Culture Wikia

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1916 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1916
Ab urbe condita2669
Armenian calendar1365
Assyrian calendar6666
Bahá'í calendar72–73
Balinese saka calendar1837–1838
Bengali calendar1323
Berber calendar2866
British Regnal yearGeo. 5 – 7 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2460
Burmese calendar1278
Byzantine calendar7424–7425
Chinese calendar乙卯(Wood Rabbit)
4612 or 4552
    — to —
丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)
4613 or 4553
Coptic calendar1632–1633
Discordian calendar3082
Ethiopian calendar1908–1909
Hebrew calendar5676–5677
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1972–1973
 - Shaka Samvat1837–1838
 - Kali Yuga5016–5017
Holocene calendar11916
Igbo calendar916–917
Iranian calendar1294–1295
Islamic calendar1334–1335
Japanese calendarTaishō 5
Javanese calendar1846–1847
Juche calendar5
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4249
Minguo calendarROC 5
Nanakshahi calendar448
Thai solar calendar2458–2459
Tibetan calendar阴木兔年
(female Wood-Rabbit)
2042 or 1661 or 889
    — to —
(male Fire-Dragon)
2043 or 1662 or 890

1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1916th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 916th year of the , the 16th year of the , and the 7th year of the decade. As of the start of 1916, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Below, the events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.


  • January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled.
  • January 9 – WWI: Gallipoli Campaign: Last British troops evacuated from Gallipoli, as the Ottoman Empire prevails over a joint British and French operation to capture Istanbul.
  • January 13 – WWI: Battle of Wadi: Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British during the Mesopotamian campaign in modern-day Iraq.
  • January 24
    • In Browning, Montana, the temperature drops from +6.7 °C to -48.8 °C (44 °F to -56 °F) in one day, the greatest change ever on record for a 24-hour period.
    • Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co.: The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the national income tax.
  • January 29 – WWI: Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time.
  • January 30 – The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British oficial Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire ends.
  • January 31 – WWI: An attack is planned on Verdun, France.


  • February 3 – Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada are burned down.
  • February 9 – 6.00 p.m. – Tristan Tzara "founds" the art movement Dadaism (according to Hans Arp).
  • February 11
    • Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States.
    • The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presents its first concert in the United States.
    • The Romanian football club Sportul Studențesc is founded in Bucharest.
  • February 12 – WWI: Battle of Salaita Hill (East African Campaign) – South African and other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position.
  • February 21 – WWI: The Battle of Verdun begins in France.


  • March 7 – In Munich German automobile company BMW (Die Bayerischen Motoren Werke) is founded.
  • March 89Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa leads about 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U.S. soldiers. A garrison of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back and drives them away.
  • March 15 – United States President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 United States troops over the U.S.–Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa; the 13th Cavalry regiment enters Mexican territory.
  • March 16Mexican Revolution: The U.S. 7th and 10th Cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the border to join the hunt for Villa.
  • March 22
    • The temporary Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored once again.
    • J. R. R. Tolkien marries Edith Bratt in England (they will serve as the inspiration for the fictional characters Lúthien and Beren).
  • March 24 – The French ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by SM UB-29 in the English Channel with at least 50 killed (including the composer Enrique Granados), resulting on May 4 in the Sussex pledge by Germany to the United States suspending its intensified submarine warfare policy.[1]


File:Easter Proclamation of 1916.png

Proclamation of the Irish Republic distributed during the Easter Rising

  • April – The toggle light switch is invented by William J. Newton and Morris Goldberg.
  • April 11 – WWI: Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.
  • April 20 – The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park (modern-day Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7–6 in 11 innings.
  • April 22 – The Chinese troop transport SS Hsin-Yu capsizes off the Chinese coast; at least 1,000 are killed.
  • April 2430 – The Easter Rising occurs in Ireland. Members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood proclaim an Irish Republic and the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army occupy the General Post Office and other buildings in Dublin before surrendering to the British Army.
  • April 24May 10Voyage of the James Caird: an open boat journey from Elephant Island in the South Shetland Islands to South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean (800 nautical miles (1,500 km; 920 mi)) undertaken by Sir Ernest Shackleton and five companions to obtain rescue for the main body of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition following the loss of its ship Endurance.
  • April 27 – WWI: Gas attack at Hulluch in France: The 47th Brigade, 16th (Irish) Division is decimated in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.
  • April 29 – WWI: Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet during the Mesopotamian campaign.


  • May 16
    • United States Marines invade the Dominican Republic.
    • Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes–Picot Agreement, which is to divide Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire, following the conclusion of WWI and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, into French and British spheres of influence.
  • May 31June 1 – WWI: Battle of Jutland between the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet[2] in the North Sea, the war's only large-scale clash of battleships. The result is tactically inconclusive but British dominance of the North Sea is maintained.


  • JuneArab Revolt begins.
  • June 4 – WWI: The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in the war, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.
  • June 5 – WWI: The HMS Hampshire sinks having hit a mine off the Orkney Islands, Scotland, with Lord Kitchener aboard.
  • June 5 – the Arab Revolt begins against the Ottoman Empire to create a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo to Aden, and is formally declared by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca on June 10.
  • June 15 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs a bill incorporating the Boy Scouts of America.[3]


  • July 1November 18 – WWI: Battle of the Somme, opening with the Battle of Albert: More than one million soldiers died; with 57,470 British Empire casualties on the first day, 19,240 of them killed, the British Army's bloodiest day.[4] The immediate result is tactically inconclusive.
  • July 112 – At least one shark attacks 5 swimmers along 80 miles (130 km) of New Jersey coastline during the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916, resulting in 4 deaths and the survival of one youth who requires limb amputation. This event is the inspiration for author Peter Benchley, over half a century later, to write Jaws.
  • July 2Battle of Erzincan: Russian forces defeat troops of the Ottoman Empire in Armenia.
  • July 15 – In Seattle, William Boeing incorporates Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).
  • July 15–19 – WWI: During the Battle of Delville Wood 766 men from the South African Brigade are killed in South Africa's biggest loss during World War I.
  • July 1920 – WWI: Battle of Fromelles: An attack by Australian and British troops is repulsed by the German army with heavy casualties.
  • July 22 – In San Francisco, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade, killing 10 injuring 40 (Warren Billings and Tom Mooney are later wrongly convicted of it).
  • July 26 – WWI: East African Campaign – The German armed ship SMS Graf von Goetzen scuttles herself on Lake Tanganyika.
  • July 29 – In Ontario, Canada, a lightning strike ignites a forest fire that destroys the towns of Cochrane and Matheson, killing 233.
  • July 30 – German agents cause the Black Tom explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey, an act of sabotage destroying an ammunition depot and killing at least 7 people.


  • c. August – Robert Baden-Powell publishes The Wolf Cub's Handbook in the U.K., establishing the basis of the junior section of the Scouting movement, the Wolf Cubs (modern-day Cub Scouts).
  • August 35 – WWI: Sinai and Palestine Campaign: Battle of Romani: British Imperial troops secure victory over a joint Ottoman-German force.
  • August 7 – WWI: Portugal joins the Allies.
  • August 9Lassen Volcanic National Park is established in California.
  • August 16Migratory Bird Treaty between Canada and the United States signed.
  • August 21Peru declares neutrality.
  • August 25 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs legislation creating the National Park Service.
  • August 27 – WWI: The Kingdom of Romania declares war on the Central Powers, entering the war on the side of the Allies.
  • August 28 – WWI:
    • Germany declares war on Romania.
    • Italy declares war on Germany.
  • August 29 – The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act.
  • August 30 – The crew of the Endurance is rescued from Elephant Island.


  • September 1Bulgaria declares war on Romania, going on to take Dobruja.
  • September 2 – WWI: British pilot Leefe Robinson becomes the first to shoot down a German airship over Britain.
  • September 4 – WWI: East African CampaignDar es Salaam surrenders to British Empire forces, securing them control of the Central Line of railway through German East Africa.
  • September 5 – Release of D. W. Griffith's film Intolerance: Love's Struggle Through the Ages in the United States.
  • September 11 – A mechanical failure causes the central span of the Quebec Bridge, a cantilever-type structure, to crash into the Saint Lawrence River for the second time, killing 13 workers.
  • September 13Mary, a circus elephant, is hanged in the town of Erwin, Tennessee for killing her handler, Walter "Red" Eldridge.
  • September 1522 – WWI: Battle of Flers–Courcelette in France: British advance. The battle is significant for the first use of the tank in warfare; also for the debut of the Canadian and New Zealand Divisions in the Battle of the Somme.
  • September 19 – WWI: East African Campaign – Belgian troops occupy Tabora in German East Africa.
  • September 27Iyasu V of Ethiopia is deposed in a palace coup, in favour of his aunt Zewditu.


File:New Zealand trench Flers September 1916.jpg

Troops from New Zealand during WWI.

  • October 7Georgia Tech and Cumberland College football game ends in a score of 222-0
  • October 12Hipólito Yrigoyen is elected President of Argentina.
  • October 14Perm State University is founded in Russia.
  • October 16Margaret Sanger opens the first U.S. birth control clinic - a forerunner of Planned Parenthood.
  • October 21Friedrich Adler shoots Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria.
  • October 27Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael of Wollo, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasu V, is defeated by Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zewditu.


  • November 1
    • Pavel Milyukov delivers his "stupidity or treason" speech in the Russian State Duma, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.
    • The first 40-hour work week officially begins in the Endicott-Johnson factories of Western New York.
  • November 5
    • The Kingdom of Poland (1916–18) is proclaimed by a joint act of the emperors of Germany and Austria.
    • Everett massacre: An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World results in seven deaths.
    • Honan Chapel, Cork, Ireland, a product of the Irish Arts and Crafts movement (1894–1925), is dedicated.
  • November 7
    • U.S. presidential election, 1916: Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles E. Hughes.
    • Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.
    • Radio station 2XG, located in the Highbridge section of New York City, makes the first audio broadcast of presidential election returns.
  • November 13Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes is expelled from the Labor Party over his support for conscription.
  • November 18 – WWI: Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle, which started on July 1.
  • November 21
    • Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria dies of pneumonia at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, aged 86, after a reign of 68 years and is succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I.
    • WWI: Hospital ship HMHS Britannic, designed as the third Template:Sclass- for White Star Line, sinks in the Kea Channel of the Aegean Sea after hitting a mine. 30 lives are lost. At 48,158 gross register tons, she is the largest ship lost during the war.
  • November 22 – Writer Jack London dies of kidney failure at his California home aged 40.
  • November 23 – WWI: Eastern FrontBucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.


  • December 12 – In the Dolomites, 100 avalanches bury 18,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers.
  • December 18 – WWI: The Battle of Verdun ends in France with German troops defeated.
  • December 21 – WWI: El Arish occupied by the British Empire Desert Column during advance across the Sinai Peninsula.
  • December 22 – The British Sopwith Camel aircraft makes its maiden flight. It is designed to counter the German Fokker aircraft.
  • December 23 – WWI: The Desert Column captures the Ottoman garrison during the Battle of Magdhaba.
  • December 30
    • Humberto Gómez and his mercenaries seize Arauca in Colombia and declare the Republic of Arauca. He proceeds to pillage the region before fleeing to Venezuela.
    • (December 17 Old Style) – The mystic Grigori Rasputin is murdered in Saint Petersburg.
  • December 31 – The Hampton Terrace Hotel in North Augusta, South Carolina, one of the largest and most luxurious hotels in the United States at the time, burns to the ground.

Date unknown[]

  • Food is rationed in Germany.
  • Ferdinand de Saussure's Cours de linguistique générale is collected posthumously and published.
  • Oxycodone, a narcotic painkiller closely related to codeine is first synthesized in Germany.
  • Ernst Rüdin publishes his initial results on the genetics of schizophrenia.
  • Louis Enricht claims he has a substitute for gasoline.
  • Rodeo's first side-delivery bucking chute is designed and made by the Bascom boys (Raymond, Mel, Earl) and their father John W. Bascom at Welling, Alberta Canada.
  • Gustav Holst composes The Planets, Opus 32.
  • Bray Studios begins the Farmer Al Falfa series, the first of the Terrytoons.
  • The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers is founded in the United States as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers.
  • The 1916 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, are cancelled.

In fiction[]

  • In the 1941 film Citizen Kane, Charles Foster Kane runs for New York governor and loses. Also in 1916, Emily Monroe Norton divorces him and, in either this year or in 1917, he marries Susan Alexander.



File:Elena Ceausescu portrait.jpg

Elena Ceaușescu

File:PW Botha 1962.jpg

P. W. Botha

File:Rafael Caldera 1969.jpg

Rafael Caldera

  • January 3
    • Maxene Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (d. 1995)
    • Betty Furness, American actress and consumer activist (d. 1994)
    • Bernard Greenhouse, American cellist (d. 2011)
    • Warren King, American cartoonist (d. 1978)
  • January 7
    • Elena Ceaușescu, wife of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu and Deputy Prime Minister and First Lady of Romania (d. 1989)
    • Paul Keres, Estonian chess player (d. 1975)
  • January 9Peter Twinn, English mathematician and WWII code-breaker (d. 2004)
  • January 10Sune Bergström, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
  • January 12
    • Pieter Willem Botha, President of South Africa (d. 2006)
    • Mary Wilson, Lady Wilson of Rievaulx, English poet
  • January 17Peter Frelinghuysen Jr., American politician (d. 2011)
  • January 18Silviu Brucan, Romanian author and politician (d. 2006)
  • January 19Harry Huskey, American computer designer
  • January 22Henri Dutilleux, French composer (d. 2013)
  • January 23David Douglas Duncan, American photojournalist
  • January 24
    • Rafael Caldera, President of Venezuela (d. 2009)
    • Marvin Creamer, American sailor
    • Arnoldo Foà, Italian actor (d. 2014)
  • January 27Stjepan Filipović, a People's Hero of Yugoslavia (d.1942)
  • January 28Dottie Hunter, Canadian baseball player (d. 2005)


File:Dinah Shore in Till the Clouds Roll By cropped.jpg

Dinah Shore

  • February 9Tex Hughson, American baseball player (d. 1993)
  • February 10Louis Guttman, American-born Israeli university professor (d. 1987)
  • February 11Ivan Hristov Bashev, Bulgarian Foreign Minister (d. 1971)
  • February 12Joseph Alioto, Mayor of San Francisco (d. 1998)
  • February 13John Reed, British actor and opera singer (d. 2010)
  • February 14
    • Marcel Bigeard, French military officer (d. 2010)
    • Sally Gray, English actress (d. 2006)
    • Denham Harman, American gerontologist (d. 2014)
    • Charles Wycliffe Joiner, American judge
    • Masaki Kobayashi, Japanese film director (d. 1996)
  • February 15
    • Ernest Millington, English politician (d. 2009)
    • Mary Jane Croft, American actress (d. 1999)
  • February 18Maria Altmann, Austrian Holocaust survivor and heiress (d. 2011)
  • February 20Jean Erdman, American dancer
  • February 23Retta Scott, first woman to receive screen credit as an animator at the Walt Disney Animation Studios (d. 1990)
  • February 26
    • Jackie Gleason, American comedian, actor and musician (d. 1987)
    • Preacher Roe, American baseball player (d. 2008)
  • February 28
    • Svend Asmussen, Danish jazz violinist
    • Cesar Climaco, Filipino politician (d. 1984)
  • February 29Dinah Shore, American singer (d. 1994)


File:Harold Wilson Number 10 official.jpg

Harold Wilson

  • March 1Emelyn Whiton, American Olympic sailor (d. 1962)
  • March 3Paul Halmos, Hungarian-born mathematician (d. 2006)
  • March 4
    • William Alland, American actor, producer, writer and director (d. 1997)
    • Giorgio Bassani, Italian writer (d. 2000)
    • Hans Eysenck, German-born psychologist (d. 1997)
  • March 5Jack Hamm, American cartoonist (d. 1996)
  • March 11Harold Wilson, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1995)
  • March 13
    • Lindy Boggs, American politician (d. 2013)
    • Jacque Fresco, American futurist and designer
    • John Aspinwall Roosevelt, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1981)
    • Robert O. Peterson, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1994)
  • March 14Horton Foote, American writer (d. 2009)
  • March 15
    • Frank Coghlan Jr., American actor (d. 2009)
    • Harry James, American musician and band leader (d. 1983)
  • March 16
  • March 17Volodia Teitelboim, Chilean author and politician (d. 2008)
  • March 19Irving Wallace, American novelist (d. 1990)
  • March 20Pierre Messmer, French politician (d. 2007)
  • March 24Donald Hamilton, Swedish-born writer (d. 2006)
  • March 26
    • Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)
    • Harry Rabinowitz, British film composer and conductor (d. 2016)
  • March 29
    • Peter Geach, British philosopher (d. 2013)
    • Eugene McCarthy, U.S. Senator from Minnesota and Presidential candidate (d. 2005)
  • March 31Lucille Bliss, American voice actor (d. 2012)


File:Gregory Peck 1948.jpg

Gregory Peck

File:Yehudi Menuhin 1976.jpg

Yehudi Menuhin

File:Ferruccio Lamborghini.jpg

Ferruccio Lamborghini

  • April 2Menachem Porush, member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2010)
  • April 3
    • Herb Caen, American journalist (d. 1997)
    • Peter Gowland, American photographer (d. 2010)
  • April 5
    • Albert Henry Ottenweller, American bishop (d. 2012)
    • Gregory Peck, American actor (d. 2003)
  • April 10Lee Jung-seob, Korean oil painter (d. 1956)
  • April 11Alberto Ginastera, Argentine composer (d. 1983)
  • April 12
    • Beverly Cleary, American author
    • Benjamin Libet, American pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness (d. 2007)
    • Movita Castaneda, American actress (d. 2015)
  • April 13Phyllis Fraser, American actor and publisher (d. 2006)
  • April 15
    • Alfred S. Bloomingdale, American department store heir (d. 1982)
    • Helene Hanff, American writer and critic (d. 1997)
  • April 17
    • Sirimavo Bandaranaike, Sri Lankan politician (d. 2000)
    • A. Thiagarajah, Sri Lankan Tamil teacher and politician (d. 1981)
  • April 18José Joaquín Trejos Fernández, President of Costa Rica (d. 2010)
  • April 22Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
  • April 24
    • Stanley Kauffmann, American film critic (d. 2013)
    • Lou Thesz, American professional wrestler (d. 2002)
  • April 25R. J. Rushdoony, American founder of Christian Reconstructionism (d. 2001)
  • April 26
    • Dorothy Salisbury Davis, American writer (d. 2014)
    • Vic Perrin, American voice actor (d. 1989)
    • George Tuska, American comic strip artist (d. 2009)
  • April 28Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer (d. 1993)
  • April 29Ramón Amaya Amador, Honduran author (d.1966)
  • April 30
    • Claude Elwood Shannon, American information theorist (d. 2001)
    • Robert Shaw, American conductor (d. 1999)


File:Glenn Ford - 1955.jpg

Glenn Ford

  • May 1Glenn Ford, Canadian actor (d. 2006)
  • May 4Jane Jacobs, née Butzner, American-born urban activist (d. 2006)
  • May 5Zail Singh, Indian politician and 7th President of India (d. 1994)
  • May 6
    • Robert H. Dicke, American experimental physicist (d. 1997)
    • Sif Ruud, Swedish actress (d. 2011)
  • May 8
    • Chinmayananda, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1993)
    • João Havelange, Brazilian industrialist and football league president (d. 2016)
  • May 10Milton Babbitt, American composer (d. 2011)
  • May 11Camilo José Cela, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
  • May 14Sammy Luftspring, Canadian boxer (d. 2000)
  • May 15Vera Gebuhr, Danish actress (d. 2014)
  • May 16Ephraim Katzir, 4th President of Israel (d. 2009)
  • May 17Lenka Reinerová, Czech writer (d. 2008)
  • May 20
    • Owen Chadwick, British author and historian (d. 2015)
    • Trebisonda Valla, Italian athlete (d. 2006)
  • May 21
    • Lydia Mendoza, American musician (d. 2007)
    • Tinus Osendarp, Dutch runner (d. 2002)
    • Harold Robbins, American novelist (d. 1997)
  • May 26
    • Halil İnalcık, Turkish historian (d. 2016)
    • Henriette Roosenburg, Dutch journalist (d. 1972)
  • May 31
    • Bert Haanstra, Dutch filmmaker (d. 1997)
    • Bernard Lewis, British historian


File:Studio publicity Dorothy McGuire.jpg

Dorothy McGuire


File:Olivia DeHavilland-2.JPG

Olivia de Havilland


Edward Heath


Gough Whitlam

File:Sandra Gould 1966.JPG

Sandra Gould

  • July 1
    • Lawrence Halprin, American architect (d. 2009)
    • Olivia de Havilland, British-born American actress
  • July 2
    • Zélia Gattai, Brazilian author and photographer (d. 2008)
    • Hans-Ulrich Rudel, German pilot (d. 1982)
    • Ken Curtis, American motion picture and television actor and singer (d. 1991)
  • July 3John Kundla, American basketball coach
  • July 4
    • Iva Toguri D'Aquino ("Tokyo Rose") (d. 2006)
    • Fernand Leduc, Canadian painter (d. 2014)
  • July 6Harold Norse, American writer (d. 2009)
  • July 8Jean Rouverol, American actress, screenwriter, and author
  • July 9Edward Heath, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 2005)
  • July 11
    • Mortimer Caplin, American lawyer and educator
    • Hans Maier, Dutch water polo player
    • Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, Russian physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2002)
    • Reg Varney, British actor (d. 2008)
    • Gough Whitlam, 21st Prime Minister of Australia (d. 2014)
  • July 14Natalia Ginzburg, Italian author (d. 1991)
  • July 18L. Patrick Gray III, American Federal Bureau of Investigation director (d. 2005)
  • July 19Phil Cavarretta, baseball player (d. 2010)
  • July 22
    • William A. Culpepper, American judge (d. 2015)
    • Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (d. 1949)
  • July 23Sandra Gould, American actress (d. 1999)
  • July 25Fred Lasswell, American cartoonist (d. 2001)
  • July 27Elizabeth Hardwick, American literary critic and novelist (d. 2007)
  • July 28David Brown, American producer (d. 2010)
  • July 30Dick Wilson, American actor (d. 2007)
  • July 31
    • Bill Todman, American game show producer (d. 1979)
    • Ignacio Trelles, Mexican football player and coach


File:Van Johnson 1972.JPG

Van Johnson

  • August 1Fiorenzo Angelini, Italian Cardinal (d. 2014)
  • August 5Kermit Love, American puppeteer (d. 2008)
  • August 6Dom Mintoff, Prime Minister of Malta (d. 2012)
  • August 14Ralph de Toledano, American conservationist and author (d. 2007)
  • August 16Iggy Katona, American race car driver (d. 2003)
  • August 18Neagu Djuvara, Romanian historian, essayist, and diplomat
  • August 20Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian chess player (d. 1984)
  • August 21
    • Frank O. Braynard, American maritime writer and historian (d. 2007)
    • Geoffrey Keen, English actor (d. 2005)
    • Consuelo Velázquez, Mexican songwriter (d. 2005)
  • August 24Hal Smith, American actor (d. 1994)
  • August 25
  • August 27
    • Martha Raye, American actress (d. 1994)
    • Larry Thor, Canadian actor (d. 1976)
  • August 28Jack Vance, American writer (d. 2013)
  • August 29Luther Davis, American screenwriter (d. 2008)
  • August 30Shag Crawford, American baseball umpire (d. 2007)
  • August 31
    • Daniel Schorr, American journalist (d. 2010)
    • John S. Wold, American politician


File:Roald Dahl.jpg

Roald Dahl

File:Aldo Moro headshot.jpg

Aldo Moro


File:Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург.jpg

Vitaly Ginzburg

File:Reagan Mitterrand 1984 (cropped).jpg

François Mitterrand



Walter Cronkite

  • November 4Walter Cronkite, American television journalist (d. 2009)
  • November 5Jim Tabor, American baseball player (d. 1953)
  • November 10Louis le Brocquy, Irish painter (d. 2012)
  • November 11Robert Carr, English politician (d. 2012)
  • November 12Rogelio de la Rosa, Filipino actor and politician (d. 1986)
  • November 14Sherwood Schwartz, American television writer and producer (d. 2011)
  • November 15Bill Melendez, American animator (d. 2008)
  • November 16Daws Butler, American voice actor (d. 1988)
  • November 17Shelby Foote, American historian and novelist, author of The Civil War: A Narrative (d. 2005)
  • November 23
    • Michael Gough, Malayan-born English actor (d. 2011)
    • P. K. Page, Canadian poet (d. 2010)
  • November 24Forrest J Ackerman, American writer (d. 2008)
  • November 26Gerhard Unger, German tenor (d. 2011)
  • November 27Chick Hearn, American basketball announcer (d. 2002)
  • November 28
    • Lilian, Princess of Réthy, born Mary Lilian Baels, English-born Belgian queen consort of Leopold III (d. 2002)
    • Ramón José Velásquez, President of Venezuela (d. 2014)
  • November 29Fran Ryan, American actress (d. 2000)
  • November 30John C. Harkness, American architect


File:Kirk Douglas (2011).jpg

Kirk Douglas

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Betty Grable



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Victoriano Huerta

  • January 5Ulpiano Checa, Spanish painter, sculptor and illustrator (b. 1860)
  • January 8Rembrandt Bugatti, Italian sculptor (b. 1884)
  • January 9Ada Rehan, Irish-American Shakespearean actress (b. 1859)
  • January 11Takashima Tomonosuke, Japanese general (b. 1844)
  • January 13Victoriano Huerta, Mexican general and statesman, 35th President of Mexico (b. 1854)
  • January 17Arthur V. Johnson, American actor and director (b. 1876)


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Ernst Mach



Franz Marc

  • March 4Franz Marc, German Expressionist painter (killed in battle) (b. 1880)
  • March 11Florence Baker, Hungarian-born explorer (b. 1841)
  • March 20Ota Benga, Congolese pygmy brought to America as part of an exhibition at the Bronx zoo (b. ca. 1883)
  • March 24Enrique Granados, Spanish composer (ship sinking) (b. 1867)
  • March 25Ishi, last known member of the Yana people (b. ca. 1860)



Karl Schwarzschild

  • April 11Richard Harding Davis, American journalist and author (b. 1864)
  • April 19Ephraim Shay, American inventor (b. 1839)
  • April 21John Surratt, suspected of involvement in the Abraham Lincoln assassination, son of Mary Surratt (d. 1844)


  • May 3Padraig Pearse, Irish nationalist (executed) (b. 1879)
  • May 11
    • Max Reger, German modernist composer (b. 1873)
    • Karl Schwarzschild, German physicist (b. 1873)
  • May 12James Connolly, Irish socialist (executed) (b. 1868)
  • May 13Sholem Aleichem, Ukrainian Yiddish writer (b. 1859)
  • May 19Georges Boillot, French Grand Prix driver (killed in battle) (b. 1884)
  • May 21Artúr Görgei, Hungarian military general and politician (b. 1818)
  • May 27Joseph Gallieni, French general (b. 1849)
  • May 31Horace Hood, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1870)


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Yuan Shikai

  • June 5Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, British field marshal and statesman (drowned) (b. 1850)
  • June 6Yuan Shikai, Chinese military official and politician, president of the Republic (b. 1859)
  • June 7Émile Faguet, French writer and critic (b. 1847)
  • June 9Richard C. Saufley, American naval aviation pioneer (b. 1884)
  • June 12Silvanus P. Thompson, English professor of physics, electrical engineer, member of the Royal Society and author (b. 1851)
  • June 18
    • Max Immelmann, German fighter ace (killed in battle) (b. 1890)
    • Helmuth von Moltke, German general (b. 1848)
  • June 24Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1890)
  • June 25Thomas Eakins, American realist painter (b. 1844)
  • June 29Georges Lacombe, French painter (b. 1868)


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William Ramsay

  • July 6Odilon Redon, French painter (b. 1840)
  • July 16Élie Metchnikoff, Russian microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1845)
  • July 20Reinhard Sorge, German dramatist and poet (killed in battle) (b. 1892)
  • July 22James Whitcomb Riley, American poet (b. 1849)
  • July 23 – Sir William Ramsay, Scottish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
  • July 27Charles Fryatt, English mariner (executed) (b. 1872)
  • July 29Claude Charles Castleton, Australian VC recipient (killed in battle) (b. 1893)



Umberto Boccioni

  • August 3Roger Casement, Irish nationalist (executed) (b. 1864)
  • August 5George Butterworth, English composer (b. 1885)
  • August 8Kamimura Hikonojō, Japanese admiral (b. 1849)
  • August 10Henry Moseley, English physicist and chemist (killed in battle) (b. 1887)
  • August 17Umberto Boccioni, Italian painter and sculptor (b. 1882)
  • August 31Martha McClellan Brown, American activist (b. 1838)


  • September 8Friedrich Baumfelder, German composer, conductor, and pianist (b. 1836)
  • September 14José Echegaray y Eizaguirre, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1832)



King Otto of Bavaria

  • October 10Antonio Sant'Elia, Italian architect (killed in battle) (b. 1888)
  • October 11 – King Otto of Bavaria (b. 1848)
  • October 12Tony Jannus, American aviator and aircraft designer (b. 1889)
  • October 18Ignacio Pinazo, Spanish painter (b. 1849)
  • October 21Karl von Stürgkh, Prime Minister of Austria (b. 1859)
  • October 25Gérard Encausse, Papus, French occultist (b. 1865)
  • October 28
    • Oswald Boelcke, German World War I fighter ace, (b. 1891)
    • Cleveland Abbe, American meteorologist (b. 1838)
  • October 29John Sebastian Little, American politician and congressman (b. 1851)
  • October 31Charles Taze Russell, Protestant evangelist, forerunner of Jehovah's Witnesses (b. 1852)


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Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria

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Jack London

  • November 1 – Prince Franz Anton von Thun und Hohenstein, Austrian noble and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1847)
  • November 9Ion Dragalina, Romanian general (killed in battle) (b. 1860)
  • November 10Walter Sutton, geneticist and physician (b. 1877)
  • November 12Percival Lowell, American astronomer (b. 1855)
  • November 14
    • Henry George, Jr., American politician (b. 1862)
    • Franklin Ware Mann, American inventor (b. 1856)
    • Saki, British writer (b. 1870)
  • November 15Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1846)
  • November 21 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria (b. 1830)
  • November 22Jack London, American author (b. 1876)
  • November 23Lanoe Hawker VC, British World War I fighter ace, killed in action by Manfred von Richthofen (b. 1890)
  • November 24Hiram Stevens Maxim, American firearms inventor (b. 1840)
  • November 27Emile Verhaeren, Belgian poet (b. 1855)
  • November 28Martinus Theunis Steyn, Boer lawyer, politician, and statesman, sixth and last President of the Orange Free State (1896-1902) (b. 1857)


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Saint Albert Chmielowski

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Grigori Rasputin

  • December 5Hans Richter, Austrian–Hungarian conductor (b. 1843)
  • December 8John Porter Merrell, American admiral (b. 1846)
  • December 9Natsume Sōseki, Japanese writer (b. 1867)
  • December 10Ōyama Iwao, Japanese field marshal and a founder of the Imperial Japanese Army (b. 1842)
  • December 16
    • Friedrich Ernst Dorn, German physicist (b. 1848)
    • Ognjeslav Stepanović, Serbian inventor (b. 1851)
  • December 25Albert Chmielowski, Polish Catholic saint (b. 1845)
  • December 28Eduard Strauss, Austrian composer (b. 1835)
  • December 30 (December 17 OS) – Grigori Rasputin, Russian mystic (killed) (b. 1869)

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. Bailey, Peter (December 15, 2005). "Torpedoed on the crossing to Dieppe". Sussex Express. Lewes. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
  2. The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. p. 483. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
  3. "Woodrow Wilson". June 15, 1916. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  4. Sheffield, Gary (2003). The Somme. Cassell. p. 68. ISBN 0-304-36649-8.

Further reading[]

  • Early Advertising Publications: "Fishing for Suckers" From the American Memory Collection of the Library of Congress