish University (d. 2015)



Martin Balsam


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William Lipscomb


  • Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (born between October 4, 1919, and January 2, 1920, inclusive;[18] d. 1992)

Date unknown[]

  • Balto, American sled dog (d. 1933)



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Theodore Roosevelt

File:Rosa Luxemburg.jpg

Rosa Luxemburg

File:Wilfrid Laurier.jpg

Wilfrid Laurier

File:PH nhi melchora aquino.jpg

Melchora Aquino

File:Francisco Marto2.jpg

Francisco Marto

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John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

  • January 4Georg von Hertling, 7th Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
  • January 6
    • Max Heindel, Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (b. 1865)
    • Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States (b. 1858)
    • Jacques Vaché, French writer, associated with Surrealism (b. 1895)
  • January 8J. Franklin Bell, Major General of the US Army (b. 1856)
  • January 15
    • Karl Liebknecht, German communist politician (b. 1871; assassinated)
    • Rosa Luxemburg, German communist politician (b. 1870; assassinated)
  • January 16Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, 5th President of Brazil (b. 1848)
  • January 17Arichi Shinanojō, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
  • January 18Prince John of the United Kingdom (b. 1905)
  • January 21Gojong, first Emperor of Korea (b. 1852)
  • January 24Ismail Qemali, Albanian politician, 1st Prime Minister of Albania and 1st President of Albania (b. 1844)
  • January 27Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
  • February 2Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894)
  • February 4John C. Bates, American general (b. 1842)
  • February 14Pál Luthár, Slovene teacher, cantor and writer (b. 1839)
  • February 17Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
  • February 20Habibullah Khan, Emir of Aghanistan (b. 1872; assassinated)
  • February 21Kurt Eisner, Bavarian socialist revolutionary (b. 1867; assassinated)
  • March 2Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
  • March 5Ernest von Koerber, Austrian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1850)
  • April 4
    • Francisco Marto, Beatified, claimed to witness apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal (b. 1908)
    • William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (b. 1832)
  • April 8Frank Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (b. 1852)
  • April 10Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879; assassinated)
  • April 15Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
  • April 21Jules Védrines, French pre-war aviator and wartime (WW1) pilot (b. 1881)
  • April 27Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886)
  • May 4Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
  • May 6L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
  • May 12D. M. Canright, American Seventh-day Adventist minister and author, later one of the church's severest critics (b. 1840)
  • May 28Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)
  • June 29José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
  • June 30John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)



Hermann Emil Fischer

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Louis Botha


Victorino de la Plaza


Alfred Deakin

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

  • July 2Friedrich Soennecken, German entrepreneur and inventor of hole punch and ringbinder (b. 1848)
  • July 5Eugen Leviné, German revolutionary (b. 1883)
  • July 10Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1895)
  • July 15Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
  • July 18Raymonde de Laroche, French aviator, the first woman to receive an aviator's license (b. 1882)
  • July 26Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
  • August 1Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impresario and composer (b. 1847)
  • August 9
    • Ernst Haeckel, German biologist, naturalist and philosopher (b. 1834)
    • Ruggero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (b. 1857)
  • August 11Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
  • August 27Louis Botha, Boer general, Afrikaner statesman, first Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1862)
  • September 16Alfred Parland, Russian architect (b. 1842)
  • September 22Alajos Gáspár, Slovene writer in Hungary (b. 1848)
  • September 27Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (b. 1843)
  • September 29Masataka Kawase, a.k.a. Kogorō Ishikawa, Japanese political activist and diplomat (b. 1840)
  • October 2Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, 18th President of Argentina (b. 1840)
  • October 6Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833)
  • October 7Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
  • October 13Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
  • October 18Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
  • October 22John Cyril Porte, Irish-born British flying boat pioneer (b. 1884)
  • November 9Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
  • November 15Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
  • December 2
    • Henry C. Frick, American industrialist (b. 1849)
    • Evelyn Wood, British field marshal and Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1838)
  • December 3Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)
  • December 18 – Sir John Alcock, British aviator; pilot of first nonstop transatlantic flight in airplane, June 1919 (b. 1892)
  • December 19Martin Savage, IRA commander (b. 1898)

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava: Dajama. p. 42. ISBN 80-88975-16-6.
  2. Theodore Roosevelt Centre. Accessed 20 March 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 MacMillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Random House.
  4. Tibenský, Ján; et al. (1971). Slovensko: Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor.
  5. Jankovics, Marcel, Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban (in Hungarian), pp. 65–67
  6. Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4
  7. Nicholson, G. W. L. (1962). Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
  8. "WWI and the First Czechoslovak Republic". Visit Bratislava. City of Bratislava. 2005. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  9. Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 14.
  10. "The Legacy of One Man's Vision". Aberystwyth University, Department of International Politics. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  11. Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian. "Last time the British army used scaling ladders". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 112. ISBN 9781905798063.
  12. Dyson, F. W.; Eddington, A. S.; Davidson, C. R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences. 220 (571–581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.
  13. "Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry official: result of overcoming obstacles by first Azerbaijani diplomats was international recognition in Versailles". July 3, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
  14. "1919, July 21: Dirigible (Balloon) Crash". Chicago Public Library Archive. 1996. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  15. Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian. "First two-minute silence". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 113. ISBN 9781905798063.
  16. Sykes, Christopher (1984). Nancy: the Life of Lady Astor. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN 0-89733-098-6. The first elected was Constance Markievicz in 1918.
  17. Tonge, Stephen. "Weimar Germany 1919-1933". European History. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
  18. Isaac Asimov. In Memory Yet Green. The date of my birth, as I celebrate it, was January 2, 1920. It could not have been later than that. It might, however, have been earlier. Allowing for the uncertainties of the times, of the lack of records, of the Jewish and Julian calendars, it might have been as early as October 4, 1919. There is, however, no way of finding out. My parents were always uncertain and it really doesn't matter. I celebrate January 2, 1920, so let it be.
  • Phelan, Paula (2007), 1919: Misfortune's End, ZAPmedia