Culture Wikia

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1918 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1918
Ab urbe condita2671
Armenian calendar1367
Assyrian calendar6668
Bahá'í calendar74–75
Balinese saka calendar1839–1840
Bengali calendar1325
Berber calendar2868
British Regnal yearGeo. 5 – 9 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2462
Burmese calendar1280
Byzantine calendar7426–7427
Chinese calendar丁巳(Fire Snake)
4614 or 4554
    — to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4615 or 4555
Coptic calendar1634–1635
Discordian calendar3084
Ethiopian calendar1910–1911
Hebrew calendar5678–5679
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1974–1975
 - Shaka Samvat1839–1840
 - Kali Yuga5018–5019
Holocene calendar11918
Igbo calendar918–919
Iranian calendar1296–1297
Islamic calendar1336–1337
Japanese calendarTaishō 7
Javanese calendar1848–1849
Juche calendar7
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4251
Minguo calendarROC 7
Nanakshahi calendar450
Thai solar calendar2460–2461
Tibetan calendar阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
2044 or 1663 or 891
    — to —
(male Earth-Horse)
2045 or 1664 or 892

1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1918th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 918th year of the , the 18th year of the , and the 9th year of the decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.

File:Nepriklausomybes aktas.gif

February 16: The Act of Independence of Lithuania


  • January 4Finland officially recognized by the Russian SFSR.
  • January 8Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech.
  • January 9 – U.S troops engage Yaqui Indian warriors in the Battle of Bear Valley in Arizona, a minor skirmish and one of the last battles of the American Indian Wars between the United States and American Indians.
  • January 12Finland enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights.
  • January 15 – The keel of HMS Hermes is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down.
  • January 18
    • Russian Constituent Assembly meets.
    • The Historic Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans of Austrian and Hungarian Soldiers at the Konzerthaus, Vienna.[1]
  • January 19 – Russian Constituent Assembly proclaims Russian Democratic Federative Republic, but is dissolved by Bolshevik government on same day.
  • January 25 – The Ukrainian People's Republic declares independence from Bolshevik Russia.
  • January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins.
  • January – 1918 flu pandemic: "Spanish 'flu" (influenza) first observed in Haskell County, Kansas.[2]


  • February 1 – The Cattaro Mutiny sees Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny.
  • February 5 – The SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.
File:Declaration of Estonian independence in Pärnu.jpg

February 23: Estonian Declaration of Independence

  • February 6Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom: Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote.[3]
  • February 14Russia switches from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar; the date skips from February 1 to February 14.
  • February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania's independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
  • February 19 – WWI: Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley.
  • February 19-25 – WWI: The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice over the Gulf of Finland.
  • February 21 – The last captive Carolina parakeet (the last breed of parrot native to the eastern United States) dies at the Cincinnati Zoo.
  • February 24
    • Estonia declares its independence from Russia after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn on the next day.
    • Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.


  • March 1 – WWI: German submarine Template:SMU sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland.
  • March 3 – WWI:the Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.
  • March 6
    • The Finnish Army Corps of Aviation is founded as a forerunner of the Finnish Air Force to be established on 4 May 1928. The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen, who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Viking symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia.[4]
    • The first pilotless drone, the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane developed by Elmer Sperry and Peter Cooper Hewitt, is test-flown in Long Island, New York, but development is scrapped in 1925 after its guidance system proves unreliable.
  • March 7 – WWI: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.
  • March 8 – WWI: Battle of Tell 'Asur launched by units of the British Army's Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences from the Mediterranean Sea, across the Judaean Mountains to the edge of the Jordan Valley ends on March 12 with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory.
  • March 12Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia.
  • March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31).
  • March 21July 18 – WWI: Spring Offensive by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day, Operation Michael.
  • March 21 – WWI: First Transjordan attack on Amman by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins with the passage of the Jordan River.
  • March 23
    • WWI: The giant German cannon, the 'Paris Gun' (Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away.
    • In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick where he is supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in a hospital.
  • March 25
    • The Belarusian People's Republic declares independence.
    • Dr. Karl Muck, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act and imprisoned for the duration of WWI.
    • French composer Claude Debussy dies of colorectal cancer in Paris.
  • March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K.
  • March 27 – WWI: First Battle of Amman launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the First Transjordan attack on Amman, ends with their withdrawal on 31 March back to the Jordan Valley.
  • March 30March Days: Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.


  • April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force.
  • April 5Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965.
  • April 9Union of Bessarabia with Romania: Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania.
  • April 21 – WWI: Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.
  • April 23 – WWI:
    • Conscription Crisis of 1918 in Ireland: a general strike is held here against conscription.
    • Zeebrugge Raid, an attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here.[5]
    • First Ostend Raid, an unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here.
  • April 30 – WWI: Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force ends on 4 May with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.


  • May 1 – German troops enter Don Host Oblast; they take Rostov on May 8.
  • May 2General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware.
  • May 7 – British capture of Kirkuk.
  • May 9 – WWI: Second Ostend Raid, a second unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here.
  • May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established.
  • May 14 – The Three Minute Pause, initiated by the daily firing of the Noon Gun on Signal Hill, is instituted by Cape Town Mayor Sir Harry Hands. It would inspire the introduction of the two-minute silence in November 1919.[6]
  • May 15
  • May 16 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is approved by the U.S. Congress.
  • May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas, is hit for the third year in a row on the same date by a tornado.
  • May 21 – United States Army Aviation Section separated from Signal Corps and divided into the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft Production.
  • May 26 – The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic is abolished. Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
  • May 27 – The Third Battle of the Aisne commences.
  • May 28Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic respectively.


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C1133, Szent István, Sinkendes Linienschiff.jpg

June 10: Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent István sunk by Italian torpedo boats

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C2280, Szent István, Sinkendes Linienschiff.jpg

Szent István

  • June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.
  • June 8V603 Aquilae, the brightest nova observed since Kepler's of 1604, is discovered.
  • June 10 – WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.
  • June 12
    • Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks.
    • WWI: First airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France.
  • June 16 – The Declaration to the Seven, a British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published.
  • June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody, for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn.
  • June–August – "Spanish 'flu" becomes pandemic.[8] Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.


  • July 3 – The Siberian Expedition is launched to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War.
  • July 4Mehmed VI (1918–1922) succeeds Mehmed V (Resad) (1909–1918) as Ottoman Sultan.
  • July 9Great Train Wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.
  • July 12 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battle ship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
  • July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established.
  • July 14 – Release in the United States of the film The Glorious Adventure featuring Mammy Lou who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114.
  • July 15 – WWI: Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
File:Family in 1913.jpg

July 18: Execution of the Romanov family

  • July 18
    • Execution of the Romanov family: By order of the Bolshevik Party and carried out by the Cheka, former emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei, and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.
    • WWI: Template:RMS is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by Imperial German Navy submarine U-55; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued.[9]


  • August 2North Russia Intervention: British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk.
  • August 8 – WWI: Battle of Amiens: Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the 'Hundred Days Offensive', with an 8-mile push through the German front lines, takiing 12,000 prisoners. German General Erich Ludendorff later calls this the "black day of the German Army".[10]
  • August 10Russian Revolution: The British commander in Archangel is told to help the White Russians.
  • August 16Battle of Lake Baikal is fought by the Czechoslovak legion against the Red Army.
  • August 17Moisei Uritsky, the Petrograd head of the Cheka, is assassinated.
  • August 21 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins.
  • August 23 – Creation of the Bessarabian Peasants' Party.
  • August 27Battle of Ambos Nogales: U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.
  • August 30
    • 20,000 London policemen strike for increased pay and union recognition.
    • In a prelude to the October Revolution in Russia, Vladimir Lenin is shot and wounded by Fanny Kaplan in Moscow, but survives.
File:Lenin attempt.jpg

August 30: Attempted assassination of Lenin, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin


  • September – British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria.
  • September 5 – The Kazan Operation begins. The event continues for 5 days and solidifies the Red Army's power in Russia over the White Army.
  • September 14 – Start of the Balkan front offensive by the Serbian army.
  • September 19 – WWI:
    • The British Army's Egyptian Expeditionary Force launches the Battle of Megiddo, incorporating the Battle of Sharon, and the Battle of Nablus, an attack in the Judaean Mountains. This day are fought the Battle of Tulkarm, and the Battle of Arara, which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains; while the Battle of Tabsor extends into September 20.
    • Third Transjordan attack in the Jordan Valley begins.
  • September 20 – WWI: The British Army's Desert Mounted Corps launches the
    • Battle of Nazareth by 5th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army);
    • Capture of Afulah and Beisan by the 4th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army);
    • Capture of Jenin by the Australian Mounted Division, almost encircling the Yildirim Army Group still in the Judaean Mountains.
  • September 25 – WWI:
    • Battle of Megiddo ends with the Battle of Haifa, Battle of Samakh, and Capture of Tiberias.
    • Third Transjordan attack ends with ANZAC Mounted Division victory at the Second Battle of Amman with the subsequent capture at Ziza of the Ottoman II Corps. The division capturing more than 10,000 Ottoman and German prisoners.
  • September 26 – WWI: The Capture of Damascus begins with the Charge at Irbid by the 4th Cavalry Division.
  • September 27 – WWI: Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub launched by the Australian Mounted Division continues the advance towards Damascus.
  • September 29 – WWI:
    • Allied forces break through the Hindenburg Line.
    • Bulgaria requests an armistice.
  • September 30 – WWI:
    • Charge at Kaukab by units of the Australian Mounted Division.
    • Charge at Kiswe by 4th Cavalry Division continuing Desert Mounted Corps' advance to Damascus.


  • October 1 – WWI: Desert Mounted Corps Capture of Damascus.
  • October 2 – WWI: Charge at Khan Ayash north of Damascus by 3rd Light Horse Brigade.
  • October 3
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany.
    • King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III.
    • WWI: Pursuit to Haritan by Desert Mounted Corps begins.
  • October 4
    • Wilhelm II of Germany forms a new more liberal government to sue for peace.
    • The T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion in New Jersey kills 100+ and destroys enough ammunition to supply the Western Front for 6 months.
  • October 7 - Polish Regency Council (Poland) declares Polish indepedence from German Empire and demands from Germans to cede Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Pommerania.
  • October 8 – WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132.
  • October 9 – Landgrave Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse is elected King of Finland.
  • October 11 – The 7.1 Mw Puerto Rico earthquake shakes the island with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing 76–116 people. A destructive tsunami contributed to the damage and loss of life.
  • October 12Cloquet Fire: The city of Cloquet, Minnesota, and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453.
  • October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic.
  • October 25
    • WWI: Aleppo captured by Prince Feisal's Sheifial Forces.
    • The steamer Princess Sophia sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska; 353 people die in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest.
  • October 26 – WWI: Units of Desert Mounted Corps Charge at Haritan last conflict with Ottoman forces in WWI.
  • October 28
    • Czechoslovakia declares its independence from Austria-Hungary.
    • A new Polish government is declared in Western Galicia (Eastern Europe).
  • October 29Wilhelmshaven mutiny of the German High Seas Fleet.
  • October 30
    • The Martin Declaration is published, including Slovakia in the formation of the Czecho-Slovak state.
    • The Armistice of Mudros ends conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I.
    • The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is granted independence from the Ottoman Empire by the Armistice of Mudros.
  • October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


  • November 1
    • Polish–Ukrainian War inaugurated by proclamation of the West Ukrainian People's Republic in Galicia with a capital at Lwów.
    • Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead.
  • November 3
    • WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies in Padua.
    • Poland declares its independence from Russia.
    • German Revolution: Sailors in the German fleet at Kiel mutiny and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers begin to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model.
  • November 4 – The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I.
  • November 6 – A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin.
  • November 7 – King Ludwig of Bavaria flees his country.
  • November 8 – The German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser.
File:Ausrufung Republik Scheidemann.jpg

November 9: Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony

  • November 9
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands.
    • Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony.
    • Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria to be a republic.
    • British battleship HMS Britannia is sunk by a German submarine off Trafalgar with the loss of around fifty lives, the last major naval engagement of WWI.

November 11: Signatories to the Armistice with Germany (Compiègne), ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage


November 11: Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day

  • November 11
    • End of WWI and Armistice with Germany (Compiègne): Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM in Marshal Foch's railroad car in Compiègne Forest in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.[11]
    • Poland regains independence after 123 years of partitions. Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief.
    • Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power but does not abdicate.
  • November 12Austria becomes a republic.
  • November 13
    • Allied Occupation of Constantinople.
    • Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, relinquishes all governing duties.
  • November 14
    • The provisional government of Baden proclaims the Freie Volksrepublik Baden ("Free Peoples' Republic of Baden").
    • Czechoslovakia becomes a republic.
    • Józef Piłsudski is appointed head of state of Poland.
  • November 16 – The Hungarian Democratic Republic is declared, marking Hungary's independence from Austria.
  • November 18Latvia declares its independence from Russia.
  • November 20U-boats start to rendezvous off Harwich to begin the surrender of the High Seas Fleet to the British Royal Navy; in the following week the German warships are escorted to internment in Scapa Flow.[12]
  • November 21 – Start of 3-day Lwów pogrom: Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów in Galicia.
  • November 22
    • The Spartacist League founds the German Communist Party.
    • The Belgian royal family returns to Brussels after the war, King Albert I having commanded the Allied Army group in the autumn Courtrai offensive which liberated his country.
    • Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, abdicates; the Grand Duchy of Baden gives way to the Republic of Baden.
  • November 23 – British military government of Palestine begins.[13]
  • November 25German East Africa troops sign a ceasefire at Abercorn.
  • November 26 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for a "union of the people", declaring its union with the Kingdom of Serbia.
  • November 28Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army invades Estonia, starting the war. The Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established as a Soviet puppet state in Narva on the next day.
  • November 29Serbia annexes Montenegro.
  • November 30Ernest Ansermet conducts the first concert by the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.


  • December 1
    • Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944.
    • New voting laws in Sweden makes votes no longer dependent on taxable assets, each adult having one vote.
    • The Union of Alba Iulia is proclaimed: Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania.
    • The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.
File:Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg

Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats an Slovenes

  • December 4 – President Woodrow Wilson departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first United States President to travel to any foreign country while holding office.
  • December 5Estonian War of Independence: The British light cruiser HMS Cassandra strikes a mine and sinks near Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea, killing eleven sailors.[14]
  • December 14Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne.
  • December 16Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War.
  • December 17Darwin Rebellion in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, John A. Gilruth.
  • December 20Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic.
  • December 21Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army captures Tartu in Estonia.
  • December 27Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) begins: Poles in Greater Poland (the former Grand Duchy of Posen) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Poznań by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski.
  • December 28Sinn Féin have a landslide victory in Irish seats in the Irish general election, following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto, Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Dublin. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.[15]
  • December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian–Armenian War.

Date unknown[]

  • The Native American Church is formally founded in Oklahoma.
  • The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment is founded to promote repeal of Prohibition in the United States.
  • United Business Media is founded in London as United Newspapers Ltd.



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File:Nicolae Ceausescu.jpg

Nicolae Ceaușescu

  • January 1Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000)
  • January 9Alma Ziegler, American female professional baseball player (d. 2005)
  • January 10Arthur Chung, 1st President of Guyana (d. 2008)
  • January 15
    • João Figueiredo, former President of Brazil (d. 1999)
    • Gamal Abdel Nasser, 2nd President of Egypt (d. 1970)
  • January 16
    • Nel Benschop, Dutch poet (d. 2005)
    • Allan Ekelund, Swedish film producer (d. 2009)
    • Stirling Silliphant, American writer and producer (d. 1996)
  • January 17George M. Leader, American politician (d. 2013)
  • January 19
    • Peter Hobbs, American actor (d. 2011)
    • John H. Johnson, American publisher (d. 2005)
  • January 20
    • Juan García Esquivel, Mexican bandleader (d. 2002)
    • Nevin S. Scrimshaw, American clinical (d. 2013)
  • January 21
    • Chichay, Filipino actress (d. 1993)
    • Richard D. Winters, U.S. Army officer (d. 2011)
  • January 22Elmer Lach, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015)
  • January 23Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999)
  • January 24Oral Roberts, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009)
  • January 25Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010)
  • January 26
    • Nicolae Ceaușescu, Romanian dictator (d. 1989)
    • Philip José Farmer, American writer (d. 2009)
    • Vito Scotti, American character actor (d. 1996)
  • January 27
    • Skitch Henderson, English-born musician and bandleader (d. 2005)
    • Elmore James, American musician (d. 1963)
  • January 29
    • Luis Aguilar, Mexican actor and singer (d. 1997)
    • John Forsythe, American actor (Dynasty) (d. 2010)


File:Ida Lupino (1939).jpg

Ida Lupino

  • February 1 – Dame Muriel Spark, Scottish author (d. 2006)
  • February 2Hella Haasse, Dutch writer (d. 2011)
  • February 3
    • Joey Bishop, American entertainer, member of the Rat Pack (d. 2007)
    • Helen Stephens, American runner (d. 1994)
  • February 4Ida Lupino, English actress, screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1995)
  • February 6Lothar-Günther Buchheim, German author (d. 2007)
  • February 7Markey Robinson, Irish painter (d. 1999)
  • February 8
    • Fred Blassie, American professional wrestler and novelty singer (Pencil Neck Geek) (d. 2003)
    • Walter Newton Read, American lawyer and second chairman of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission (d. 2001)
  • February 12Julian Schwinger, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
  • February 15Allan Arbus, American actor (M*A*S*H) (d. 2013)
  • February 16Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (d. 2013)
  • February 17William Bronk, American poet (d. 1999)
  • February 19Fay McKenzie, American silent actress
  • February 22
    • Charlie Finley, American owner of the Oakland A's 1960–80 (d. 1996)
    • Don Pardo, American TV announcer (Saturday Night Live) (d. 2014)
    • Robert Pershing Wadlow, American tallest man record-holder (d. 1940)
  • February 25
    • Barney Ewell, American athlete (d. 1996)
    • Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
  • February 26
    • Otis R. Bowen, American politician (d. 2013)
    • Theodore Sturgeon, American writer (d. 1985)
  • February 28Alfred Burke, British actor (d. 2011)



João Goulart

  • March 1
    • Roger Delgado, British actor (d. 1973)
    • João Goulart, President of Brazil (d. 1976)
  • March 3
  • March 4Margaret Osborne duPont, former American female tennis player (d. 2012)
  • March 5
    • Shlomo Lorincz, member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2009)
    • James Tobin, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
  • March 9
    • George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi leader (d. 1967)
    • Mickey Spillane, American writer (d. 2006)
  • March 10Günther Rall, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009)
  • March 11Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956)
  • March 12Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
  • March 14John McCallum, Australian actor (d. 2010)
  • March 15William McIntyre, Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009)
  • March 16Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
  • March 18Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
  • March 20Jack Barry, American television game show host and producer (d. 1984)
  • March 22Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana (d. 1997)
  • March 23Émile Derlin Zinsou, President of Benin (d. 2016)
  • March 25Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995)
  • March 29
    • Pearl Bailey, African-American singer and actress (d. 1990)
    • Shirley Jameson, American female baseball player (d. 1993)
    • Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart (d. 1992)



William Holden

  • April 7Bobby Doerr, American baseball player
  • April 8Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States (d. 2011)
  • April 9Jørn Utzon, Danish architect (d. 2008)
  • April 14Mary Healy, American actress, variety entertainer, singer (d. 2015)
  • April 16Spike Milligan, Irish comedian (d. 2002)
  • April 17
    • William Holden, American actor (d. 1981)
    • Anne Shirley, American actress (d. 1993)
  • April 18
    • Gabriel Axel, Danish film director (d. 2014)
    • Shinobu Hashimoto, Japanese screenwriter
    • Clifton Hillegass, American author, founder of CliffsNotes (d. 2001)
  • April 20
    • Edward L. Beach, Jr., American naval officer and author (d. 2002)
    • Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
  • April 22
    • Mickey Vernon, American baseball player (d. 2008)
    • William Jay Smith, American poet (d. 2015)
  • April 26Fanny Blankers-Koen, Dutch athlete (d. 2004)
  • April 27John Rice, American baseball umpire (d. 2011)
  • April 28Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler East German journalist and host of the television show Der schwarze Kanal (d. 2001)


File:Mike Wallace Interviews 1957 (4).jpg

Mike Wallace

File:Yasuhiro Nakasone in Andrews cropped.jpg

Yasuhiro Nakasone

  • May 1Jack Paar, American television show host (The Tonight Show) (d. 2004)
  • May 4Kakuei Tanaka, former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1993)
  • May 9
    • Orville Freeman, American politician (d. 2003)
    • Mike Wallace, American journalist (d. 2012)
    • Russell M. Carneal, American politician and judge (d. 1998)
  • May 10
    • T. Berry Brazelton, American pediatrician
    • George Welch, American aviator (d. 1954)
  • May 11Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
  • May 12Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953)
  • May 15
    • Eddy Arnold, American country music singer (d. 2008)
    • Joseph Wiseman, Canadian actor (d. 2009)
  • May 16Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000)
  • May 17
    • A. C. Lyles, American film producer (d. 2013)
    • Birgit Nilsson, Swedish soprano (d. 2005)
  • May 18Claudia Bryar, American actress (d. 2011)
  • May 19Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000)
  • May 20Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
  • May 23Frank Mancuso, American major league baseball player and politician (d. 2007)
  • May 27Yasuhiro Nakasone, Prime Minister of Japan
  • May 30Károly Doncsecz, Slovenian potter (d. 2002)


  • June 2Kathryn Tucker Windham, American writer and storyteller (d. 2011)
  • June 4Johnny Klein, American drummer (d. 1997)
  • June 6Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009)
  • June 8Robert Preston, American actor (The Music Man) (d. 1987)
  • June 9John Hospers, American philosopher (d. 2011)
  • June 10Patachou, French singer (d. 2015)
  • June 15François Tombalbaye, former President of Chad (d. 1975)
  • June 18
    • Jerome Karle, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
    • Franco Modigliani, Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
  • June 21Josephine Webb, American engineer
  • June 25Sid Tepper, American songwriter (d. 2015)
  • June 27
    • Willy Breinholst, Danish humorist and writer (d. 2009)
    • Adolph Kiefer, American former competition swimmer
  • June 29Francis W. Nye, United States Air Force major general


File:Ingmar Bergman Smultronstallet.jpg

Ingmar Bergman

File:Bertram Brockhouse.jpg

Bertram Brockhouse

File:Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg

Nelson Mandela

  • July 3Benjamin C. Thompson, American architect (d. 2002)
  • July 4
    • Ann Landers, American advice columnist (d. 2002)
    • Pauline Phillips, American advice columnist, popularly known as Abigail Van Buren (d. 2013)
    • Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, King of Tonga (d. 2006)
  • July 5George Rochberg, American composer (d. 2005)
  • July 6Sebastian Cabot, British actor (Family Affair) (d. 1977)
  • July 8
    • Edward B. Giller, U.S Major General
    • Craig Stevens, American actor (d. 2000)
  • July 9Jarl Wahlström, Salvation Army General (d. 1999)
  • July 10Chuck Stevens, American major baseall
  • July 12
    • Doris Grumbach, American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist
    • Mary Glen-Haig, British Olympic fencer (d. 2014)
  • July 13Alberto Ascari, Italian race car driver (d. 1955)
  • July 14
    • Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (d. 2007)
    • Jay Wright Forrester, American computer engineer and systems scientist (d. 2016)
  • July 15
    • Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
    • Brenda Milner, Canadian neuropsychologist
  • July 16
    • Paul Farnes, famed World War II Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter pilot and one of "The Few" surviving pilots of the Battle of Britain
    • Bayani Casimiro, Filipino dancer and actor (d. 1989)
    • John Everitt Frost DFC & Bar, World War II SAAF fighter pilot (MIA 16 June 1942)
  • July 17
    • Chandler Robbins, American ornithologist
    • Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, President of Guatemala (d. 2003)
  • July 18Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2013)
  • July 24Ruggiero Ricci, Italian-born violinist (d. 2012)
  • July 25Jane Frank, American artist (d. 1986)
  • July 26Marjorie Lord, American actress (d. 2015)
  • July 27Leonard Rose, American cellist (d. 1984)
  • July 29Edwin O'Connor, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968)
  • July 31
    • Paul D. Boyer, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
    • Hank Jones, American pianist (d. 2010)


File:Frederick Sanger2.jpg

Frederick Sanger

File:Leonard Bernstein by Jack Mitchell.jpg

Leonard Bernstein


File:Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 3.jpg

Oscar Luigi Scalfaro


File:Rita Hayworth - 1940.JPG

Rita Hayworth


File:Billy Graham bw photo, April 11, 1966.jpg

Billy Graham

File:Presidente Patricio Aylwin cropped.jpg

Patricio Aylwin

  • November 2Raimon Panikkar, Spanish theologian (d. 2010)
  • November 3
    • Bob Feller, American baseball player (d. 2010)
    • Elizabeth P. Hoisington, American Brigadier General (d. 2007)
    • Russell B. Long, U.S. Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003)
    • Dean Riesner, American film and television screenwriter (d. 2002)
  • November 4
    • Art Carney, American actor, better known for his role in The Honeymooners (d. 2003)
    • Cameron Mitchell, American actor, better known for his role in The High Chaparral (d. 1994)
  • November 7
    • Paul Aussaresses, French general (d. 2013)
    • Billy Graham, American evangelist, spiritual adviser to several U.S. Presidents
  • November 8Hermann Zapf, German typeface designer (d. 2015)
  • November 9Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)
  • November 10
    • Ernst Otto Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
    • John Henry Moss, American baseball executive and politician (d. 2009)
  • November 21Dorothy Maguire Chapman, American professional baseball player (d. 1981)
  • November 26Patricio Aylwin, 32nd President of Chile (d. 2016)
  • November 29Madeleine L'Engle, American author (d. 2007)
  • November 30Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., American actor (The FBI) (d. 2014)


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-M0921-014, Beglaubigungsschreiben DDR-Vertreter in UNO new.png

Kurt Waldheim

File:Verteidigungsminister Helmut Schmidt.jpg

Helmut Schmidt

File:Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg

Anwar Sadat

Date unknown[]

  • Lou Dorfsman, American graphic designer (d. 2008)
  • Louis Wienholt, Australian public servant (d. 1973)
  • Whang-od, Filipino tattooist



File:Georg Cantor2.jpg

Georg Cantor


Gustav Klimt

File:Portrait of Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.jpg

Abdul Hamid II

File:Claude Debussy ca 1908, foto av Félix Nadar.jpg

Claude Debussy

  • January 6Georg Cantor, German mathematician (b. 1845)
  • January 8
    • Johannes Pääsuke, Estonian photographer and filmmaker (b. 1892)
    • Ellis H. Roberts, American politician (b. 1827)
  • January 9
    • Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1887)
    • Émile Reynaud, French inventor (b. 1844)
  • January 28John McCrae, Canadian soldier, surgeon and poet (b. 1872)
  • February 2John L. Sullivan, American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858)
  • February 5Leonard Monteagle Barlow, British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898)
  • February 6Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862)
  • February 10
    • Abdul Hamid II, former Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1842)
    • Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian pacifist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833)
  • February 11Alexey Kaledin, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861)
  • February 15Vernon Castle, American dancer (b. 1887)
  • February 23Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882)
  • March 9Frank Wedekind, German playwright (b. 1864)
  • March 10
    • Hans-Joachim Buddecke, German flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1890)
    • Jim McCormick, Scottish-born American baseball player (b. 1856)
  • March 13César Cui, Lithuanian composer (b. 1835)
  • March 14
    • Lucretia Garfield, First Lady of the United States (b. 1832)
    • Gennaro Rubino, Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium.
  • March 15Adolf Ritter von Tutschek, German fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • March 23T. P. Cameron Wilson, English poet and novelist (b. 1888)
  • March 25
    • Claude Debussy, French composer (b. 1862)
    • Walter Tull, First Black infantry officer to serve in the British Army (b. 1888)
  • March 27
    • Henry Adams, American historian (b. 1838)
    • Martin Sheridan, Irish athlete (b. 1881)


File:Ferdinand Braun.jpg

Karl Ferdinand Braun

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R18508, Manfred v. Richthofen.jpg

Manfred von Richthofen

  • April 1
    • Paul von Rennenkampf, Russian general (executed) (b. 1854)
    • Isaac Rosenberg, British war poet (killed in action) (b. 1890)
  • April 4Hermann Cohen, German philosopher (b. 1842)
  • April 5 – King George Tupou II of Tonga (b. 1874)
  • April 18Otto Wagner Austro-Hungarian architect and urban planner (b. 1841)
  • April 20
    • Karl Ferdinand Braun, German phyicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850)
    • Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1851)
  • April 21Manfred von Richthofen, German fighter pilot, top-scoring ace of World War I (killed in action) (b. 1892)
  • April 27Jacques Duchesne, French general (b. 1837)
  • April 28Gavrilo Princip, Yugoslav assassin (b. 1894)
  • May 2Jüri Vilms, Estonian politician (b. 1889)
  • May 14James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841)
  • May 17William Drew Robeson, American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844)
  • May 19Raoul Lufbery, Franco-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1885)
  • May 24József Kiss, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896)
  • May 30Georgi Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary and philosopher (b. 1856)
  • June 1Roderic Dallas, Australian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • June 3 – Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling, Austrian noble and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863)
  • June 4Charles W. Fairbanks, 26th Vice President of the United States (b. 1852)
  • June 10Arrigo Boito, Italian poet and composer (b. 1842)
  • June 12Grand Duke Michael Romanov (assassinated) (b. 1878)
  • June 19Francesco Baracca, Italian fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1888)
  • June 25Jake Beckley, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1867)
  • June 27Joséphin Péladan, French occultist (b. 1858)


File:Face Nicholas II.jpg

Nicholas II of Russia

File:Henry Macintosh 1913.jpg

Henry Macintosh

  • July 3 – Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1844)
  • July 9James McCudden, British fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1895)
  • July 14Quentin Roosevelt, youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt, killed in action as fighter pilot (b. 1897)
  • July 17 – Executed members of the Romanov family:
    • Former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1868)
    • Former Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (b. 1872)
    • Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1895)
    • Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1897)
    • Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1899)
    • Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1901)
    • Former Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (b. 1904)
  • July 20Francis Lupo, American soldier (b. 1895)
  • July 22
    • Indra Lal Roy, Indian fighter pilot (b. 1898)
    • Manuel González Prada, Peruvian politician and author (b. 1844)
  • July 26
    • Henry Macintosh, British Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1892)
    • Edward Mannock, British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1887)
  • July 29Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (b. 1863)
  • July 30
    • Joyce Kilmer, American journalist and poet (killed in action) (b. 1886)
    • Frank Linke-Crawford, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893)
  • July 31George McElroy, British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893)
  • August 1
    • John Riley Banister, American policeman and cowboy (b. 1854)
    • Gabriel Guérin, French World War I fighter ace (air crash) (b. 1892)
  • August 6Peter Strasser, German naval officer and airship commander (killed in action) (b. 1876)
  • August 10
    • Jean Brillant, Canadian soldier (b. 1890)
    • Erich Löwenhardt, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1897)
    • Aleksander Uurits, Estonian painter and graphic artist (b. 1888)
  • August 12Anna Held, French actress (b. 1873)
  • August 18Henry Norwest, Canadian sniper (b. 1884)
  • September 12George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
  • September 16Maurice Boyau, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888)
  • September 20Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland, Swedish prince (b. 1889)
  • September 25Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (b. 1857)
  • September 27Fritz Rumey, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • September 28
    • True Boardman, American actor (b. 1882)
    • Georg Simmel, German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1858)
    • Freddie Stowers, American soldier (b. 1896)
  • September 29Frank Luke, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897)


File:Wilfred Owen plate from Poems (1920).jpg

Wilfred Owen

  • October 5
    • Roland Garros, French fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1888)
    • Robbie Ross, British writer (b. 1869)
  • October 9Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor (b. 1876)
  • October 11Wallace Lloyd Algie, Canadian soldier (b. 1891)
  • October 14Nikolai Skrydlov, Russian admiral (executed) (b. 1844)
  • October 15Sai Baba of Shirdi, Indian guru and yogi (b. 1838)
  • October 16Felix Arndt, American pianist and composer (b. 1889)
  • October 18Radko Dimitriev, Bulgarian and Russian general (executed) (b. 1859)
  • October 19Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
  • October 22Myrtle Gonzalez, American actress (b. 1891)
  • October 24Daniel Burley Woolfall, English administrator, 2nd President of FIFA (b. 1852)
  • October 28Michel Coiffard, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892)
  • October 29Rudolf Tobias, Estonian composer (b. 1873)
  • October 31Egon Schiele, Austrian artist (b. 1890)
  • November 2Hugh Cairns, Canadian soldier (b. 1896)
  • November 4
    • Wilfred Owen, British poet and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1893)
    • Andrew Dickson White, American academic, diplomat, and co-founder of Cornell University (b. 1832)
  • November 5 or November 20Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, British occultist (b. 1854)
  • November 6Alan Arnett McLeod, Canadian soldier (b. 1899)
  • November 9
    • Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet (b. 1880)
    • Albert Ballin, German-Jewish shipping magnate (b. 1857)
    • Peter Lumsden, British general in Indian army (b. 1829)
  • November 11George Lawrence Price, Last Commonwealth soldier to die in WWI (b. 1892)
  • November 19Joseph Fielding Smith, American Mormon leader (b. 1838)
  • November 30Karl Petrovich Jessen, Russian admiral (b. 1852)
  • December 2Edmond Rostand, French writer (b. 1868)
  • December 5Schalk Willem Burger, Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, and statesman, acting President of the South African Republic (1900-1902) (b. 1852)
  • December 11Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876)
  • December 14Sidónio Pais, 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872)
  • December 21Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863)
  • December 28Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. "Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". World Digital Library. February 10, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
  2. Barry, John M. (2005). The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143036494.
  3. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  4. Shores, Christopher (1969). Finnish Air Force, 1918–1968. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 978-0668021210.
  5. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  6. Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
  7. The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on 18 February 1911 and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911.
  8. "La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  9. "Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed". New York Times. July 20, 1918. p. 4.
  10. Lichfield, John (July 7, 2014). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The 'blackest day' of the German army". The Independent. London. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  11. Pitt, Barrie (2003). 1918: The Last Act. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 0-85052-974-3.
  12. Massie, Robert K. (2004). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40878-0.
  13. Biger, Gideon (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
  14. Wainwright, Martin (August 23, 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  15. Ward, Margaret (1983). Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86104-700-1.

Further reading[]