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1914 (Script error: No such module "Roman".) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the , the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the , and the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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This year saw the beginning of what became known as World War I and also saw the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft with the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.

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Events

January

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  • January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Tony Jannus (the first federally-licensed pilot) conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV flying boat. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger and over 3,000 people witness the first departure.
  • January 5Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a daily wage of $5.
  • January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University in Washington, D.C.
  • January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flows cause the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula.

February

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  • February 2Charlie Chaplin makes his film début in the comedy short Making a Living.
  • February 7 – Release of Charlie Chaplin's second film, the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice, in which his character of The Tramp is introduced to audiences (although first filmed in Mabel's Strange Predicament, released two days later).[1][2][3]
  • February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France 5–4 in a friendly match, for the first and only time in football history.
  • February 10 – Release of the film Hearts Adrift; the name of Mary Pickford, the star, is displayed above the title on movie marquees.
  • February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
  • February 13Copyright: In New York City the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
  • February 17Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by the public official Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld.
  • February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the Template:RMS, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast.
  • February 28Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus proclaimed by ethnic Greeks in Northern Epirus.

March

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  • March 1 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • March 6 – Founding of FK Vojvodina football club in Novi Sad (Serbia).
  • March 7Prince William of Wied arrives in Albania to begin his reign.
  • March 8 – First transfer of aircraft to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base.
  • March 10Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez' painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery with a meat chopper.
  • March 16Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved during his first marriage. (She is acquitted on July 28).
  • March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York.[4]
  • March 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants.
  • March 29Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island to make the first true study of it (they depart August 1915).

April

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  • April 4September 27Komagata Maru incident: Voyage of the Komagata Maru from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants the boat is not allowed to dock in Vancouver and is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers.
  • April 9Tampico Affair, involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico.
  • April 11
    • Canadian Margaret C. MacDonald is appointed Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Nursing service band and becomes the first woman in the British Empire to reach the rank of major.
    • Alpha Rho Chi, a professional architecture fraternity, is founded in the Hotel Sherman in Chicago.
  • April 1418 – First International Criminal Police Congress held in Monaco. 24 countries are represented including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas; the Dean of the Paris Law School is president.
  • April 20
    • Ludlow Massacre (Colorado Coalfield War): The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado in the United States, killing 24 people.
    • President Woodrow Wilson asks the United States Congress to use military force in Mexico in reaction to the Tampico Affair.
  • April 21United States occupation of Veracruz: 2,300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over 6 months. The Ypiranga incident occurs when they attempt to enforce an arms embargo against Mexico by preventing the German cargo steamer Template:SS from unloading arms for the Mexican government in the port.
  • April 22 – Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the United States for the time being.

May

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  • May 1November 1Exposition Internationale held at Lyon (France).
  • May 5November 11Jubilee Exhibition (Jubilæumsutstillingen) held at Kristiania (Norway) to mark the centennial of the country's Constitution.
  • May 9J. T. Hearne becomes the first bowler to take 3,000 first-class wickets.
  • May 14Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
  • May 17Protocol of Corfu provides for the provinces of Korçë and Gjirokastër, constituting Northern Epirus, to be granted autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Albania.
  • May 25 – The United Kingdom's House of Commons passes Irish Home Rule.
  • May 29 – The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.
  • May 30 – The ocean liner Template:RMS makes her maiden voyage.

June

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  • June 1Woodrow Wilson's envoy Edward Mandell House meets with Kaiser Wilhelm II.
  • June 8 – The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day.
  • June 9Pittsburgh Pirate Honus Wagner becomes the first baseball player in the 20th century with 3000 career hits.
  • June 12Greek genocide: Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops.[5]
  • June 18Mexican Revolution: The Constitutionals take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender.
  • June 23 – After it had been closed so that it could be deepened, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal is reopened by the Kaiser; the British Fleet under Sir George Warrender visits; the Kaiser inspects the Dreadnought HMS King George V.
  • June 24 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, a downtown fire causes $400,000 damage and injures 19 firemen.
File:Gavrilo Princip captured in Sarajevo 1914.jpg

This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some[6][7] believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.

  • June 28Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: 19-year-old Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, triggering the July Crisis and World War I.
  • June 29
    • Austria-Hungary: The Secretary of the Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots erupt in Sarajevo and throughout Bosnia generally.
    • Khioniya Guseva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his home town in Siberia.
    • International Exhibition opens at the "White City", Ashton Gate, Bristol (England). It closes on August 15 and the site is used as a military depot.[8]
  • June 30 – Among those addressing the Parliament of the United Kingdom on the murdered Archduke are Lords Crewe and Lansdowne in the House of Lords and Messrs Asquith and Law in the Commons.

July

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File:Central temple.JPG

The central temple of the Iglesia ni Cristo

  • July 2 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
  • July 4
    • The Archduke's funeral takes place at Artstetten Castle (50 miles west of Vienna), Austria-Hungary.
    • Lexington Avenue bombing: 4 people are killed in New York City when an anarchist bomb intended to kill John D. Rockefeller explodes prematurely in the plotters' apartment.
  • July 5 – A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria-Hungary and Germany meet to discuss possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France.
  • July 7Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief; the Council lasts from 11.30 a.m. to 6.15 p.m.
  • July 9 – The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of Austro-Hungarian investigation into the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. The Times publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians (who are described as "pestilent rats").
  • July 10Nicholas Hartwig, Russian Minister to Serbia, dies suddenly while visiting Austrian minister Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen at the Austrian Legation in Belgrade.
  • July 11
    • Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.
    • Template:Ship, the United States Navy's first "super-dreadnought" battleship, is launched.
    • Over 5,000 attend a rally in Union Square, Manhattan, called by the Anti-Militarist League to commemorate the anarchists killed in the July 4 Lexington Avenue bombing.[9]
  • July 12Supreme Court of the United States justice Horace H. Lurton succumbs to a heart attack at age 70.
  • July 13 – Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.
  • July 14 – The Government of Ireland Bill completes its passage through the House of Lords of the U.K. It allows Ulster counties to vote on whether or not they wish to participate in Home Rule from Dublin.
  • July 15Mexican Revolution: Victoriano Huerta resigns the presidency of Mexico and leaves for Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.
  • July 18
    • The Signal Corps of the United States Army is formed, giving definite status to its air service for the first time.
    • British Fleet review at Spithead by George V.
    • Gandhi leaves South Africa for the last time, sailing out of Cape Town for England on board the SS Kinfauns Castle.
  • July 19George V summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem. This meets from July 21 to 24 without reaching consensus.
  • July 23July Ultimatum: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.
  • July 25 – Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia and begins to mobilize its own forces. Radomir Putnik, Chief of the Serbian General Staff, is arrested in Budapest but subsequently allowed to return to Serbia.
  • July 26King's Own Scottish Borderers of the British Army fire on Dubliners on Bachelor's Walk, killing 3 and injuring 38.
  • July 27 – Brother Felix Ysagun Manalo registers the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) with the government of the Philippines.
File:Map Europe alliances 1914-en.svg

Map of European alliances in 1914

  • July 28
    • World War I: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia by telegram and its army bombards Belgrade. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary.
    • Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux is acquitted of murder by reason of crime passionnel.
  • July 28August 10 – World War I: Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau: British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.
  • July 29 – In Massachusetts, the new Cape Cod Canal opens; it shortens the trip between New York and Boston by 66 miles, but also turns Cape Cod into an island.
  • July 30 – Austrian artillery bombards Belgrade, capital of Serbia.
  • July 31
    • Russia orders full mobilization.
    • French antimilitarist socialist leader Jean Jaurès is assassinated by a nationalist in Paris.

August

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File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1994-022-19A, Mobilmachung, Truppentransport mit der Bahn.jpg

Mobilization in Germany.

  • August 1
    • The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilization.
    • France orders general mobilization.
    • New York Stock Exchange closed due to war in Europe, where nearly all stock exchanges are already closed.
    • Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica.
  • August 2
    • German troops occupy Luxembourg in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan.
    • A secret treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Germany secures Ottoman neutrality.
    • At 7:00 pm (local time) Germany issues a 12-hour ultimatum to neutral Belgium to allow German passage into France.
  • August 3
    • Germany declares war on Russia's ally, France.
    • At 7:00 am (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2.
  • August 4
    • German troops invade Belgium at 8:02 am (local time). Declaration of war by the United Kingdom on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality. This effectively means a declaration of war by the whole British Empire against the German Empire, beginning World War I from the British perspective. The United States declares neutrality.
    • Imperial German Navy Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon bombards the French Algerian ports of Bône and Philippeville from battlecruiser Template:SMS and light cruiser Template:SMS.[10]
    • Gandhi is in the English Channel (en route from South Africa) when he learns that war has been declared. Later this day he arrives in London.
  • August 5
    • Germany declares war on Belgium.
    • The Kingdom of Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
    • The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer Template:SS which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allied shot of the war.[11]
    • SS Königin Luise, taken over two days earlier by the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer, lays mines Script error: No such module "convert". off the east coast of England. She is intercepted and sunk by the British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Amphion, the first German naval loss of the war. The following day, Amphion strikes mines laid by the Königin Luise and is sunk with some loss of life, the first British casualties of the war.
    • German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège in Belgium, killing 9 civilians.
    • First electric traffic light is installed between Euclid Avenue and East 105 Street, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • August 516Battle of Liège: The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians.
  • August 6 – World War I:
    • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
    • First engagement between ships (light cruisers) of the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy when HMS Bristol pursues the Template:SMS (which escapes) in the West Indies.
  • August 7 – World War I:
    • Battle of Mulhouse: France launches its first attack of the war in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.
    • British colonial troops of the British Gold Coast Regiment entering the German West African colony of Togoland encounter the German-led police force at a factory in Nuatja, near Lomé, and the police open fire on the patrol.[12] Alhaji Grunshi returns fire,[13] the first soldier in British service to fire a shot in the war.[12]
  • August 8
    • German colonial forces execute Martin-Paul Samba for high treason.
    • Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition sets sail on the Endurance from England in an attempt to cross Antarctica.
  • August 9 – World War I: British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Birmingham rams and sinks German submarine U-15 off Fair Isle, the first U-boat lost in action.[14]
  • August 12 – World War I:
    • Battle of Haelen: Belgian troops repulse the Germans.
    • Formal declaration of war by the United Kingdom on Austria-Hungary.
  • August 13Treaties of TeoloyucanTemplate:Es icon are signed in the State of Mexico.
  • August 15
    • The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the Template:SS.
    • Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza's troops under general Álvaro Obregón enter Mexico City.
    • A dismissed servant kills seven people at American architect Frank Lloyd Wright's studio and home, Taliesin in Wisconsin (including his mistress, Mamah Borthwick), and sets it on fire.
  • August 1524 – World War I: Battle of Cer: Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army, marking the first Entente victory of the War.
  • August 16 – World War I:
    • German warships Template:SMS and Template:SMS (both commissioned in 1912), which reached Constantinople on August 10, are transferred to the Ottoman Navy, Goeben becoming its flagship, Yavuz Sultan Selim.
    • Lake Nyasa is the scene of a brief naval battle when Captain Edmund Rhoades, commander of the British steamship SS Gwendolen, hears that World War I has broken out, and he receives orders from the British high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only ship on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt. Rhoades's crew find the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near "Sphinxhaven", in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disables the German vessel with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yd). This very brief engagement is hailed by The Times in England as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I.
  • August 17September 2 – World War I: The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.
  • August 20 – World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • August 22 – World War I: Battle of Rossignol: German forces decisively defeat the French.
  • August 23 – World War I:
    • Battle of Mons: In its first major action, the British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne.
    • Japan declares war on Germany.
  • August 26
    • The German West African colony of Togoland (now Togo from 1960) surrenders to Britain and France.
    • Battle of Río de Oro: British Royal Navy protected cruiser HMS Highflyer forces the Template:SS, sailing as an auxiliary cruiser, to scuttle.
  • August 2627Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.
  • August 2630 – The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated in the Battle of Tannenberg.
  • August 28Battle of Heligoland Bight: British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.
  • August 2930 – The Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.

September

File:Benedictus XV.jpg

Pope Benedict XV, the new pope

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  • September 1
    • Saint Petersburg in Russia changes its name to Petrograd.
    • The last known passenger pigeon "Martha" dies in the Cincinnati Zoo.
  • September 2World War I: The French village of Moronvilliers is occupied by the Germans.
  • September 3
    • Pope Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa) succeeds Pope Pius X as the 258th pope.
    • William, Prince of Albania leaves the country after just six months due to opposition to his rule.
  • September 5World War I:
    • London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, or Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers.
    • First Battle of the Marne begins: Northeast of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Maunoury attacks German forces nearing Paris. Over two million fight (500,000 are killed/wounded) in the Allied victory. A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
    • British Royal Navy scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder is sunk by German submarine U-21 in the Firth of Forth (Scotland), the first ship ever to be sunk by a locomotive torpedo fired from a submarine.
  • September 7 – World War I: Turkey declares war on Belgium.
  • September 8 – World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the War.
  • September 13 – World War I:
    • Conclusion of Battle of Grand Couronné ends the Battle of the Frontiers with the north-east segment of the Western Front stabilizing.
    • South African troops open hostilities in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station.
  • September 15Maritz Rebellion of disaffected Boers against the government of the Union of South Africa begins.
  • September 17
    • World War I: Beginning of the Race to the Sea by opposing forces on the Western Front.
    • Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.
  • September 21 – World War I: British Imperial police forces capture Schuckmannsburg in the Caprivi Strip of German South-West Africa.
  • September 22 – World War I: Action of 22 September 1914: German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, Template:HMS, Template:HMS and Template:HMS, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.
  • September 25 – The Battle of Albert begins.
  • September 26 – The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
  • September 28 – The First Battle of the Aisne ends indecisively.
  • September 30 – The Flying Squadron of America is established to promote the temperance movement.

October

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  • October 3 – World War I: 25,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe.
  • October 4 (00:07)
    • 1914 Burdur earthquake in Turkey.
    • The Manifesto of the Ninety-Three is signed supporting the early German war effort.
  • October 9 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.
  • October 14 – World War I: The Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives on 32 ocean liners in Plymouth Sound.
  • October 1631 – World War I: Battle of the Yser: The Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses.
  • October 19 – World War I:
    • First Battle of Ypres begins.
    • Effective end of the Race to the Sea, with the Western Front reaching the Belgian coast.
  • October 27
    • World War I: The British super-dreadnought battleship Template:HMS (23,400 tons), is sunk off Tory Island, north-west of Ireland, by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin.
    • The Greek army occupies Northern Epirus with the approval of the Allies.
  • October 28
    • World War I: Battle of Penang, Malaya: The German cruiser Emden sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer before escaping.
    • Sentencing of participants in the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, being under 20 at the date of the assassination, cannot be given a death sentence and is given twenty years imprisonment.
  • October 29 – World War I: Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1–November 5.[15]
  • October 31 – World War I: Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.

November

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  • November 1 – World War I: Battle of Coronel: A Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met in the eastern Pacific and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee, in the first British naval defeat of the war, resulting in the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
  • November 5
    • World War I
      • Britain and France declare war on Turkey.[15] The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, which it controls until 1960.
      • The Battle of Tanga ends with the British Indian Expeditionary Force B failing to capture German East Africa defences.
    • Alpha Phi Delta is founded as a Greek social fraternity at Syracuse University in the United States.
  • November 7Siege of Tsingtao: The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron.
  • November 9 – World War I: Battle of Cocos: The German cruiser Emden is sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney.
  • November 16 – A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business.
  • November 21 – In New Haven, Connecticut the new Yale Bowl officially opens; Harvard defeats Yale 36-0 in the first football game held here.
  • November 23 – U.S. troops withdraw from Veracruz. Venustiano Carranza's troops take over and Carranza makes the town his headquarters.
  • November 24Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party.
  • November 28World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.

December

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  • December 2Serbian Campaign (World War I): Austro-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia.
  • December 8 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands: A superior British Royal Navy squadron under Doveton Sturdee defeats ships of the Imperial German Navy under Maximilian von Spee.
  • December 12 – The New York Stock Exchange re-opens, having been closed since August 1 except for bond trading.
  • December 15 – A gas explosion at the Mitsubishi Hojyo coal mine, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687 (the worst coal mine disaster in Japanese history).
  • December 16 – World War I: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby: Imperial German Navy battlecruisers attack English North Sea ports, resulting in 137 deaths.
  • December 17 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison).
  • December 18Egypt becomes a British protectorate.[16]
  • December 19
    • Serbian Campaign (World War I): The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.
    • Mohandas Gandhi leaves England sailing for India on this date (accompanied by his wife Kasturba). He begins to learn the Bengali language whilst on board.
  • December 24 – World War I:
    • Unofficial temporary Christmas truce between British and German soldiers on the Western Front begins.
    • German air raid on Dover, England.
  • December 25 – World War I: Cuxhaven Raid: British aircraft launched from warships attack the German port of Cuxhaven with submarine support, although little damage is caused.

Date unknown

  • China declares its neutrality in World War I.
  • The capital of the Guangxi Province of China is moved from Guilin to Nanning.
  • Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine is first developed in Germany.
  • The first everyday items made of stainless steel come into public circulation.
  • Blaise Diagne of Senegal becomes the first black African representative in the French parliament.
  • The Port of Orange, Texas, is dredged for the fabrication of vessels for the United States Navy.
  • The United States Power Squadrons is formed.
  • Phi Sigma, a local undergraduate classical club, is founded by a group of students in the Greek Department at the University of Chicago.
  • Fashion and perfumes company Puig is founded in Barcelona.
  • Woodman's of Essex, the famous family-owned clam shack on Boston's North Shore opened.

Births

January

Template:Double image

  • January 2
    • Kenny Clarke, American jazz musician (d. 1985)
    • Noor Inayat Khan, World War II heroine (d. 1944)
    • Vivian Stuart (aka Alex Stuart, Barbara Allen, Fiona Finlay, V.A. Stuart, William Stuart Long, Robyn Stuart), British writer (d. 1986)
  • January 4
    • Herman Franks, American baseball player (d. 2009)
    • Jean-Pierre Vernant, French historian and anthropologist (d. 2007)
  • January 5George Reeves, American actor (Superman) (d. 1959)
  • January 7Edwin La Dell, British artist (d. 1970)
  • January 12Albrecht von Goertz, German car designer (d. 2006)
  • January 13Ted Willis, British television dramatist and author (d. 1992)
  • January 14Harold Russell, Canadian actor (d. 2002)
  • January 15Hugh Trevor-Roper, English historian (d. 2003)
  • January 17
    • Anacleto Angelini, Italian-born businessman (d. 2007)
    • William Stafford, American poet and pacifist (d. 1993)
  • January 18Arno Schmidt, German author (d. 1979)
  • January 20Roy Plomley, English radio broadcaster, producer, playwright and novelist (d. 1985)
  • January 22Syd Hartley, English professional association football player (d. 1987)
  • January 26 – Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayshe Dürrühsehvar (d. 2006)
  • January 30
    • John Ireland, Canadian-born actor (d. 1992)
    • David Wayne, American actor (d. 1995)
  • January 31
    • Carey Loftin, American actor and stuntman (d. 1997)
    • Daya Mata, President of Self-Realization Fellowship (d. 2010)
    • Jersey Joe Walcott, American boxer (d. 1994)

February

File:Mary Carlisle.jpg

Mary Carlisle

File:Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg

Renato Dulbecco

March

  • March 1
    • Harry Caray, baseball broadcaster (d. 1998)
    • Ralph Ellison, American writer (d. 1994)
  • March 2
    • Mayo Kaan, bodybuilder (d. 2002)
    • Hansi Knoteck, Austrian actress (d. 2014)
    • Martin Ritt, American director (d. 1990)
  • March 3
    • Julio Franco Arango, Colombian Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1980)
    • Asger Jorn, Danish painter (d. 1973)
  • March 4
    • Ward Kimball, American cartoonist (d. 2002)
    • Robert R. Wilson, American physicist, sculptor and architect (d. 2000)
  • March 6Kiril Kondrashin, Russian conductor (d. 1981)
  • March 8Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Russian physicist (d. 1987)
  • March 12Frank Soo, English footballer and manager (d. 1991)
  • March 13
    • Saroj Dutta, Indian communist leader (d. 1971)
    • Edward "Butch" O'Hare, American pilot (d. 1943)
    • Olaf Pooley, English actor and screenwriter (d. 2015)
  • March 14
    • Abdias do Nascimento, Brazilian actor, artist and politician (d. 2011)
    • Bill Owen, English actor (Last of the Summer Wine's 'Compo') (d. 1999)
  • March 17Sammy Baugh, American football player (d. 2008)
  • March 19
    • Jay Berwanger, American football player (d. 2002)
    • Jiang Qing, Chinese politician (d. 1991)
  • March 20Richard Carlyle, American actor (d. 2009)
  • March 25Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2009)
  • March 26William Westmoreland, American Vietnam War general (d. 2005)
  • March 27Budd Schulberg, American screenwriter (d. 2009)
  • March 28Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996)
  • March 30Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948)
  • March 31Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)

April

File:Sir Alec Guinness Allan Warren (2).jpg

Sir Alec Guinness

  • April 2
    • Alec Guinness, English actor (d. 2000)
    • Hans Wegner, Danish furniture designer (d. 2007)
  • April 3Sam Manekshaw, Field Marshal of Indian Army (d. 2008)
  • April 4
    • Richard Coogan, American actor (d. 2014)
    • Marguerite Duras, French author and director (d. 1996)
  • April 8María Félix, Mexican actress (d. 2002)
  • April 11Robert Stanfield, Premier of Nova Scotia (d. 2003)
  • April 12
    • Armen Alchian, American author and economist (d. 2013)
    • Adriaan Blaauw, Dutch astronomer (d. 2010)
    • Jan van Cauwelaert, Belgian bishop (d. 2016)
  • April 13Orhan Veli, Turkish poet (d. 1950)
  • April 18Claire Martin, Canadian author (d. 2014)
  • April 21James Henry Quello, American Federal Communications Commissioner (d. 2010)
  • April 22
    • Baldev Raj Chopra, Indian film director (d. 2008)
    • José Quiñones Gonzales, Peruvian aviator (d. 1941)
    • Jan de Hartog, Dutch writer (d. 2002)
    • Michael Wittmann, German tank commander (d. 1944)
  • April 25Ross Lockridge, Jr., American novelist (d. 1948)
  • April 26
    • Bernard Malamud, American author (d. 1986)
    • Lilian Rolfe, French-born World War II heroine (d. 1945)
  • April 28Michel Mohrt, French author and historian (d. 2011)
  • April 30Dorival Caymmi, Brazilian songwriter (d. 2008)

May

File:Tyrone Power - still.jpg

Tyrone Power

File:Joe Louis by van Vechten.jpg

Joe Louis

  • May 3Martín de Riquer, Spanish writer and Romantic scholar (d. 2013)
  • May 5Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
  • May 8Romain Gary, Russian-born writer and diplomat (d. 1980)
  • May 9Hank Snow, Canadian country musician (d. 1999)
  • May 12
    • Bertus Aafjes, Dutch poet (d. 1993)
    • Howard K. Smith, American journalist (d. 2002)
  • May 13
    • Phil Drabble, British author and television personality (d. 2007)
    • Joe Louis, American boxer (d. 1981)
  • May 14
    • Corneliu Coposu, Romanian politician (d. 1995)
    • Hideko Maehata, Japanese swimmer (d. 1995)
    • Mir Gul Khan Nasir, Baloch politician and poet from Pakistan (d. 1983)
  • May 16Edward T. Hall, American anthropologist (d. 2009)
  • May 18
    • Alla Bayanova, Russian singer (d. 2011)
    • Boris Christoff, Bulgarian opera singer (d. 1993)
    • Pierre Balmain, French fashion designer (d. 1982)
  • May 19
  • May 20Avraham Shapira, head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and the Supreme Rabbinic Court; rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav (d. 2007)
  • May 22
    • Howard Lawson, English cricketer (d. 2006)
    • Vance Packard, American social critic and author (d. 1996)
    • Sun Ra, American musician (d. 1993)
    • Edward Arthur Thompson, British historian (d. 1994)
  • May 24
    • Arthur A. Link, American politician (d. 2010)
    • Lilli Palmer, German actress (d. 1986)
    • George Tabori, Hungarian writer and director (d. 2007)
  • May 26Frankie Manning, American choreographer and dancer (d. 2009)
  • May 28W. G. G. Duncan Smith, British World War II pilot (d. 1996)
  • May 29
    • Charles Mozley, British artist (d. 1991)
    • Tenzing Norgay, Nepalese/Tibetan mountaineer (d. 1986)
  • May 31Akira Ifukube, Japanese classical music/film composer (d. 2006)

June

File:RIAN archive 101740 Yury Andropov, Chairman of KGB.jpg

Yuri Andropov

File:E G Marshall The Bold Ones 1970.JPG

E.G. Marshall

  • June 6Zhang Jingfu, Chinese politician (d. 2015)
  • June 10Trammell Crow, American developer (d. 2009)
  • June 12Go Seigen, Japanese Go player (d. 2014)
  • June 15
    • Yuri Andropov, Soviet leader (d. 1984)
    • Louis Edwards, Manchester United chairman 1965-1980 (d. 1980)
    • Lena Kennedy, English author (d. 1986)
    • Saul Steinberg, Romanian-born cartoonist (d. 1999)
  • June 18E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
  • June 19Alan Cranston, U.S. Senator (d. 2000)
  • June 21William Vickrey, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)
  • June 26
    • Laurie Lee, English author (d. 1997)
    • Doc Williams, American musician (d. 2011)
  • June 27Helena Benitez, Filipina academic and administrator (d. 2016)
  • June 29
    • Franz Joseph, American artist and writer (d. 1994)
    • Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born conductor (d. 1996)
  • June 30Bill Monti, Australian rugby union player (d. 1977)

July

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-N1227-404, Neujahrsansprache Stoph.jpg

Willi Stoph

  • July 1Thomas Pearson, British Army officer
  • July 2
    • Frederick Fennell, American conductor (d. 2004)
    • Ethelreda Leopold, American film actress (d. 1998)
  • July 5Gerda Gilboe, Danish actress (d. 2009)
  • July 6Vincent J. McMahon, professional wrestling promoter (d. 1984)
  • July 8
    • Jyoti Basu, Indian politician (d. 2010)
    • Sarah P. Harkness, American architect (d. 2013)
  • July 9
    • Mac Wilson, Australian rules footballer
    • Willi Stoph, Prime Minister (1964-1973, 1976-1989) and Chairman of the Council of State (1973-1976) of the GDR (d. 1999)
  • July 10
    • Charles Donnelly, Irish poet (d. 1937)
    • Joe Shuster, Canadian-born comic book author (d. 1992)
    • Rempo Urip, Indonesian director
  • July 11Aníbal Troilo, Argentine tango musician (d. 1975)
  • July 14
    • Fred Fox, French musician
    • George Putnam, American reporter and talk show host (d. 2008)
  • July 15
    • Akhtar Hameed Khan, pioneer of microcredit in developing countries (d. 1999)
    • Gavin Maxwell, Scottish naturalist and author (d. 1969)
    • Howard Vernon, Swiss actor (d. 1996)
  • July 18 &ndash Oscar Heisserer, French footballer
  • July 19
    • John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian World War II hero (d. 1944)
    • Marius Russo, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • July 20
    • Dobri Dobrev, Bulgarian philanthropist
    • Charilaos Florakis, Greek Communist leader (d. 2005)
    • Masa Niemi, Finnish actor (d. 1960)
    • Ersilio Cardinal Tonini, Italian Roman Catholic prelate (d. 2013)
  • July 23Virgil Finlay, American artist (d. 1971)
  • July 24
    • Frances Oldham Kelsey, American Food and Drug Administration reviewer (d. 2015)
    • Ed Mirvish, Canadian businessman and philanthropist (d. 2007)
  • July 25Lionel Van Deerlin, American politician (d. 2008)
  • July 27Gusti Huber, Austrian actress (d. 1993)
  • July 29
    • Irwin Corey, American actor and comic
    • Abram Games, British graphic designer (d. 1996)
  • July 30Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish president of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999)
File:Louis de funes 1978 ws 1-zoom-frameless.png

Louis de Funès

August

  • August 2Beatrice Straight, American actress (d. 2001)
  • August 5
    • Parley Baer, American actor (d. 2002)
    • David Brian, American actor (d. 1993)
  • August 9
    • Gordon Cullen, British architect (d. 1994)
    • Ferenc Fricsay, Hungarian conductor (d. 1963)
    • Tove Jansson, Finnish author (d. 2001)
  • August 10
    • Ken Annakin, British film director (d. 2009)
    • Jeff Corey, American actor and drama teacher (d. 2002)
  • August 11Hugh Martin, American composer (d. 2011)
  • August 15Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
  • August 17
    • Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., American lawyer and politician (d. 1988)
    • Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (d. 1945)
  • August 26Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984)
  • August 27Heidi Kabel, German actress (d. 2010)
  • August 30Julie Bishop, American actress (d. 2001)
  • August 31Joan Barclay, American actress (d. 2002)

September

File:James van Allen.jpg

James van Allen

File:Desmond Llewelyn 01.jpg

Desmond Llewelyn

  • September 2Lord George-Brown, British politician (d. 1985)
  • September 5
    • Sor Isolina Ferré, Puerto Rican Catholic nun (d. 2000)
    • Nicanor Parra, Chilean poet
  • September 7James Van Allen, American physicist (d. 2006)
  • September 10Robert Wise, American film director and producer (d. 2005)
  • September 11Serbian Patriarch Pavle, leader of the Serbian Orthodox Church (d. 2009)
  • September 12
    • Desmond Llewelyn, Welsh actor (d. 1999)
    • Janusz Żurakowski, Polish-born pilot (d. 2004)
  • September 13Ralph Rapson, American architect (d. 2008)
  • September 14Clayton Moore, American actor (The Lone Ranger) (d. 1999)
  • September 15
    • Creighton Abrams, U.S. Vietnam War general (d. 1974)
    • Adolfo Bioy Casares, Argentine writer (d. 1999)
    • Jens Otto Krag, Danish politician, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1978)
    • Robert McCloskey, American children's author/illustrator (d. 2003)
  • September 16Allen Funt, American television show host (Candid Camera) (d. 1999)
  • September 17Thomas J. Bata, Czech-born businessman (d. 2008)
  • September 18
    • Jack Cardiff, British cinematographer, director, and photographer (d. 2009)
    • Harry Townes, American actor (d. 2001)
  • September 20
    • Ken Hechler, American politician
    • Kenneth More, English actor (d. 1982)
    • Anna Karen Morrow, American actress (d. 2009)
  • September 21Bob Lido, American singer and musician (d. 2000)
  • September 22Siegfried Lowitz, German television actor (d. 1999)
  • September 23
    • Bethsabée de Rothschild, English philanthropist and patron of dance (d. 1999)
    • Omar Ali Saifuddien III, Sultan of Brunei (d. 1986)
  • September 24Andrzej Panufnik, Polish-born British musician and composer (d. 1991)
  • September 25Elena Lucena, Argentine film actress (d. 2015)
  • September 26Jack LaLanne, American fitness, exercise and nutritional expert (d. 2011)

October

File:ThorHeyerdahl.jpg

Thor Heyerdahl

November

File:Hedy Lamarr in a 1940 MGM publicity still.jpg

Hedy Lamarr

File:1939 Playball Joe Dimaggio.jpg

Joe DiMaggio

  • November 1Moshe Teitelbaum, Hassidic rabbi (d. 2006)
  • November 2
    • Johnny Vander Meer, baseball player (d. 1997)
    • Ray Walston, American actor (d. 2001)
  • November 5Alton Tobey, American artist (d. 2005)
  • November 6
    • Jonathan Harris, American actor (Lost in Space) (d. 2002)
    • Leonard Miall, British broadcaster and television personality (d. 2005)
  • November 8
    • George Dantzig, American mathematician (d. 2005)
    • Norman Lloyd, American actor, producer, director and husband of Peggy Lloyd
  • November 9Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
  • November 10Tod Andrews, American actor (d. 1972)
  • November 11Howard Fast, American novelist and television writer (d. 2003)
  • November 13
    • Alberto Lattuada, Italian film director (d. 2005)
    • Amelia Bence, Argentine actress (d. 2016)
  • November 18William Phillips, New Zealand economist (d. 1974)
  • November 23
    • Roger Avon, English actor (d. 1998)
    • George Dunn, American actor (d. 1982)
  • November 25Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player (d. 1999)
  • November 29Coleridge Goode, Jamaican-born British jazz bassist (d. 2015)

December

File:Dorothy Lamour photograph.jpg

Dorothy Lamour

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F054633-0020, Ludwigshafen, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Carstens.jpg

Karl Carstens

Date unknown

  • Clint C. Wilson, Sr. – American cartoonist (d. 2005)

Deaths

January

File:George Westinghouse.jpg

George Westinghouse

File:Morgenstern-h420.jpg

Christian Morgenstern

File:Eduard Suess 1869.jpg

Eduard Suess

File:Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg

Bertha von Suttner

  • January 8Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier and politician and Confederate soldier (b. 1823)
  • January 11Carl Jacobsen, Danish brewer and patron of the arts (b. 1842)
  • January 13Valentin Zubiaurre, Spanish composer and professor of the Madrid Royal Conservatory (b. 1837)
  • January 16Ito Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
  • January 18Georges Picquart, French general and politician (b. 1854)

February

  • February 20Federico Degetau, Puerto Rican politician (b. 1862)
  • February 24Joshua Chamberlain, American Civil War general (b. 1828)
  • February 25John Tenniel, English illustrator (b. 1820)

March

  • March 1Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (b. 1845)
  • March 6George Washington Vanderbilt II, American businessman (b. 1862)
  • March 12George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur (b. 1846)
  • March 16Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
  • March 19Giuseppe Mercalli, Italian volcanologist (b. 1850)
  • March 25Frédéric Mistral, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
  • March 31Christian Morgenstern, German poet and writer (b. 1871)

April

  • April 1Rube Waddell, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1876)
  • April 2Paul von Heyse, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
  • April 7Mohammad Ayyub Khan, former Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1855)
  • April 19
    • Charles Sanders Peirce, American philosopher (b. 1839)
    • Empress Shōken, empress-consort of the Meiji Emperor (b. 1849)
  • April 26Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist (b. 1831)

May

  • May 2John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise of the United Kingdom (b. 1845)
  • May 8Seth Edulji Dinshaw, Pakistani philanthropist
  • May 23Gustav Hamel, pioneer aviator, carried first airmail (b. 1889)

June

  • May 26Jacob Riis, Danish-American social reformer (b. 1849)
  • June 11Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1848)
  • June 14Adlai E. Stevenson I, 23rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1835)
  • June 15John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, American classical scholar and archeologist (b. 1851)
  • June 19Brandon Thomas, British actor and playwright (Charley's Aunt) (b. 1848)
  • June 21Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
  • June 28
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1863)
    • Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1868)

July

  • July 2Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (b. 1836)
  • July 17Luis Uribe, Chilean naval hero (b. 1847)
  • July 31Jean Jaurès, French pacifist (assassinated) (b. 1859)

August

File:Portrait of Pope St. Pius X (Colored).jpg

Pope Pius X

  • August 4Hubertine Auclert, French feminist (b. 1848)
  • August 6Ellen Axson Wilson, First Lady of the United States (b. 1860)
  • August 8
    • Martin-Paul Samba, Cameroonian rebel leader (executed)
    • Rudolf Duala Manga Bell, Cameroonian resistance leader (executed)
  • August 9Roque Sáenz Peña, President of Argentina (b. 1851)
  • August 12John Philip Holland, Irish developer of the submarine (b. 1840)
  • August 20Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
  • August 26Achille Pierre Deffontaines, French general (died of wounds received in action) (b. 1858)
  • August 27Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Austrian economist (b. 1851)
  • August 30Aleksander Samsonov, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1859)

September

File:August Macke 042.jpg

August Macke

October

  • October 1Kitty Lange Kielland, Norwegian painter (b. 1843)
  • October 10 – King Carol I of Romania (b. 1839)
  • October 19Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine general and statesman, former President of the Republic (b. 1843)
  • October 23José Evaristo Uriburu, Argentine politician, former President of the Republic (b. 1831)
  • October 25Charles W. H. Douglas, British Army general (b. 1850)

November

File:August Weismann.jpg

August Weismann

  • November 1
    • Christopher Cradock, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1862)
    • Adna Chaffee, American Lieutenant General (b. 1842)
  • November 2Heinrich Burkhardt, German mathematician (b. 1861)
  • November 3Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (suicide) (b. 1887)
  • November 5
    • Robert Kekewich, British general (suicide) (b. 1854)
    • August Weismann, German evolutionary biologist (b. 1834)
  • November 11A. E. J. Collins, British cricketer and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1885)
  • November 12Augusto dos Anjos, Brazilian poet (b. 1884)
  • November 14Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal (b. 1832)[17]
  • November 19Robert Jones Burdette, American minister and sentimental humorist (b. 1844)
  • November 21Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (b. 1833)

December

  • December 1Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy admiral and American geostrategist and historian (b. 1840)
  • December 8Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1861)
  • December 24John Muir, American naturalist (b. 1838)

Nobel Prizes

References

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  15. 15.0 15.1 Selcuk Aksin Somel, The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, Rowman & Littlefield, 2010 (ISBN 9780810875791), p. 324 (online)
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External links

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