Culture Wikia

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1913 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1913
Ab urbe condita2666
Armenian calendar1362
Assyrian calendar6663
Bahá'í calendar69–70
Balinese saka calendar1834–1835
Bengali calendar1320
Berber calendar2863
British Regnal yearGeo. 5 – 4 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2457
Burmese calendar1275
Byzantine calendar7421–7422
Chinese calendar壬子(Water Rat)
4609 or 4549
    — to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4610 or 4550
Coptic calendar1629–1630
Discordian calendar3079
Ethiopian calendar1905–1906
Hebrew calendar5673–5674
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1969–1970
 - Shaka Samvat1834–1835
 - Kali Yuga5013–5014
Holocene calendar11913
Igbo calendar913–914
Iranian calendar1291–1292
Islamic calendar1331–1332
Japanese calendarTaishō 2
Javanese calendar1842–1843
Juche calendar2
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4246
Minguo calendarROC 2
Nanakshahi calendar445
Thai solar calendar2455–2456
Tibetan calendar阳水鼠年
(male Water-Rat)
2039 or 1658 or 886
    — to —
(female Water-Ox)
2040 or 1659 or 887

1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1913th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 913th year of the , the 13th year of the , and the 4th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Main article: January 1913
  • January 1 – The British Board of Film Censors receives the authority to classify and censor films.
  • January 12 (January 25 Old Style) – Bolshevik activist Josef Dzhugashvili first publishes an article[1] under the pseudonym Stalin which he adopts hereafter.[2] At this time he, Adolf Hitler and Josip Broz Tito are simultaneously resident in Vienna.[3]
  • January 13Edward Carson founds the (first) Ulster Volunteer Force by unifying several existing loyalist militias to resist home rule for Ireland.[4]
  • January 23General election in Tasmania.
  • January 23 – In the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, Ismail Enver comes to power.
  • January 30 – The British House of Lords rejects an Irish Home Rule Bill
File:Ismail Enver.jpg

Ismail Enver


Main article: February 1913
  • February 1 – New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest railroad station.
  • February 3 – The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes.
  • February 9Mexican Revolution: Beginning of "La Decena Trágica", the rebellion of some military chiefs against the President Francisco I. Madero.
  • February 18 – Mexican Revolution: President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez are forced to resign. Pedro Lascuráin serves as President for less than an hour before General Victoriano Huerta, leader of the coup, takes office
  • February 22Mexican Revolution: Assassination of Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez.
  • February 23Joseph Stalin is arrested by the Russian secret police, the Okhrana, in Petrograd and exiled to Siberia.[5]
File:Grand Central Terminal Exterior 42nd St at Park Ave New York City.jpg

February 1: New York's Grand Central Terminal as rebuilt.


Main article: March 1913
  • March
    • The House of Romanov celebrates the 300th anniversary of its succession to the throne, amidst an outpouring of monarchist sentiment in Russia.
    • Following the assassination of his rival Song Jiaoren, Yuan Shikai uses military force to dissolve China's parliament and rules as a dictator.
  • c. March 1 – British steamship Calvados disappears in the Sea of Marmara with 200 on board.[6][7]
  • March 3 – The Woman suffrage parade of 1913 takes place in Washington, D.C. led by Inez Milholland on horseback.
  • March 4
    • Woodrow Wilson is sworn in as President of the United States.
    • The U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Labor are established by splitting the duties of the 10-year-old Department of Commerce and Labor. The Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey form part of the Department of Commerce.
File:President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg

March 4: Wilson sworn in as the 28th president of the United States.

  • March 46First Balkan War: Battle of Bizani: Forces of the Kingdom of Greece capture the forts of Bizani (covering the approaches to Ioannina) from the Ottoman Empire.
  • March 7 – The British freighter Alum Chine, carrying 343 tons of dynamite, explodes in Baltimore harbour.[8]
  • March 12 – Australia begins building the new federal capital of Canberra.
  • March 13Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from his self-imposed exile in the United States.
  • March 17 – The Military Aviation Academy (Escuela de Aviación Militar) is founded in Uruguay, to become the Military Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Militar) on 4 December 1952. The Uruguayan Air Force (FAU) would grow from this foundation.
  • March 18George I of Greece is assassinated after 50 years on the throne. He is succeeded by his son Constantine.
  • March 20Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party (Kuomintang), is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies two days later.
  • March 23 – Supporters of Phan Xích Long begin an attempt to revolt against colonial rule in French Indochina.
  • March 25Great Dayton Flood after four days of rain in the Miami Valley kills over 360 and destroys 20,000 homes, chiefly in Dayton.
  • March 26
    • Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza announces his Plan of Guadalupe and begins his rebellion against Victoriano Huerta's government as head of the Constitutionals.
    • Balkan Wars: Siege of Adrianople ends when Bulgarian forces take Adrianople from the Ottomans.
File:Naming of city of canberra capital hill 1913.jpg

March 12: Australia begins building the new capital of Canberra.


Main article: April 1913
  • Bernhard Kellermann's novel Der Tunnel is published.
  • April 5 – The United States Soccer Federation is formed.
  • April 8 – The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, dictating the direct election of senators.
  • April 21Cunard ocean liner Template:RMS, built by John Brown & Company, is launched on the River Clyde.
  • April 24 – The Woolworth Building opens in New York City. Designed by Cass Gilbert, it is the tallest building in the world at this date and for more than a decade after.[9]


Main article: May 1913
  • May 3Raja Harishchandra, the first full-length Indian feature film is released, marking the beginning of the Indian film industry.
  • May 9July 11 – Major industrial strike in the Black Country of England involving 25,000 workers, threatening preparations for World War I in naval and steel industries. The workers demand 23 shillings minimum wage.
  • May 14 – New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation, which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller.
  • May 24Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia marries Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover in Berlin, ending the decades-long rift between the Houses of Hohenzollern and Hanover and becoming the last great gathering of European sovereigns.
  • May 26 (May 13 O.S.) – Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a 4-engine fixed-wing aircraft.
  • May 29 – The ballet The Rite of Spring, with music by Igor Stravinsky conducted by Pierre Monteux, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky and design by Nicholas Roerich, is premiered by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris; its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history.[10] The audience includes Gabriele D'Annunzio, Coco Chanel, Marcel Duchamp, Harry Graf Kessler and Maurice Ravel.[11]
  • May 30First Balkan War: The Treaty of London is signed, ending the war. Greece is granted those parts of southern Epirus which it does not already control and the independence of Albania is recognised.
  • South Africa's first flying school opens in Kimberley to train pilots for the South African Aviation Corps, to become the South African Air Force on 1 February 1920.

May 29: The Rite of Spring is premiered in Paris.


Main article: June 1913
  • June 1 – The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.
  • June 4Emily Davison, a British suffragette, runs out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby. She is trampled and dies four days later in hospital, never having regained consciousness.[12]
  • June 8 – The Deutsches Stadion in Berlin is dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It had been constructed in anticipation of the 1916 Summer Olympics, later to be cancelled the result of World War I.
  • June 11
    • Women's suffrage is enacted in Norway.
    • Battle of Bud Bagsak: Armed with guns and heavy artillery, U.S. and Philippine troops under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing fight a four-day battle against 500 Moro rebels who are armed mostly with kampilan swords. The rebels are killed in a final desperate charge on June 15.
  • June 18 – The Arab Congress of 1913 opens, during which Arab nationalists meet to discuss desired reforms under the Ottoman Empire.
  • June 19 – The Parliament of South Africa passes the Natives Land Act, limiting land ownership for blacks to black territories.
  • June 13 – The predecessor of the Aldi store chain opens in Essen, Germany.
  • June 24Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia.
  • June 29 – The Second Balkan War begins.


Main article: July 1913
  • Foundation of Iglesia ni Cristo, an independent sect of Christianity in the Philippines.
  • July 10
    • Romania declares war on Bulgaria.
    • Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the highest temperature ever recorded on Earth (as of 2015).
  • July 27 – Foundation of the town of San Javier, Uruguay,[13] by Russian settlers.


Main article: August 1913
  • August 4Republic of China: the province of Chungking (Chongqing) declares independence; Republican forces crush the rebellion in a couple of weeks.
  • August 10Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Bucharest is signed, ending the war. Macedonia is divided and Northern Epirus is assigned to Albania.
  • August 13Harry Brearley invents stainless steel in Sheffield.[14]
  • August 20 – After his airplane fails at an altitude of 900 feet (270 m), aviator Adolphe Pégoud becomes the first person to bail out to safety from an airplane and land safely.[15]
  • August 23 – The statue The Little Mermaid in Copenhagen, Denmark, is finished.
  • August 26Dublin Lock-out in Ireland: Members of James Larkin's Irish Transport and General Workers' Union employed by the Dublin United Tramways Company begin strike action in defiance of the dismissal of trade union members by its chairman.[16]
  • August 31Dublin Lock-out: "Bloody Sunday": The dispute escalates when the Dublin Metropolitan Police kill one demonstrator and injure 400 in dispersing a demonstration.[4][16]


Main article: September 1913 (month)
File:The Balkan boundaries after 1913.jpg

The Balkan boundaries after 1913

  • September 78 – Fourth Congress of the International Psychoanalytical Association in Munich, the last occasion on which Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud will meet.
  • September 9
    • In Germany, BASF starts the world's first plant for the production of fertilizer based on the Haber-Bosch process, feeding in modern times about a third of the world's population.
    • Imperial Russian Army pilot Pyotr Nesterov becomes the first person to loop an airplane, flying a Nieuport IV monoplane over Syretzk Aerodrome near Kiev, Russia.
    • Helgoland Island air disaster: The first fatalities aboard a German airship occur when the Imperial German Navy Zeppelin dirigible LZ 14 (naval designation L 1) is forced down into the North Sea off Heligoland during a thunderstorm, killing 16 of the 22 men on board.
  • September 10Jean Sibelius's tone poem Luonnotar is premiered in Gloucester Cathedral, England, with soprano Aino Ackté.
  • September 17 – In Chicago, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith is founded, with Sigmund Livingston as its first president.
  • September 23 – French aviator Roland Garros crosses the Mediterranean in an airplane flying from Fréjus, France to Bizerte, Tunisia.
  • September 29Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Constantinople is signed in Istanbul between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.


Main article: October 1913
  • October 1Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa's troops take Torreón after a 3-day battle, when government troops retreat.
File:A-line1913 edit.jpg

Nearly-completed Ford Model Ts at the Highland Park Plant

  • October 7 – The Ford Motor Company's Highland Park Plant in Highland Park, Michigan near Detroit becomes the first automobile production facility in the world to implement the moving assembly line, significantly speeding up production of the Model T.
  • October 9 – Canadian-owned ocean liner Template:SS, carrying passengers (mostly immigrants) and a chemical cargo from Rotterdam to New York City, catches fire in a North Atlantic gale. 136 die, but 521 are saved by ships summoned by SOS messages to the scene.
  • October 10
    • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, ending construction on the Panama Canal.
    • Yuan Shikai elected as President of the Republic of China.[citation needed]
  • October 11 – The Philadelphia Athletics win the deciding game of the 1913 World Series, over baseball's New York Giants, winning 3–1 to take the series in five games.
  • October 14Senghenydd colliery disaster: An explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd in South Wales kills 439 miners, the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom.[14]
  • October 16 – The British Royal Navy's Template:HMS is launched at Portsmouth Dockyard as the first oil-fired battleship.[17]
File:Völkerschlachtdenkmal Leipzig.JPG

Monument to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig

  • October 18 – The Monument to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in Germany is finished.
  • October 19 – The DLRG (German Life-Saving Society) is founded.
  • October 26Victoriano Huerta elected president of Mexico.
  • October 28December 2Zabern Affair: Acts of aggression by the Prussian garrison at Zabern in the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine provoke political debate across the German Empire.
  • October 31 – The Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, is dedicated.


Main article: November 1913
  • November 5 – The King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title Ludwig III.
  • November 6Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.
  • November 711 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 claims 19 ships and more than 250 lives.


Main article: December 1913
  • December 1
    • The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes. Although Ford is not the first to use an assembly line, his successful adoption of one sparks an era of mass production.
    • Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the First Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.
  • December 12Vincenzo Peruggia tries to sell the Mona Lisa in Florence and is arrested.
  • December 23 – The Federal Reserve System is created as the central banking system of the United States by Woodrow Wilson's signature of the Federal Reserve Act.
  • December 30Italy returns the Mona Lisa to France.

Date unknown

  • Establishment of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Bengal Province (modern-day Bangladesh).
  • French physicist Georges Sagnac shows that light propagates at a speed independent of the speed of its source.
  • The Camel cigarette brand is introduced by R. J. Reynolds in the United States, the first packaged cigarette.
  • Prada is established as a leather goods dealer in Milan by Mario Prada and his brother.
  • The value of world trade reaches roughly $38 billion.


Template:Births and deaths ToC


File:Edward Gierek 1980.jpg

Edward Gierek


Richard Nixon

File:Lloyd Bridges 1966.jpg

Lloyd Bridges

  • January 1Shek Kin, Hong Kong veteran actor (d. 2009)
  • January 2Anna Lee, English-American actress (d. 2004)
  • January 4Malietoa Tanumafili II, Samoan head of state (d. 2007)
  • January 6
    • Edward Gierek, Polish politician (d. 2001)
    • Loretta Young, American actress (d. 2000)
  • January 7Victor H. Krulak, United States Marine Corps general (d. 2008)
  • January 9Richard M. Nixon, 37th President of the United States (d. 1994)
  • January 10Gustáv Husák, Slovak politician (d. 1991)
  • January 11Karl Stegger, Danish actor (d. 1980)
  • January 15
    • Eugène Brands, Dutch painter (d. 2002)
    • Lloyd Bridges, American actor (d. 1998)
    • Alexander Marinesko, Soviet naval officer (d. 1963)
  • January 17Everett Parker, American civil rights activist (d. 2015)
  • January 18George Unwin, British fighter ace of WWII (d. 2006)
  • January 22
    • Henry Bauchau, Belgian novelist, poet, and psychoanalyst (d. 2012)
    • William Conway, Irish cardinal (d. 1977)
    • Carl F. H. Henry, American theologian and publisher (d. 2003)
  • January 23
    • Jean-Michel Atlan, French painter (d. 1960)
    • Wally Parks, founder of the NHRA (d. 2007)
  • January 25
    • Huang Hua, Foreign Minister of China (d. 2010)
    • Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer (d. 1994)
  • January 29
    • Victor Mature, American actor (d. 1999)
    • Peter von Zahn, German journalist and writer (d. 2001)
  • February 2Poul Reichhardt, Danish actor (d. 1985)

Rosa Parks

  • February 4
    • Frank P. Keller, American film editor (d. 1977)
    • Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (d. 2005)
  • February 6Mary Leakey, British anthropologist (d. 1996)
  • February 10
    • Douglas Slocombe, British cinematographer (d. 2016)
    • Bill White, Australian rugby union player (d. 1969)
  • February 14
    • Mel Allen, American sports reporter (d. 1996)
    • Woody Hayes, American college football coach (d. 1987)
    • Jimmy Hoffa, American labor leader (disappeared 1975)
  • February 19Frank Tashlin, American animation director (d. 1972)
  • February 20Tommy Henrich, American baseball player (d. 2009)
  • February 25
    • Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)
    • Gert Fröbe, German actor (Goldfinger) (d. 1988)
  • February 26George Barker, British poet (d. 1991)
  • February 27
    • T. B. Ilangaratne, Sri Lankan author, dramatist, actor and politician (d. 1992)
    • Paul Ricœur, French philosopher (d. 2005)
    • Kazimierz Sabbat, leader of Polish government-in-exile (d. 1989)
    • Irwin Shaw, American writer (d. 1984)


File:Erdos head budapest fall 1992.jpg

Paul Erdös

  • March 1R. S. R. Fitter, British writer (d. 2005)
  • March 2Godfried Bomans, Dutch writer (d. 1971)
  • March 4John Garfield, American actor (d. 1952)
  • March 12Loulie Jean Norman, American singer (d. 2005)
  • March 13
    • William Casey, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1987)
    • Sergey Mikhalkov, Russian writer and lyricist (d. 2009)
  • March 15Rosita Contreras, Argentine actress (d. 1962)
  • March 18
    • René Clément, French film director (d. 1996)
    • Werner Mölders, German fighter pilot (d. 1941)
  • March 19Smoky Dawson, Australian singer (d. 2008)
  • March 21George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991)
  • March 26
    • Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996)
    • Jacqueline de Romilly, French philologist (d. 2010)
  • March 29R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000)
  • March 30
    • Richard Helms, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 2002)
    • Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)
    • Ċensu Tabone, Maltese politician (d. 2012)
  • March 31Etta Baker, American musician (d. 2006)
  • April 3Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
  • April 4
    • Rosemary Lane, American singer (d. 1974)
    • Frances Langford, American singer and actress (d. 2005)
    • Muddy Waters, American musician (d. 1983)
  • April 7
    • Louise Currie, American actress (d. 2013)
    • Charles Vanik, American politician (d. 2007)
  • April 8
    • Benedict J. Semmes, Jr., American admiral (d. 1994)
    • Carlton Skinner, Governor of Guam (d. 2004)
  • April 10Stefan Heym, German writer (d. 2001)
  • April 11Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
  • April 14Jean Fournet, French conductor (d. 2008)
  • April 16Les Tremayne, British-born American actor (d. 2003)
  • April 21Richard Beeching, Chairman of British Rail (d. 1985)
  • April 27Philip Hauge Abelson, American physicist, writer, and editor (d. 2004)


File:Alfonso Lopez Michelsen.jpg

Alfonso López Michelsen

  • May 1
    • Louis Nye, American comedian and actor (d. 2005)
    • Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (d. 1980)
  • May 4Hisaya Morishige, Japanese actor (d. 2009)
  • May 8
    • Bob Clampett, American director (Looney Tunes) (d. 1984)
    • Saima Harmaja, Finnish poet (d. 1937)
    • Charles Scorsese, American actor and father of Martin Scorsese, (d. 1993)
  • May 11Robert Jungk, Austrian journalist (d. 1994)
  • May 13William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (d. 1980)
  • May 16Woody Herman, American musician and band leader (d. 1987)
  • May 19Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Indian politician and 6th President of India (d. 1996)
  • May 20
    • Teodoro Fernández, Peruvian soccer player (d. 1996)
    • William Hewlett, American businessman (d. 2001)
  • May 22Benedict Garmisa, American politician (d. 1985)
  • May 24Peter Ellenshaw, American matte designer (d. 2007)
  • May 26
    • Peter Cushing, English actor (d. 1994)
    • Pierre Daninos, French writer and humorist (d. 2005)
    • Josef Manger, German weightlifter (d. 1991)
  • May 29Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997)
  • May 31Peter Frankenfeld, German comedian, radio and television personality (d. 1979)
  • June 2Elsie Tu, English-born Hong Kong social activist (d. 2015)
  • June 6Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991)
  • June 10Benjamin Shapira, a German-born Israeli biochemist and recipient of the Israel Prize (d. 1993)
  • June 11
    • Vince Lombardi, American football coach (d. 1970)
    • Risë Stevens, American mezzo-soprano (d. 2013)
  • June 13Ralph Edwards, American game show host (d. 2005)
  • June 18
    • Robert Mondavi, American winemaker (d. 2008)
    • Sylvia Field Porter, American economist and journalist (d. 1991)
  • June 25Cyril Fletcher, British comedian (d. 2005)
  • June 26
    • Aimé Césaire, French Martinican poet and politician (d. 2008)
    • Maurice Wilkes, British computer scientist (d. 2010)
  • June 27Richard Pike Bissell, American author (d. 1977)
  • June 28Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker (d. 2007)
  • June 30Alfonso López Michelsen, President of Colombia (d. 2007)


File:Mærsk-McKinney-Møller m.jpg

Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller

File:Gerald Ford.jpg

Gerald Ford

File:Red Skelton 1960 rebalance.jpg

Red Skelton

  • July 3Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965)
  • July 6Vance Trimble, American Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author
  • July 7Pinetop Perkins, American blues musician (d. 2011)
  • July 8Bill Thompson, American voice actor (d. 1971)
  • July 9William M. Zachacki, (d. 1969)
  • July 10Salvador Espriu, Catalan poet (d. 1985)
  • July 12
    • Philip Mayer Kaiser, American diplomat (d. 2007)
    • Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008)
  • July 13
    • Kay Linaker, American actress (d. 2008)
    • Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish shipping magnate (d. 2012)
  • July 14Gerald R. Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
  • July 15
    • Hammond Innes, English author (d. 1998)
    • Abraham Sutzkever, Yiddish language poet and memoirist (d. 2010)
  • July 17
    • Roger Garaudy, French Holocaust denier (d. 2012)
    • Bertrand Goldberg, American architect (d. 1997)
  • July 18
    • Du Runsheng, Chinese military officer, politician, and economist (d. 2015)
    • Red Skelton, American comedian (d. 1997)
  • July 22
    • Gorni Kramer, Italian bandleader and songwriter (d. 1995)
    • Licia Albanese, Italian-born soprano (d. 2014)
  • July 23Michael Foot, British politician (d. 2010)
  • July 24Robert Emhardt, American actor (d. 1994)
  • July 29Erich Priebke, German war criminal and leader of the 1944 Ardeatine massacre (d. 2013)
  • July 30Lou Darvas, American artist and cartoonist (d. 1987)


File:Menachem Begin 2.jpg

Menachem Begin

  • August 8
    • John Facenda, American sports announcer (d. 1984)
    • Robert Stafford, Governor of Vermont, U.S Representative and U.S. Senator (d. 2006)
  • August 9Tadeusz Kotz, Polish World War II fighter ace (d. 2008)
  • August 10
    • Noah Beery Jr., American actor (d. 1994)
    • Wolfgang Paul, German physicist (d. 1993)
  • August 13
    • Fred Davis, English snooker and billiards player (d. 1998)
    • Makarios III, Archbishop and first President of Cyprus (d. 1977)
  • August 16
    • Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992)
    • Helen F. Holt, American politician (d. 2015)
  • August 17
    • W. Mark Felt, American Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director and Deep Throat Watergate informant (d. 2008)
    • Rudy York, American baseball player (d. 1970)
  • August 19Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • August 20Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • August 26Boris Pahor, Slovenian writer
  • August 27Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006)
  • August 28
    • Robertson Davies, Canadian novelist (d. 1995)
    • Richard Tucker, American tenor (d. 1975)
  • August 29Jan Ekier, Polish pianist and composer (d. 2014)
  • August 30Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)
  • August 31
    • Helen Levitt, American photographer (d. 2009)
    • Bernard Lovell, British radio astronomer (d. 2012)


File:Alan Ladd - publicity.JPG

Alan Ladd

File:Stanley Kramer.JPG

Stanley Kramer

  • September 1Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist (d. 1979)
  • September 2
    • Israel Gelfand, Russian mathematician (d. 2009)
    • Bill Shankly, Scottish football manager (d. 1981)
  • September 3Alan Ladd, American actor (b. 1964)
  • September 4
    • Mickey Cohen, American gangster (d. 1976)
    • Boone Guyton, American test pilot (d. 1996)
    • Stanford Moore, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1982)
    • Kenzō Tange, Japanese architect (d. 2005)
  • September 10Lincoln Gordon, American diplomat (d. 2009)
  • September 11
    • Paul "Bear" Bryant, American football coach (d. 1983)
    • Eugenia Rawls, American actress (d. 2000)
  • September 12
    • Jesse Owens, American athlete (d. 1980)
    • Eiji Toyoda, Japanese industrialist (d. 2013)
  • September 13
    • Roy Engel, American actor (d. 1980)
    • Trần Đại Nghĩa,Vietnam army generals (d. 1997)
  • September 14
    • Jacobo Árbenz, President of Guatemala (d. 1971)
    • Annalisa Ericson, Swedish actress (d. 2011)
  • September 15John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General and convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988)
  • September 17Robert Lembke, German television presenter and game show host (d. 1989)
  • September 19Frances Farmer, American actress (d. 1970)
  • September 22Lillian Chestney, American painter (d. 2000)
  • September 23Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish artist, member of the CoBrA movement (d. 2007)
  • September 24
    • Wilson Rawls, American author (d. 1984)
    • Herb Jeffries, American actor, and popular music and jazz singer (d. 2014)
  • September 25Terence Patrick O'Sullivan, British civil engineer (d. 1970)
  • September 28Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist and illustrator (d. 2007)
  • September 29
    • Trevor Howard, English actor (d. 1988)
    • Stanley Kramer, American film producer, director, and writer (d. 2001)
    • Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (d. 1996)
  • September 30Bill Walsh, American movie producer and writer (d. 1975)
  • October 10
    • Alice Chetwynd Ley, British romance writer (d. 2004)
    • Claude Simon, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
  • October 11Joe Simon, American comic book artist and writer (d. 2011)
  • October 18Evelyn Venable, American actress (d. 1993)
  • October 20Barney Phillips, American actor (d. 1982)
  • October 22
    • Robert Capa, Hungarian-born photojournalist (d. 1954)
    • Tamara Desni, German-born British actress (d. 2008)
  • October 24Tito Gobbi, Italian operatic baritone (d. 1984)
  • October 27
    • Joe Medicine Crow, American tribal historian and anthropologist (d. 2016)
    • Otto Wichterle, Czech inventor of the modern Contact lens (d. 1998)


File:Burt Lancaster.jpg

Burt Lancaster

File:Vivien Leigh Gone Wind Restored.jpg

Vivien Leigh

File:Albert Camus, gagnant de prix Nobel, portrait en buste, posé au bureau, faisant face à gauche, cigarette de tabagisme.jpg

Albert Camus

File:Benjamin Britten, London Records 1968 publicity photo for Wikipedia.jpg

Benjamin Britten

  • November 2Burt Lancaster, American actor, better known for his role in Elmer Gantry (d. 1994)
  • November 3Marika Rökk, Egyptian-born Austrian singer, dancer and actress (d. 2004)
  • November 5Vivien Leigh, British actress, better known for her role in Gone With The Wind (d. 1967)
  • November 7
    • Albert Camus, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1960)
    • Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook, Canadian sculptor (d. 2009)
  • November 10Álvaro Cunhal, Portuguese politician (d. 2005)
  • November 13Alexander Scourby, American actor (d. 1985)
  • November 15Arthur Haulot, Belgian journalist (d. 2005)
  • November 16Ellen Albertini Dow, American actress (d. 2015)
  • November 18Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter (d. 1999)
  • November 21
    • John Boulting, English film director (d. 1985)
    • Roy Boulting, English film director and producer (d. 2001)
  • November 22
    • Charles Berlitz, American author (d. 2003)
    • Benjamin Britten, English composer (d. 1976)
    • Gardnar Mulloy, American tennis player and coach (d. 2016)
    • Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, first female Philippine Supreme Court Justice (d. 2006)
    • Jacqueline Vaudecrane, French figure skater
  • November 25Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (d. 1993)


File:Mary Martin.jpg

Mary Martin

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg

Willy Brandt

  • December 1Mary Martin, American actress (d. 1990)
  • December 2Jerry Sohl, American scriptwriter (d. 2002)
  • December 6
    • Nikolai Amosov, Ukrainian heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast (d. 2002)
    • Eleanor Holm, American swimmer (d. 2004)
  • December 8Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966)
  • December 10
    • Morton Gould, American composer (d. 1996)
    • Harry Locke, British character actor (d. 1987)
  • December 13Arnold Brown, Salvation Army general (d. 2002)
  • December 15Muriel Rukeyser, American poet (d. 1980)
  • December 16George Ignatieff, Canadian diplomat, recipient of the 1984 Pearson Medal of Peace (d. 1989)
  • December 18
    • Alfred Bester, American author (d. 1987)
    • Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992)
  • December 21Arnold Friberg, American artist (d. 2010)
  • December 25
    • Candy Candido, American voice actor (d. 1999)
    • Tony Martin, American singer (d. 2012)
    • Henri Nannen, German journalist and mass media owner (d. 1996)
  • December 28
    • Lou Jacobi, Canadian-American actor (d. 2009)
    • Charles Maxwell, American actor (d. 1993)
  • December 29Pierre Werner, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 2002)
  • December 30Elyne Mitchell, Australian author (d. 2002)

Date unknown

  • Halil-Salim Jabara, Israeli Arab politician (d. 1999)
  • Nils Löfgren, Swedish chemist (d. 1967)



File:Gustaf de Laval 1875.jpg

Gustaf de Laval


J. P. Morgan

File:Winckler, Hugo.jpg

Hugo Winckler

  • January 2Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. 1855)
  • January 4Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (b. 1833)
  • January 16Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, American aeronaut, scientist and inventor (b. 1832)
  • January 20José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican political printmaker and engraver (b. 1852)
  • January 27Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria, statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1832)
  • February 2Gustaf de Laval, Swedish engineer and inventor (b. 1845)
  • February 17Edward Stanley Gibbons, English philatelist and founder of Stanley Gibbons Ltd (b. 1840)
  • February 22
    • Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist and semiotician (b. 1857)
    • Francisco I. Madero, President of Mexico (b. 1873)
  • February 26Felix Draeseke, German composer (b. 1835)
  • March 10Harriet Tubman, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian and spy (b. c. 1822)
  • March 11John Shaw Billings, American military and medical leader (b. 1838)
  • March 18George I of Greece, Danish-born elected monarch (b. 1845)
  • March 22Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1882)
  • March 25Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal (b. 1833)
  • March 31J. P. Morgan, American financier and banker (b. 1837)
  • April 19Hugo Winckler, German archaeologist and historian who uncovered the capital of the Hittite Empire (Hattusa) (b. 1863)
  • May 1John Barclay Armstrong, Texas Ranger and U.S. Marshal (b. 1850)
  • May 6Elena Guro, Russian painter and writer (b. 1877)
  • May 16Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1849)
  • May 25Alfred Redl, Austrian military intelligence officer and double agent (b. 1864; honorable suicide)
  • June 2Alfred Austin, English Poet Laureate (b. 1835)
  • June 5Chris von der Ahe, German-born American brewer and baseball owner (b. 1851)
  • June 8Emily Davison, English suffragette (b. 1872)
  • June 23Nicolás de Piérola, Peruvian president (b. 1839)
  • June 28Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales, Brazilian president (b. 1841)


File:Diesel 1883.jpg

Rudolf Diesel

  • July 3Horatio Nelson Young, American Civil War naval hero (b. 1845)
  • July 13Edward Burd Grubb, Jr., American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b. 1841)
  • July 19Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia (b. 1852)
  • July 20Vsevolod Rudnev, Russian admiral (b. 1855)
  • July 29Tobias Asser, Dutch jurist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1838)
  • August 3Josephine Cochrane, inventor of the first commercially successful dishwasher (b. 1839)
  • August 7Samuel Franklin Cody, American/British aviation pioneer (b. 1867)
  • August 13August Bebel, German politician (b. 1840)
  • August 22Oscar de Négrier, French general (b. 1839)
  • September 9Paul de Smet de Naeyer, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1843)
  • September 29Rudolf Diesel, German engine inventor (b. 1858)
  • October 5Hans von Bartels, German painter (b. 1856)
  • October 16Ralph Rose, American athlete (b. 1885)
  • October 29Darío de Regoyos, Spanish painter (b. 1857)
  • November 7Alfred Russel Wallace, Welsh biologist (b. 1823)
  • November 22
    • George Barham, English businessman, founded Express County Milk Supply Company (b. 1836)
    • Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th and the last shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan (b. 1837)
  • December 1Juhan Liiv, Estonian poet and short story writer (b. 1864)
  • December 7
    • Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman and last surviving cardinal of Pius IX (b. 1828)
    • Aaron Montgomery Ward, American businessman, inventor of mail order (b. 1844)
  • December 12Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1844)
  • December 26 (disappeared on this date) – Ambrose Bierce, American writer and journalist (b. 1842)

Nobel Prizes


  1. "The National Question and Social Democracy", signed "K. Stalin" in the Russian-language Paris newspaper Sozial Demokrat.
  2. Brackman, Roman (2003). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Taylor & Francis. pp. 82–83.
  3. Walker, Andy (April 17, 2013). "1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place". BBC News. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
  5. Service, Robert (2005). Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 90–91.
  6. "Over 200 Lost in Storm". The New York Times. March 8, 1913.
  7. "British Steamer Lost". The Sydney Morning Herald. March 10, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  8. "Ship Blows Up". The New York Times. March 8, 1913. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  9. "Study for Woolworth Building, New York". World Digital Library. December 10, 1910. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  10. Radio Lab, Show 202: "Musical Language", New York: WNYC (21 April 2006). Host/Producer: Jad Abumrad, Co-Host: Robert Krulwich, Producer: Ellen Horne, Production Executives: Dean Capello and Mikel Ellcessor.
  11. Illies.
  12. "BBC Radio 4 - Woman's Hour - Women's History Timeline: 1910 - 1919". Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  13. "Statistics of urban localities (1908–2004)" (PDF). INE. 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. p. 94. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  15. "Airman Uses Parachute", New York Times, August 20, 1913
  16. 16.0 16.1 Yeates, Padraig (2009). "The Dublin 1913 Lockout". History Ireland. 9 (2). Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  17. Crowhurst, Richard (2005). "A History of Firsts: Portsmouth Historic Dockyard". Retrieved September 9, 2010.

External links

Further reading