Culture Wikia

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1917 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1917
Ab urbe condita2670
Armenian calendar1366
Assyrian calendar6667
Bahá'í calendar73–74
Balinese saka calendar1838–1839
Bengali calendar1324
Berber calendar2867
British Regnal yearGeo. 5 – 8 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2461
Burmese calendar1279
Byzantine calendar7425–7426
Chinese calendar丙辰(Fire Dragon)
4613 or 4553
    — to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4614 or 4554
Coptic calendar1633–1634
Discordian calendar3083
Ethiopian calendar1909–1910
Hebrew calendar5677–5678
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1973–1974
 - Shaka Samvat1838–1839
 - Kali Yuga5017–5018
Holocene calendar11917
Igbo calendar917–918
Iranian calendar1295–1296
Islamic calendar1335–1336
Japanese calendarTaishō 6
Javanese calendar1847–1848
Juche calendar6
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4250
Minguo calendarROC 6
Nanakshahi calendar449
Thai solar calendar2459–2460
Tibetan calendar阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
2043 or 1662 or 890
    — to —
(female Fire-Snake)
2044 or 1663 or 891

1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1917th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 917th year of the , the 17th year of the , and the 8th year of the decade. As of the start of 1917, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.


  • January – J. R. R. Tolkien, on medical leave from the British Army, begins writing The Book of Lost Tales (the first version of The Silmarillion), starting with the "Fall of Gondolin"; thus Tolkien's mythopoeic Middle-earth legendarium is first chronicled in prose.[1][2]
  • January 1 – The University of Oregon defeats the University of Pennsylvania 14–0 in U.S. college football's 3rd Annual Rose Bowl Game.
  • January 2 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank.
  • January 3 – The Ratho rail crash in which NBR H class locomotive 874 Dunedin in charge of the Edinburgh to Glasgow express train was in collision with a light engine at Queensferry Junction, leaving 12 people dead and 46 seriously injured. The cause was found to be inadequate signalling procedures.[3]
  • January 9 – WWI: The last substantial Ottoman Army garrison on the Sinai Peninsula is captured by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's Desert Column at the Battle of Rafa.
  • January 11 – Unknown saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion at Kingsland (modern-day Lyndhurst, New Jersey), one of the events leading to United States involvement in WWI.
  • January 16 – The Danish West Indies is sold to the United States for $25 million.
  • January 19Silvertown explosion: A blast at a munitions factory in London kills 73 and injures over 400. The resulting fire causes over £2,000,000 worth of damage.
  • January 22 – WWI: President of the United States Woodrow Wilson calls for "peace without victory" in Germany.
  • January 25
    • WWI: British armed merchantman SS Laurentic is sunk by mines off Lough Swilly (Ireland) with the loss of 354 of the 475 aboard.
    • An anti-prostitution drive in San Francisco occurs and police close about 200 prostitution houses.
  • January 26 – The sea defences at the English village of Hallsands are breached, leading to all but one of the houses becoming uninhabitable.
  • January 28 – The United States ends its search for Pancho Villa.
  • January 30Pershing's troops in Mexico begin withdrawing back to the United States. They reach Columbus, New Mexico February 5.


  • February 1 – WWI: Atlantic U-boat Campaign: Germany announces its U-boats will resume unrestricted submarine warfare, rescinding the 'Sussex pledge'.
  • February 3 – WWI: The United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • February 5 – The new constitution of Mexico is adopted.
  • February 13
    • Mata Hari is arrested in Paris for spying.
    • WWI: Beginning of the Raid on Nekhl by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, to complete reoccupation of the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula.
  • February 21 – British troopship SS Mendi is accidentally rammed and sunk off the Isle of Wight, killing 646, mainly members of the South African Native Labour Corps.
  • February 24 – WWI: United States ambassador to the United Kingdom, Walter Hines Page, is shown the intercepted Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany offers to give the American Southwest back to Mexico if Mexico declares war on the United States.
File:USA bryter de diplomatiska förbindelserna med Tyskland 3 februari 1917.jpg

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany


  • March 1
    • The U.S. government releases the text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public.
    • Japanese city of Ōmuta is founded by Hiroushi Miruku.
  • March 2 – The enactment of the Jones Act grants Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.
  • March 4
    • Woodrow Wilson is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States.
    • Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives.
  • March 7 – "Livery Stable Blues", recorded with "Dixie Jazz Band One Step" on February 26 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band in the United States, becomes the first jazz recording commercially released. On August 17 the band records "Tiger Rag".
  • March 8
    • (N.S.) (February 23, O.S.) – The February Revolution begins in Russia: Women calling for bread in Petrograd start riots, which spontaneously spread throughout the city.
    • The United States Senate adopts the cloture rule in order to limit filibusters.
  • March 10 – The Province of Batangas is formally founded as one of the Philippines' first encomiendas.
  • March 11Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza is elected president of Mexico; the United States gives de jure recognition of his government.
  • March 12 – The Duma declares a Provisional Government.
  • March 14Republic of China terminates diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • March 15 (N.S.) (March 2, O.S.) – Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicates his throne and his son's claims. This is considered to be the end of the Russian Empire after 196 years.
  • March 17 (N.S.) (March 4, O.S.) – Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia refuses the throne, and power passes to the newly formed Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov.
  • March 25 – The Georgian Orthodox Church restores the autocephaly abolished by Imperial Russia in 1811.
  • March 26 – WWI: First Battle of Gaza: British Egyptian Expeditionary Force troops virtually encircle the Gaza garrison but are then ordered to withdraw, leaving the city to the Ottoman defenders.
  • March 30Hjalmar Hammarskjöld steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden. He is replaced by the right-wing businessman and politician Carl Swartz .
  • March 31 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies, which become the US Virgin Islands, after paying $25 million to Denmark.


  • April 2 – WWI: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asks the United States Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.
  • April 6 – WWI: The United States declares war on Germany.
  • April 8 (N.S.) (March 26, O.S.) – In Petrograd, 40,000 ethnic Estonians demand national autonomy within Russia.
  • April 912 – WWI: Canadian troops win the Battle of Vimy Ridge.
  • April 10 – An ammunition factory explosion in Chester, Pennsylvania kills 133.
  • April 11 – WWI: Brazil severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • April 12 (N.S.) (March 30 O.S.) – The Autonomous Governorate of Estonia is formed within Russia from the Governorate of Estonia and the Northern part of the Governorate of Livonia.
  • April 16
    • (N.S.) (April 3, O.S.) – Vladimir Lenin arrives at the Finland Station in Petrograd.
    • WWI: The Nivelle Offensive commences.


  • April 17
    • (N.S.) (April 4, O.S.) – Vladimir Lenin's April Theses are published.[4] They become very influential in the following July Days and Bolshevik Revolution.
    • WWI: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the Second Battle of Gaza. This unsuccessful frontal attack on strong Ottoman defences along with the first battle, resulted in 10,000 casualties, the dismissal of the force commander General Archibald Murray and the beginning of the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
    • The Times and the Daily Mail (London newspapers both owned by Lord Northcliffe) print atrocity propaganda of the supposed existence of a German Corpse Factory.
  • April 26 – WWI: Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne between France, Italy and the United Kingdom to settle interests in the Middle Eastern signed.


  • May 9 – WWI: The Nivelle Offensive is abandoned.
  • May 13 – The nuncio Eugenio Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII, is consecrated Archbishop by Pope Benedict XV.[5]
  • May 13October 13 (at monthly intervals) – 10-year-old Lúcia Santos and her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto report experiencing a series of Marian apparitions near Fátima, Portugal, which becomes known as Our Lady of Fátima.
  • May 15Robert Nivelle is replaced as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army by Philippe Pétain.
  • May 18 – WWI: The Selective Service Act passes the United States Congress, giving the President the power of conscription.
  • May 21 – Over 300 acres (73 blocks) are destroyed in the Great Atlanta fire of 1917.
  • May 22 – Commissioned Officer Corps of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
  • May 23
    • A month of civil violence in Milan, Italy, ends after the Italian army forcibly takes over the city from anarchists and anti-war revolutionaries. Fifty people are killed and 800 arrested.[6]
    • WWI: During the Stalemate in Southern Palestine the Raid on the Beersheba to Hafir el Auja railway by Desert Column of British Empire troops, destroys large sections of the railway line linking Beersheba to the main Ottoman desert base.
  • May 26 – A tornado strikes Mattoon, Illinois, causing devastation and killing 101 people.
  • May 27 – WWI: Over 30,000 French troops refuse to go to the trenches at Missy-aux-Bois.
  • May 27Pope Benedict XV promulgates the 1917 Code of Canon Law


  • June 1French Army Mutinies: A French infantry regiment seizes Missy-aux-Bois and declares an anti-war military government. Other French army troops soon apprehend them.
  • June 4 – The first Pulitzer Prizes are awarded: Laura E. Richards, Maud Howe Elliott and Florence Hall receive the first Pulitzer for a biography (for Julia Ward Howe). Jean Jules Jusserand receives the first Pulitzer for history for his work With Americans of Past and Present Days. Herbert Bayard Swope receives the first Pulitzer for journalism for his work for the New York World.
  • June 5 – WWI: Conscription begins in the United States.
  • June 7 – WWI: Battle of Messines opens with the British Army detonating 19 ammonal mines under the German lines, killing 10,000 in the deadliest deliberate non-nuclear man-made explosion in history.
  • June 8Speculator Mine disaster: A fire at the Granite Mountain and Speculator ore mine outside Butte, Montana kills at least 168 workers.
  • June 11 – King Constantine I of Greece abdicates for the first time, being succeeded by his son Alexander.
  • June 13 – WWI: The first major German bombing raid on London by fixed-wing aircraft leaves 162 dead and 432 injured.
  • June 15 – The United States enacts the Espionage Act.


  • July – First Cottingley Fairies photographs taken in Yorkshire, England, apparently depicting fairies; a hoax not admitted by the child creators until 1981.
  • July 1
    • East St. Louis riot: A labor dispute ignites a race riot in East St. Louis, Illinois, which leaves 250 dead.
    • Russian General Brusilov begins the major Kerensky Offensive in Galicia, initially advancing towards Lemberg.
  • July 2 – WWI: Greece joins the war on the side of the Allies.[7][8]
  • July 6 – WWI:
    • Battle of Aqaba: Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire.
    • Conscription Crisis of 1917 in Canada leads to passage of the Military Service Act.
  • July 7 – The Lions Clubs International is formed in the United States.
  • July 813 – WWI: First Battle of Ramadi: British troops fail to take Ramadi from the Ottoman Empire; a majority of British casualties are due to extreme heat.
  • July 12Bisbee Deportation: The Phelps Dodge Corporation deports over 1,000 suspected IWW members from Bisbee, Arizona.
  • July 16July 17Russian troops mutiny, abandon the Austrian front, and retreat to the Ukraine; hundreds are shot by their commanding officers during the retreat.
  • July 16July 18 – Serious clashes in Petrograd in July Days; Lenin escapes to Finland; Trotsky is arrested.
  • July 17 – King George V of the United Kingdom issues a proclamation, stating that thenceforth the male line descendants of the British Royal Family will bear the surname Windsor, vice the Germanic bloodline of House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is an offshoot of the historic (800+ years) House of Wettin.
  • July 20
    • The Parliament of Finland, with a Social Democratic majority, passes a "Sovereignty Act", declaring itself, as the representative of the Finnish people, sovereign over the Grand Principality of Finland. The Russian Provisional Government does not recognize the act, as it would have devolved Russian sovereignty over Finland, formerly exercised by the Russian Emperor as Grand Prince of Finland and alter the relationship between Finland and Russia into a real union with Russia solely responsible for the defence and foreign relations of an independent Finland.
    • (July 7, O.S.) – Alexander Kerensky becomes premier of the Russian Provisional Government, replacing Prince Georgy Lvov.
    • The Russian Provisional Government enacts women's suffrage.
    • The Corfu Declaration, which enables the establishment of the post-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, is signed by the Yugoslav Committee and the Kingdom of Serbia.
  • July 20July 28 – WWI: Austrian and German forces repulse the Russian advance into Galicia.
  • July 25 – Sir William Thomas White introduces Canada's first income tax as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
  • July 28 – The Silent Parade is organized by the NAACP in New York City to protest the East St. Louis riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Tennessee and Texas.
  • July 30 – The Parliament of Finland is dissolved by the Russian Provisional Government. New elections are held in the autumn, resulting in a bourgeois majority.
  • July 31 – WWI: Battle of Passchendaele: Allied offensive operations commence in Flanders.


  • August – The Green Corn Rebellion, an uprising by several hundred farmers against the WWI draft, takes place in central Oklahoma.
  • August 2Squadron Commander E.H. Dunning lands his aircraft on the ship HMS Furious in Scapa Flow, Orkney. He is killed 5 days later during another landing on the ship.
  • August 3 – The New York Guard is founded.
  • August 10 – A general strike begins in Spain; it is smashed after 3 days with 70 left dead, hundreds of wounded and 2,000 arrests.
  • August 14Republic of China declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • August 17 – One of English literature's important meetings takes place when Wilfred Owen introduces himself to Siegfried Sassoon at the Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh.
  • August 18 – The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 in Greece destroys 32% of the city, leaving 70,000 individuals homeless.
  • August 29 – WWI: The Military Service Act is passed in the Canadian House of Commons, giving the Government of Canada the right to conscript men into the army.


  • September 14 – Russia is declared a republic by the Provisional Government.
  • September 23Leon Trotsky is elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.
  • September 25 – The Mossovet (Moscow Soviet of People's Deputies) votes to side with the Bolsheviks.
  • September 26October 3 – WWI: Battle of Polygon Wood (part of the Battle of Passchendaele) near Ypres in Belgium: British and Australian troops capture positions from the Germans.
  • September 2829 – WWI: Second Battle of Ramadi: British troops take Ramadi from the Ottoman Empire.


  • October 4 – WWI: Battle of Broodseinde near Ypres: British Imperial forces overpower the German 4th Army's defences.
  • October 12 – WWI: First Battle of Passchendaele: Allies fail to take a German defensive position with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over 800 of whose men and 45 officers are killed, roughly 1 in 1000 of the nation's population at this time.
  • October 12-19 – WWI: Operation Albion: German forces land on and capture the West Estonian archipelago.
  • October 13Miracle of the Sun at Fátima, Portugal.
  • October 15 – WWI: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany.
  • October 19
    • Dallas Love Field airport is opened.
    • Carl Swartz leaves office as Prime Minister of Sweden after dismal election results for the right-wing in the Riksdag elections in September. He is replaced by liberal leader and history professor Nils Edén.
  • October 23 – A Brazilian ship is destroyed by a German U-Boat, encouraging Brazil to enter World War I.
  • October 25 (O.S.) (November 7, N.S.) – Traditional beginning date of the October Revolution and Russian Civil War.
  • October 26 – WWI: Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.
File:Venceslau Brás declara guerra 1917.jpg

Brazilian President Venceslau Brás signs a declaration of war against the Central Powers

  • October 27 – WWI: Ottoman force attacks Desert Mounted Corps units garrisoning el Buqqar ridge during the Battle of Buqqar Ridge fought in the last days of the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
  • October 31 – WWI: Battle of Beersheba: The British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) attack and capture Beersheba ending the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.


  • November 1 – WWI:
    • The British XXI Corps of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the Third Battle of Gaza.
    • The British Desert Mounted Corps begins the Battle of Tel el Khuweilfe in the direction of Hebron and Jerusalem.
  • November 2Zionism: The British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour makes the Balfour Declaration proclaiming British support for the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" with the clear understanding "that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities".
  • November 5 (N.S.) (October 23, O.S.) – Estonian and Russian Bolsheviks seize power in Tallinn, Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, two days before the October Revolution in Petrograd.
  • November 6
    • WWI: Battle of Passchendaele: After 3 months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.
    • WWI: Battle of Hareira and Sheria launched by the British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps against the central Ottoman defences protecting the Gaza to Beersheba road.
    • Militants from Trotsky's committee join with trusty Bolshevik soldiers to seize government buildings and pounce on members of the provisional government.
  • November 7
    • (N.S.) (October 25, O.S.) – October Revolution in Russia: The workers of the Petrograd Soviet in Russia, led by the Bolshevik Party and leader Vladimir Lenin, storm the Winter Palace and successfully destroy the Kerensky Provisional Government after less than eight months of rule.
    • Iran (which has provided weapons for Russia) refuses to support the Allied Forces after the October Revolution.
    • WWI: Third Battle of Gaza: XXI Corps occupies Gaza after the Ottoman garrison withdraws.
    • WWI: Battle of Hareira and Sheria continues when the XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps capture Hareira and Sheria, marking the end of the Ottoman Gaza to Beersheba line.
  • November 13 – WWI:
    • Egyptian Expeditionary Force attack retreating Yildirim Army Group forces during the Battle of Mughar Ridge results in the capture of 10,000 Ottoman prisoners, 100 guns and 50 miles (80 km) of Palestine territory.
    • ANZAC Mounted Division (Desert Mounted Corps) successfully fights the Battle of Ayun Kara in the aftermath of the Battle of Mughar Ridge against strong German rearguards.
  • November 15
    • In a "Night of Terror" in the United States, influential suffragettes from the Silent Sentinels are deliberately subjected to physical assaults by guards while imprisoned.
    • The Parliament of Finland passes another "Sovereignty Act", dissolving Russian sovereignty over Finland and effectively declaring Finland independent.
    • (N.S.) (November 28, O.S.) – The Provincial Assembly of the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia declares itself the highest legal body in Estonia.
  • November 16
    • WWI: ANZAC Mounted Division occupies Jaffa following their victory at the Battle of Ayun Kara.
    • Georges Clemenceau becomes prime minister of France.
  • November 17
    • WWI: Action of 17 November 1917: United States Navy destroyers USS Fanning and USS Nicholson capture Imperial German Navy U-boat SM U-58 off the south-west coast of Ireland, the first combat action in which U.S. ships take a submarine (which is then scuttled).
    • WWI: Battle of Jerusalem (1917) begins with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force launching attacks against Ottoman forces in the Judean Hills.
    • The People's Dispensary for Sick Animals is founded in the United Kingdom.
  • November 20
    • WWI: Battle of Cambrai: British forces, using tanks, make early progress in an attack on German positions but are soon beaten back.
    • The Ukraine is declared a republic.
  • November 22 – In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the National Hockey Association suspends operations.
  • November 23 – The Bolsheviks release the full text of the previously secret Sykes–Picot Agreement of 1916 in Izvestia and Pravda; it is printed in the Manchester Guardian on November 26.
  • November 24 – Nine members of the Milwaukee Police Department are killed by a bomb, the most deaths in a single event in U.S. police history until the September 11 attacks in 2001.
  • November 25 – WWI: German forces defeat Portuguese army of about 1200 at Negomano on the border of modern-day Mozambique and Tanzania.
  • November 26 – The National Hockey League is formed in Montreal as a replacement for the recently disbanded National Hockey Association.
  • November 28 – WWI: The Bolsheviks offer peace terms to the Germans.


  • December – Annie Besant becomes president of the Indian National Congress.
  • December 3 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic (the bridge partially collapsed on August 29, 1907 and September 11, 1916).
  • December 6
    • The Senate of Finland officially declares the country's independence from Russia.
    • Halifax Explosion: Two freighters collide in Halifax Harbour at Halifax, Nova Scotia and cause a huge explosion that kills at least 1,963 people, injures 9,000 and destroys part of the city (the biggest man-made explosion in recorded history until the Trinity nuclear test in 1945).
  • December 9 – WWI: The British Egyptian Expeditionary Force accepts the surrender of Jerusalem by the mayor, Hussein al-Husayni, following effective defeat of the Ottoman Empire's Yildirim Army Group during the Battle of Jerusalem.
  • December 11 – WWI: General Edmund Allenby leads units of the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force into Jerusalem on foot through the Jaffa Gate.
  • December 17 – The Raad van Vlaanderen proclaims the independence of Flanders.
  • December 20 – The Cheka, a predecessor to the KGB is established in Russia.
  • December 23 (N.S.) (February 23, O.S.) – A local plebiscite supports transferring Narva and Ivangorod (Jaanilinn) from Petrograd Governorate to the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia.
  • December 25Jesse Lynch Williams' Why Marry?, the first dramatic play to win a Pulitzer Prize, opens at the Astor Theatre in New York.
  • December 26 – United States president Woodrow Wilson uses the Federal Possession and Control Act to place most U.S. railroads under the United States Railroad Administration, hoping to transport troops and materials for the war effort more efficiently.
  • December 30 – WWI: Egyptian Expeditionary Force secures the victory at the Battle of Jerusalem by successfully defending Jerusalem from numerous Yildirim Army Group counterattacks.

Date unknown[]

  • Following the October Revolution, Alexandra Kollontai is appointed People's Commissar for Social Welfare in the Council of People's Commissars of the Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the first woman cabinet minister in Europe.
  • Women are permitted to stand in national elections in the Netherlands.
  • The True Jesus Church is established in Beijing.




Jane Wyman


Ernest Borgnine

  • January 1Shannon Bolin, American actress and singer (d. 2016)
  • January 2Vera Zorina, German dancer and actress (d. 2003)
  • January 3
    • Roger W. Straus, Jr., American publisher (d. 2004)
    • Jesse White, American actor (d. 1997)
  • January 5
    • Adolfo Consolini, Italian discus thrower (d. 1969)
    • Lucienne Day, British textile designer (d. 2010)
    • Francis L. Kellogg, U.S. diplomat and prominent socialite (d. 2006)
    • Jane Wyman, American actress, philanthropist, and first wife of Ronald Reagan (d. 2007)
  • January 6Koo Chen-fu, Nationalist Chinese negotiator (d. 2005)
  • January 10Jerry Wexler, American record producer (d. 2008)
  • January 12Jimmy Skinner, Detroit Red Wings head coach (d. 2007)
  • January 15K. A. Thangavelu, Indian film actor and comedian (d. 1994)
  • January 16Carl Karcher, American founder of the Carl's Jr. hamburger chain (d. 2008)
  • January 17M. G. Ramachandran, Tamil Nadu chief minister and actor (d. 1987)
  • January 19Graham Higman, British mathematician (d. 2008)
  • January 21Erling Persson, Swedish businessman and founder of H&M (d. 2002)
  • January 24Ernest Borgnine, American actor (d. 2012)
  • January 25Ilya Prigogine, Russian-born physicist and chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 2003)
  • January 26
    • Louis Zamperini, American prisoner of war (World War II), Olympic distance athlete (1936), and Christian evangelist (d. 2014)
    • William Verity Jr., American politician (d. 2007)
  • January 29John Raitt, American actor and singer (d. 2005)


File:Do Muoi cropped.jpg

Đỗ Mười

File:Zsa Zsa Gabor - 1959.jpg

Zsa Zsa Gabor


Anthony Burgess


File:Desi Arnaz 1950.JPG

Desi Arnaz

File:Dame Vera Lynn.jpg

Vera Lynn


Cyrus Vance

  • March 1Robert Lowell, American poet (d. 1977)
  • March 2
    • Desi Arnaz, Cuban-born actor, bandleader, and musician (d. 1986)
    • Laurie Baker, English architect (d. 2007)
  • March 3Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear scientist (d. 1952)
  • March 4Clyde McCullough, American baseball catcher (d. 1982)
  • March 5Raymond P. Shafer, Governor of Pennsylvania (d. 2006)
  • March 6Samael Aun Weor, Columbian writer (d. 1977)
  • March 10James Buchanan Barnes, 107th Infantry Regiment (United States), Buyer of Plums
  • March 12Googie Withers, British actress (d. 2011)
  • March 19Dinu Lipatti, Romanian pianist (d. 1950)
  • March 20Vera Lynn, English actress and singer
  • March 21Yigael Yadin, Israeli archeologist, politician, and Military Chief of Staff (d. 1984)
  • March 24
  • March 26Rufus Thomas, American singer (d. 2001)
  • March 27Cyrus Vance, American politician (d. 2002)
  • March 29Man o' War, champion thoroughbred racehorse (d. 1947)


File:Robert Woodward Nobel.jpg

Robert B. Woodward


Ella Fitzgerald

File:I.M. Pei.JPG

I. M. Pei

  • April 1Sydney Newman, Canadian-born television producer (d. 1997)
  • April 2Dabbs Greer, American actor (d. 2007)
  • April 5Robert Bloch, American writer (d. 1994)
  • April 7R. G. Armstrong, American actor (d. 2012)
  • April 10Robert B. Woodward, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979)
  • April 13
    • Robert O. Anderson, American businessman, founder of Atlantic Richfield Oil Co. (d. 2007)
    • Bill Clements, Governor of Texas (d. 2011)
  • April 14Marvin Miller, American baseball executive (d. 2012)
  • April 16Barry Nelson, American actor (d. 2007)
  • April 22Yvette Chauviré, French ballerina (d. 2016)
  • April 23Dorian Leigh, American model (d. 2008)
  • April 25Ella Fitzgerald, American jazz singer (d. 1996)
  • April 26
    • I. M. Pei, Chinese-born architect
    • Virgil Trucks, American baseball player (d. 2013)
  • April 28
    • Minoru Chiaki, Japanese actor (d. 1999)
    • Robert Cornthwaite, American actor (d. 2006)
  • April 29Celeste Holm, American actress (d. 2012)
  • April 30Bea Wain, American singer



Raymond Burr

File:John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpg

John F. Kennedy

  • May 1
    • John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (General Hospital) (d. 1996)
    • Ulric Cross, Trinidadian judge, diplomat and war hero (d. 2013)
    • Danielle Darrieux, French singer and actress
    • Fyodor Khitruk, Russian animator (d. 2012)
  • May 3
    • José Del Vecchio, Venezuelan physician and youth baseball promoter (d. 1990)
    • Kiro Gligorov, President of the Republic of Macedonia (d. 2012)
  • May 8John Anderson, Jr., American politician (d. 2014)
  • May 12Frank Clair, Canadian football coach (d. 2005)
  • May 14Lou Harrison, American composer (d. 2003)
  • May 16
    • George Gaynes, Finnish-born American actor (d. 2016)
    • Juan Rulfo, Mexican writer and photographer (d. 1986)
  • May 20Bergur Sigurbjörnsson, Icelandic politician (d. 2005)
  • May 21Raymond Burr, Canadian actor (Perry Mason) (d. 1993)
  • May 22
    • Sid Melton, American actor (d. 2011)
    • Georg Tintner, Austrian conductor (d. 1999)
  • May 25Theodore Hesburgh, American priest and educator (d. 2015)
  • May 28
    • Papa John Creach, African-American fiddler (d. 1994)
    • Marshall Reed, American film and television actor (d. 1980)
  • May 29John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States (d. 1963)


File:Dean Martin - Rio Bravo 1959.jpg

Dean Martin

File:Eric Hobsbawm.jpg

Eric Hobsbawm

File:Lena Horne in Till the Clouds Roll By 2.jpg

Lena Horne

  • June 1William S. Knowles, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2012)
  • June 2Casey Adams, American actor (d. 2000)
  • June 4
    • Robert Merrill, American baritone (d. 2004)
    • Howard Metzenbaum, American Jewish Senator from Ohio (d. 2008)
  • June 6Kirk Kerkorian, Armenian-American businessman and billionaire (d. 2015)
  • June 7
    • Gwendolyn Brooks, African American writer (d. 2000)
    • Dean Martin, American actor and singer (d. 1995)
  • June 8Byron White, American football player and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 2002)
  • June 9Eric Hobsbawm, British historian (d. 2012)
  • June 10
    • Ruari McLean, British typographer (d. 2006)
    • Al Schwimmer, American-Israeli businessman (d. 2011)
  • June 14
    • Lise Nørgaard, Danish journalist and writer
    • Atle Selberg, Norwegian mathematician (d. 2007)
  • June 15
    • John Fenn, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2010)
    • Lash LaRue, American cowboy actor (d. 1996)
  • June 16
    • Katharine Graham, American publisher (d. 2001)
    • Irving Penn, American photographer (d. 2009)
  • June 17Ben Bubar, American presidential candidate (d. 1995)
  • June 18
    • Ross Elliott, American actor (d. 1999)
    • Erik Ortvad, Danish artist (d. 2008)
  • June 19Robert Karnes, American actor (d. 1979)
  • June 24Lucy Jarvis, American television producer
  • June 25Claude Seignolle, French author
  • June 30
    • Susan Hayward, American actress (d. 1975)
    • Lena Horne, American singer and actress (d. 2010)


File:Fidel Sanchez Hernandez.JPG

Fidel Sanchez Hernandez

File:Robert Conquest (cropped).jpg

Robert Conquest

File:Phyllis Diller Allan Warren.jpg

Phyllis Diller

  • July 1Humphry Osmond, British psychiatrist (d. 2004)
  • July 4Manolete, Spanish bullfighter (d. 1947)
  • July 7
    • Larry O'Brien, American politician and former NBA commissioner (d. 1990)
    • Fidel Sánchez Hernández, President of El Salvador (d. 2003)
  • July 9Frank Wayne, American television game show producer (d. 1988)
  • July 10
    • Dayton S. Mak, U.S. diplomat
    • Don Herbert, American television personality (Mr. Wizard) (d. 2007)
    • Reg Smythe, English cartoonist (d. 1998)
  • July 12Andrew Wyeth, American painter (d. 2009)
  • July 15Robert Conquest, British historian (d. 2015)
  • July 16William Woodson, American voice actor
  • July 17
    • Phyllis Diller, American comedian (d. 2012)
    • Kenan Evren, former President of Turkey (d. 2015)
  • July 18
    • Paul Streeten, economics professor
    • Henri Salvador, French singer (d. 2008)
  • July 19William Scranton, American politician (d. 2013)
  • July 22
    • Larry Hooper, American singer and musician (d. 1983)
    • Adam Malik, 3rd Vice President of Indonesia (d. 1984)
  • July 24Henri Betti, French composer and pianist (d. 2005)
  • July 26Lorna Gray, American actress


File:Robert Mitchum.jpg

Robert Mitchum

File:Denis Healey.jpg

Denis Healey

  • August 6Robert Mitchum, American actor (d. 1997)
  • August 11
    • Vasiľ Biľak, former Slovak Communist leader (d. 2014)
    • Dik Browne, American cartoonist (Hagar the Horrible) (d. 1989)
  • August 14Marty Glickman, American sports announcer (d. 2001)
  • August 15
    • Jack Lynch, Prime Minister of Ireland (d. 1999)
    • Óscar Romero, El Salvador Roman Catholic Archbishop (d. 1980)
  • August 17Zvi Keren, American-born Israeli pianist, musicologist and composer (d. 2008)
  • August 18Caspar Weinberger, United States Secretary of Defense (d. 2006)
  • August 22John Lee Hooker, African-American musician (d. 2001)
  • August 25
    • Lou van Burg Dutch television personality and game show host (d. 1986)
    • Mel Ferrer, Cuban-American actor, film director and film producer (d. 2008)
    • Lisbeth Movin, Danish actress (d. 2011)
  • August 28Jack Kirby, American comic book artist (d. 1994)
  • August 29Isabel Sanford, African-American actress (The Jeffersons) (d. 2004)
  • August 30Denis Healey, English politician and author (d. 2015)


  • September 6Philipp von Boeselager, German Wehrmacht officer, failed assassin of Adolf Hitler (d. 2008)
  • September 7
    • Leonard Cheshire, British war hero (d. 1992)
    • John Cornforth, Australian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
    • Tetsuo Hamuro, Japanese swimmer (d. 2005)
  • September 10Miguel Serrano, Chilean diplomat, explorer, and journalist (d. 2009)
  • September 11
    • Donald Blakeslee, American aviator (d. 2008)
    • Herbert Lom, Czech-born British actor (d. 2012)
    • Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines (d. 1989)
    • Jessica Mitford, Anglo-American writer (d. 1996)
    • Daniel Wildenstein, French art dealer and racehorse owner (d. 2001)
  • September 13Robert Ward, American composer (d. 2013)
  • September 15Buddy Jeannette, American basketball player and coach (d. 1998)
  • September 18June Foray, American voice actress
  • September 20
    • Red Auerbach, American basketball coach and official (d. 2006)
    • Fernando Rey, Spanish actor (d. 1994)
  • September 23Rodolfo Guzmán Huerta, Mexican wrestler, better known as El Santo (d. 1984)
  • September 25Johnny Sain, American baseball player (d. 2006)
  • September 27Louis Auchincloss, American novelist (d. 2010)


File:June Allyson-publicity.jpg

June Allyson

File:Marsha Hunt in Cry Havoc trailer.jpg

Marsha Hunt


File:Park Chung hee.jpg

Park Chung-hee


Indira Gandhi


File:Clarke sm.jpg

Arthur C. Clarke

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg

Heinrich Böll

  • December 5Wenche Foss, Norwegian actress (d. 2011)
  • December 6
    • Kamal Jumblatt, leader of the Lebanese Druze (d. 1977)
    • Irv Robbins, Canadian-American entrepreneur (d. 2008)
  • December 9James Rainwater, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1986)
  • December 10 – Sultan Yahya Petra of Kelantan, King of Malaysia (d. 1979)
  • December 15Shan-ul-Haq Haqqee, Pakistani poet, author, lexicographer (d. 2005)
  • December 16Arthur C. Clarke, British/Sri Lankan science-fiction author (2001: A Space Odyssey) (d. 2008)
  • December 17Arthur B. Singer, American wildlife artist (d. 1990)
  • December 18Ossie Davis, American actor and activist (d. 2005)
  • December 20
    • David Bohm, American-born physicist, philosopher, and neuropsychologist (d. 1992)
    • Juan Vicente Torrealba, Venezuelan harpist and composer
    • Audrey Totter, American actress (d. 2013)
  • December 21Heinrich Böll, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1985)
  • December 22Gene Rayburn, American television personality (Match Game) (d. 1999)
  • December 25Lincoln Verduga Loor, Ecuadorian journalist and politician (d. 2009)
  • December 27Onni Palaste, Finnish writer (d. 2009)
  • December 28Ellis Clarke, President of Trinidad and Tobago (d. 2010)
  • December 29Ramanand Sagar, Indian film director (d. 2005)
  • December 30Seymour Melman, American industrial engineer (d. 2004)

Date unknown[]

  • Guillermo Sánchez Boix, Spanish cartoonist (d. 1960)
  • Huang Yao, Chinese artist (d. 1987)




Buffalo Bill Cody

File:Ferdinand von Zeppelin.jpg

Ferdinand von Zeppelin

File:Emil von Behring sitzend.jpg

Emil von Behring

  • January 2Edward Burnett Tylor, English anthropologist (b. 1832)
  • January 4Frederick Selous, British explorer (b. 1851)
  • January 6
    • Frederick William Borden, Canadian politician (b. 1847)
    • Hendrick Peter Godfried Quack, Dutch economist and historian (b. 1834)
  • January 8Sir George Warrender, 7th Baronet, British admiral (b. 1860)
  • January 10William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, American frontiersman (b. 1846)
  • January 16George Dewey, U.S. admiral (b. 1837)
  • February 5Jaber II Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait (b. 1860)
  • February 8Anton Haus, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1851)
  • February 10John William Waterhouse, Italian-born artist (b. 1849)
  • February 21Fred Mace, American actor (b. 1878)
  • March 5Manuel de Arriaga, first president of Portugal (b. 1840)
  • March 6Jules Vandenpeereboom, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1843)
  • March 8Ferdinand von Zeppelin, German inventor (b. 1838)
  • March 17Franz Brentano, German philosopher and psychologist (b. 1838)
  • March 31Emil Adolf von Behring, German winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1854)


File:Jose manuel pando 2.jpg

Jose Manuel Pando

File:Titu Maiorescu - Foto01.jpg

Titu Maiorescu

File:Frans Schollaert.jpg

Frans Schollaert

  • April 1Scott Joplin, African-American composer and pianist (b. 18671868)
  • April 8Richard Olney, American politician (b. 1835)
  • April 13Diamond Jim Brady, American businessman (b. 1856)
  • April 14L. L. Zamenhof, Polish creator of Esperanto (b. 1859)
  • April 15János Murkovics, Slovene teacher and writer in Hungary (b. 1839)
  • May 7Albert Ball, British World War I fighter ace, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1896)
  • May 17
    • Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak (b. 1829)
    • Radomir Putnik, Serbian field marshal (b. 1847)
  • May 20Philipp von Ferrary, Italian stamp collector (b. 1850)
  • May 24Les Darcy, Australian boxer (b. 1895)
  • May 25
    • Maksim Bahdanovič, Belarusian poet (b. 1891)
    • René Dorme, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1894)
  • May 29Kate Harrington, American teacher, writer, and poet (b. 1831)
  • June 5Karl Emil Schäfer, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891)
  • June 14Thomas W. Benoist, American aviator, aircraft designer and manufacturer, and founder of the world's first scheduled airline (b. 1874)
  • June 17José Manuel Pando, 25th President of Bolivia (b. 1849)
  • June 18Titu Maiorescu, Romanian politician, Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1840)
  • June 26John Dunville, British Army officer (killed in action) (b. 1896)
  • June 27Karl Allmenröder, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1896)
  • June 29Frans Schollaert, 19th Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1851)
  • June 30Antonio de La Gándara, French painter (b. 1861)



Eduard Buchner

  • July 2Herbert Beerbohm Tree, British actor (b. 1852)
  • July 8Tom Thomson, Canadian painter (b. 1877)
  • July 12Donald Cunnell, British World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1893)
  • July 16Philipp Scharwenka, Polish-German composer (b. 1847)
  • July 27Emil Kocher, Swiss medical researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1841)
  • July 28Stephen Luce, American admiral (b. 1827)
  • July 31
    • Francis Ledwidge, Irish poet (killed in action) (b. 1887)
    • Hedd Wyn, Welsh poet (killed in action) (b. 1887)
  • August 3Stéphane Javelle, French astronomer (b. 1864)
  • August 3Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, German mathematician (b. 1849)
  • August 7Edwin Harris Dunning, British aviator (b. 1892)
  • August 13Eduard Buchner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1860)
File:Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg

Adolf von Baeyer

  • August 20Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1835)
  • August 30Alan Leo, British astrologer (b. 1860)
  • September 9
    • Boris Stürmer, Russian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1848)
    • Madge Syers, British figure skater (b. 1881)
  • September 11Georges Guynemer, French World War I fighter ace (missing in action) (b. 1894)
  • September 15Kurt Wolff, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1895)
  • September 23Werner Voss, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1897)
File:Edgar Degas self portrait 1855.jpeg

Edgar Degas

  • September 27Edgar Degas, French painter (b. 1834)
  • September 30Patricio Montojo y Pasarón, Spanish admiral (b. 1839)


  • October 13Florence La Badie, American actress (accident) (b. 1888)
  • October 15Mata Hari, Dutch dancer and spy (executed) (b. 1876)
  • October 17Bobby Atherton, Welsh footballer (b. 1876)
  • October 22Bob Fitzsimmons, British boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1863)
  • October 23Eugène Grasset, Swiss artist (b. 1845)

Auguste Rodin


Mackenzie Bowell

  • October 27Arthur Rhys-Davids, British fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1897)
  • October 28Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (b. 1831)
  • October 30 or 31Heinrich Gontermann, German fighter ace (flying accident) (b. 1896)
  • November 3Frederick Rodgers, American admiral (b. 1842)
  • November 8Colin Blythe, English cricketer (b. 1879)
  • November 11 – Queen Liliuokalani, last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii (b. 1838)
  • November 15Émile Durkheim, French sociologist (b. 1858)
  • November 17
    • Neil Primrose, British Liberal MP (killed in action) (b. 1882)
    • Auguste Rodin, French sculptor (b. 1840)
  • December 8Mendele Mocher Sforim, Russian Yiddish and Hebrew writer (b. 1836)
  • December 10Mackenzie Bowell, 5th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1823)
  • December 12Andrew Taylor Still, American father of osteopathy (b. 1828)
  • December 19Richard Maybery, British fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1895)
  • December 20Eric Campbell, Scottish actor (accident) (b. 1879)
  • December 22Frances Xavier Cabrini, first American canonized as a saint (b. 1850)
  • December 24Ivan Goremykin, Russian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1839)
  • December 28Alfred Edwin McKay, Canadian fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892)

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. "J. R. R. Tolkien Chronology". Retrieved August 27, 2013.
  2. Duriez, Colin (2012). J. R. R. Tolkien: The Making of a Legend. Oxford: Lion. pp. 102–6. ISBN 978-0-7459-5514-8.
  3. UK fatal train crash records.
  4. Pravda.[full citation needed]
  5. L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 12/19 August 1998, p. 9.
  6. Seton-Watson, Christopher (1967). Italy from Liberalism to Fascism: 1870 to 1925. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. pp. 468–9.
  7. "Greece declares war on Central Powers". History. Archived from the original on April 1, 2015.
  8. "Minorpowers, Greece". Archived from the original on March 14, 2015.