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1909 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1909
MCMIX
Ab urbe condita2662
Armenian calendar1358
ԹՎ ՌՅԾԸ
Assyrian calendar6659
Bahá'í calendar65–66
Balinese saka calendar1830–1831
Bengali calendar1316
Berber calendar2859
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 9 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2453
Burmese calendar1271
Byzantine calendar7417–7418
Chinese calendar戊申(Earth Monkey)
4605 or 4545
    — to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4606 or 4546
Coptic calendar1625–1626
Discordian calendar3075
Ethiopian calendar1901–1902
Hebrew calendar5669–5670
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1965–1966
 - Shaka Samvat1830–1831
 - Kali Yuga5009–5010
Holocene calendar11909
Igbo calendar909–910
Iranian calendar1287–1288
Islamic calendar1326–1327
Japanese calendarMeiji 42
(明治42年)
Javanese calendar1838–1839
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4242
Minguo calendar3 before ROC
民前3年
Nanakshahi calendar441
Thai solar calendar2451–2452
Tibetan calendar阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
2035 or 1654 or 882
    — to —
阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
2036 or 1655 or 883

1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1909th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 909th year of the , the 9th year of the , and the 10th and last year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–February

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  • January 5Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama.
  • January 16Ernest Shackleton's expedition claims to have found the magnetic South Pole[1] (but the location recorded may be incorrect).
  • January 24 – The White Star Liner RMS Republic sinks the day after a collision with SS Florida. In the first recorded use of the CQD emergency radio signal for a large passenger vessel, one person, a male passenger, is lost on the Republic.[2]
  • January 28 – The last United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish–American War of 1898.
  • February 5Leo Baekeland announces the creation of bakelite hard thermosetting plastic.

March–April

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  • March 4William Howard Taft is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 10 – The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 is signed in Bangkok.
  • March 18 – Einar Dessau uses a shortwave radio transmitter, becoming the first radio broadcaster.
  • March 21 – The remains of the Báb are placed in the Bahá'í Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel in Haifa, at this time within the Ottoman Empire.
  • March 31Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • April 4 – The association football team Sport Club Internacional is founded in Porto Alegre, Brazil.
  • April 6Robert Peary, Matthew Henson, and four Inuit explorers, Ootah, Ooqueah, Seegloo, and Egigingwah, come within a few miles of the North Pole.[3]
  • April 11 – The city of Tel Aviv (known in its first year as Ahuzat Bayit) is founded by the Jewish community on the outskirts of Jaffa.
  • April 13 (March 31 by Eastern reckoning) – Ottoman countercoup begins in the Ottoman Empire.
  • April 14Adana massacre: Ottoman Turks kill 15,000–30,000 Armenian Christians in the Adana Vilayet.
  • April 18Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome.
  • April 19 – The Anglo-Persian Oil Company, modern-day BP, is incorporated.
  • April 27Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II is overthrown and succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V. He is sent to the Ottoman port city of Thessaloniki (Selanik) the next day.

May–June

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  • May 1330 – First Giro d'Italia bicycle race, starting and finishing in Milan; Luigi Ganna is the winner.
  • May 19Russian ballet is brought to the Western world when the Ballets Russes opens a tour produced by Sergei Diaghilev at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris with 55 dancers, including Vaslav Nijinsky.[4]
  • June 2 – French forces capture Abéché, capital of the Wadai Empire in central Africa.
  • June 15 – Representatives from England, Australia and South Africa meet at Lord's Cricket Ground and form the Imperial Cricket Conference.

July–August

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  • July 16 – A revolution forces Mohammad Ali Shah of the Qajar dynasty to abdicate in favor of his son Ahmad Shah Qajar. He proceeds to leave Persia for Imperial Russia, reportedly seeking the assistance of Nicholas II of Russia in regaining the throne.
  • July 25Louis Blériot is the first man to fly across the English Channel (thus a large open body of water) in a heavier-than-air craft.
  • July 25August 2 – "Tragic Week": The city of Barcelona experiences a workers' uprising.
  • August 2 – The United States Army Signal Corp Division purchases the world's first military airplane, a Wright Military Flyer, from the Wright brothers.
  • August 8Max Heindel formally founds the Rosicrucian Fellowship in Seattle, United States.
  • August 12Indianapolis Motor Speedway opens in the United States.

September–October

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  • September 4Japan and China sign the Jiandao/Gando Treaty, which gives Japan a way to receive railroad concessions in Manchuria.
  • October 8 – An earthquake in the Zagreb area leads Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity.
  • October 13 – An agreement by Germany, Italy and Switzerland gives the Germans and Italians access to the Gotthard Rail Tunnel.
  • October 26Itō Hirobumi, four time Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and Resident-General of Korea, is assassinated by An Jung-geun at the Harbin Railway Station in Manchuria.

November–December

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  • November 18 – In Nicaragua 500 revolutionaries (including 2 Americans) are executed by order of dictator José Santos Zelaya. The United States responds by sending 2 warships.
  • December 4Montreal Canadiens, as known well for professional ice hockey club in Canada, founded.Template:Fix
  • December 19 – The association football team Borussia Dortmund is founded in Dortmund, Germany.
  • December 23 – King Albert I of Belgium succeeds his uncle, Leopold II (died December 17), on the throne.
  • December 28 – The first manned heavier-than-air powered flight in South Africa is made at East London by French aviator Albert Kimmerling in a Voisin 1907 biplane.[5]

Undated

  • Karl Landsteiner, Constantin Levaditi and Erwin Popper discover the polio virus.

Births

January

File:Dana Andrews in State Fair trailer.jpg

Dana Andrews

Template:Double image

  • January 1
    • Dana Andrews, American actor (d. 1992)
    • Stepan Bandera, Ukrainian nationalist leader (d. 1959)
  • January 2Barry Goldwater, American politician (d. 1998)
  • January 3Victor Borge, Danish entertainer (d. 2000)
  • January 4J. R. Simplot, American businessman (d. 2008)
  • January 5Stephen Cole Kleene, American mathematician (d. 1994)
  • January 8Willy Millowitsch, German actor (d. 1999)
  • January 9Anthony Mamo, Maltese President (d. 2008)
  • January 13Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist convicted of setting fire to the German Reichstag building in 1933 (d. 1934)
  • January 15
    • Jean Bugatti, German-born automobile designer (d. 1939)
    • Gene Krupa, American drummer (d. 1973)
  • January 16Clement Greenberg, American art critic (d. 1994)
  • January 19Hans Hotter, German bass-baritone (d. 2003)
  • January 21Todor Skalovski, Macedonian composer (d. 2004)
  • January 22
    • Porfirio Rubirosa, Dominican diplomat, race-car driver, and polo player (d. 1956)
    • Ann Sothern, American actress (d. 2001)
    • U Thant, Burmese United Nations Secretary General (d. 1974)
  • January 24Martin Lings, British Islamic scholar (d. 2005)
  • January 28Colin Munro MacLeod, Canadian-American geneticist and medical researcher (d. 1972)
  • January 30Saul Alinsky, American community organizer (d. 1972)

February

  • February 1George Beverly Shea, American gospel singer and songwriter (d. 2013)
  • February 3Simone Weil, French philosopher (d. 1943)
  • February 7
    • Wilhelm Freddie, Danish painter (d. 1995)
    • Amedeo Guillet, Italian army officer (d. 2010)
    • Silvio Zavala, Mexican historian (d. 2014)
  • February 9
    • Harald Genzmer, German composer (d. 2007)
    • Giulio Racah, Israeli mathematician and physicist (d. 1965)
    • Carmen Miranda, Portuguese-born Brazilian actress and singer (d. 1955)
    • Dean Rusk, American politician (d. 1994)
  • February 11
    • Max Baer, American boxer and actor (d. 1959)
    • Joseph Mankiewicz, American filmmaker (d. 1993)
  • February 12Zoran Mušič, Slovene painter (d. 2005)
  • February 15
    • Guillermo Gorostiza Paredes, Spanish footballer (d. 1966)
    • Miep Gies, Austrian-born Dutch humanitarian (d. 2010)
  • February 16Hugh Beaumont, American actor (d. 1982)
  • February 18Wallace Stegner, American writer (d. 1993)
  • February 19Enrico Donati, Italian-born American painter (d. 2008)
  • February 20Heinz Erhardt, German comedian, musician, entertainer, actor, and poet (d. 1979)
  • February 21Hans Erni, Swiss painter and sculptor (d. 2015)
  • February 22Edmund Berkeley, American scientist (d. 1988)
  • February 24August Derleth, American writer (d. 1971)
  • February 26 – King Talal of Jordan (d. 1972)
  • February 28Stephen Spender, English writer (d. 1995)

March

  • March 4Harry Helmsley, American real estate entrepreneur (d. 1997)
  • March 19
    • Jean Brachet, Belgian chemist (d. 1988)
    • Louis Hayward, South African-born actor (d. 1985)
  • March 22
    • Milt Kahl, American animator (d. 1987)
    • Gabrielle Roy, Canadian author (d. 1983)
  • March 24Clyde Barrow, American outlaw, member of Barrow Gang (d. 1934)
  • March 27Golo Mann, German historian (d. 1994)
  • March 28Nelson Algren, American author (d. 1981)
  • March 29Moon Mullican, American country music singer (d. 1967)

April

File:Prinses Juliana 1981.jpg

Queen Juliana

  • April 6William M. Branham, American Christian minister (d. 1965)
  • April 7Robert Charroux, French writer (d. 1978)
  • April 8John Fante, Italian-American writer (d. 1983)
  • April 13
    • Stanislaw Marcin Ulam, Polish-born mathematician (d. 1984)
    • Eudora Welty, American author (d. 2001)
  • April 22
    • Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italian neurologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2012)
    • Indro Montanelli, Italian journalist (d. 2001)
  • April 24
    • Bernhard Grzimek, German zoo director and zoologist (d. 1987)
  • April 25William Pereira, American architect (d. 1985)
  • April 26
    • Marianne Hoppe, German actress (d. 2002)
    • Rodney Collin, British writer (d. 1956)
  • April 30
    • Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (d. 2004)
    • F. E. McWilliam, Northern Irish sculptor (d. 1992)

May

File:James Mason photograph.jpg

James Mason

  • May 1Yiannis Ritsos, Greek poet and activist (d. 1990)
  • May 4Howard Da Silva, American actor (d. 1986)
  • May 6Loyd Sigmon, American amateur radio broadcaster (d. 2004)
  • May 7Edwin H. Land, American camera inventor (d. 1991)
  • May 10Maybelle Carter, American musician (d. 1978)
  • May 15
    • James Mason, British actor (d. 1984)
    • Clara Solovera, Chilean folk musician (d. 1992)
  • May 17Karl Schäfer, Austrian figure skater (d. 1976)
  • May 18Fred Perry, English tennis player (d. 1995)
  • May 19Nicholas Winton, British humanitarian (d. 2015)
  • May 23Hugh E. Blair, American linguist (d. 1967)
  • May 24Victoria Hopper, Canadian stage and film actress and singer (d. 2007)
  • May 26Matt Busby, Scottish football manager (d. 1994)
  • May 27
    • Dolores Hope, American singer and philanthropist (d. 2011)
    • Guillermo León Valencia, President of Colombia (d. 1971)
    • Donald Trumbull, special effects artist (d. 2004)
  • May 30Benny Goodman, American musician (d. 1986)

June

File:Errol Flynn1.jpg

Errol Flynn

  • June 1Yechezkel Kutscher, Slovakian-born Israeli philologist and Hebrew linguist (d. 1971)
  • June 3Ira D. Wallach, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 2007)
  • June 6Isaiah Berlin, Russian historian of ideas (d. 1997)
  • June 7Jessica Tandy, English actress (d. 1994)
  • June 12
    • Archie Bleyer, American song arranger and band leader (d. 1989)
    • Tom Steele, Scottish-born actor and stuntman (d. 1990)
  • June 14Burl Ives, American singer (d. 1995)
  • June 19Osamu Dazai, Japanese novelist (d. 1948)
  • June 20Errol Flynn, Australian-born actor (d. 1959)
  • June 22Katherine Dunham, American dancer, choreographer, and songwriter (d. 2006)
  • June 23Li Xiannian, President of the People's Republic of China (d. 1992)
  • June 24William Penney, Baron Penney, English mathematician and physicist (d. 1991)
  • June 26

July

  • July 7Gottfried von Cramm, German tennis player (d. 1976)
  • July 12Fritz Leonhardt, German structural engineer (d. 1999)
  • July 18
    • Mohammed Daoud Khan, President of Afghanistan (d. 1978)
    • Andrei Gromyko, Soviet Minister for Foreign Affairs (d. 1989)
  • July 23John William Finn, American WWII hero (d. 2010)
  • July 26Vivian Vance, American actress (d. 1979)
  • July 28Malcolm Lowry, British novelist (d. 1957)
  • July 30C. Northcote Parkinson, British historian and author (d. 1993)

August

  • August 8Charles Lyttelton, 10th Viscount Cobham, English cricketer and politician, 9th Governor-General of New Zealand (d. 1977)
  • August 9Adam von Trott zu Solz, German lawyer and diplomat (d. 1944)
  • August 10
    • Leo Fender, American guitar inventor and manufacturer (d. 1991)
    • Richard J. Hughes, American politician, 45th Governor of New Jersey, and Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court (d. 1992)
  • August 25Michael Rennie, English actor (d. 1971)
  • August 26Jim Davis, American actor (d. 1981)
  • August 31Ferenc Fejtő, Hungarian-born French journalist and political scientist (d. 2008)

September

File:Kazan-interviews.jpg

Elia Kazan

  • September 1E. Herbert Norman, Canadian diplomat (d. 1957)
  • September 7Elia Kazan, Turkish-born film director (d. 2003)
  • September 10Irakli Abashidze, Georgian poet, literary scholar, and politician (d. 1992)
  • September 14
    • Peter Scott, British ornithologist and painter (d. 1989)
    • Andreas Tzimas, Greek communist politician and Resistance leader (d. 1972)
  • September 15
    • Phil Arnold, American actor (d. 1968)
    • Jean Batten, New Zealand-born aviator (d. 1982)
    • Jan van Aartsen, Dutch politician (d. 1992)
  • September 19Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, Austrian auto designer and businessman (d. 1998)
  • September 21Kwame Nkrumah, Ghanaian politician (d. 1972)
  • September 24Carl Sigman, American songwriter (d. 2000)
  • September 26Bill France, Sr., American race car driver and businessman, co-founded NASCAR (d. 1992)
  • September 28Al Capp, American cartoonist (d. 1979)

October

File:Francis Bacon artist.jpg

Francis Bacon

November

December

File:Douglas Fairbanks Jnr 4 Allan Warren.jpg

Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.

  • December 2Marion Dönhoff, German journalist (d. 2002)
  • December 4Jimmy Jewel, English actor (d. 1995)
  • December 5Bobbie Heine Miller, South African tennis player (d. 2016)
  • December 7Arch Oboler, American actor, playwright, screenwriter, novelist, producer, and director (d. 1987)
  • December 9Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., American actor and Naval officer (d. 2000)
  • December 14Edward Lawrie Tatum, American geneticist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)
  • December 20
    • Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (d. 1996)
    • Vakkom Majeed, Indian freedom fighter and politician (d. 2000)
  • December 21Seichō Matsumoto, Japanese writer and journalist (d. 1992)
  • December 22
    • Alan Carney, American actor (d. 1973)
    • Patricia Hayes, British character actress & comedian (d. 1998)
  • December 27Henryk Jabłoński, President of Poland (d. 2003)

Deaths

January–June

File:Arnold Janssen.jpg

Arnold Janssen

File:Juarez celman president.jpg

Miguel Angel Juarez Celman

File:Afonso Pena.jpg

Afonso Pena

  • January 8Harry Seeley, British palaeontologist (b. 1839)
  • January 10Charles Vernon Culver, American politician (b. 1830)
  • January 12Hermann Minkowski, German mathematician (b. 1864)
  • January 14
    • Arthur William à Beckett, British journalist (b. 1844)
    • Zinovy Rozhestvensky, Russian admiral (b. 1848)
  • January 15 – Saint Arnold Janssen, German Catholic priest (b. 1837)
  • January 27Benoît-Constant Coquelin, French theatrical actor (b. 1841)
  • February 5Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, French occultist (b. 1842)
  • February 8Catulle Mendès, French poet (b. 1841)
  • February 17Geronimo, Apache leader (b. 1829)
  • February 20Paul Ranson, French painter (b. 1864)
  • February 26Caran d'Ache, French political cartoonist (b. 1858)
  • March 6Gustaf af Geijerstam, Swedish novelist (b. 1858)
  • March 16Wilbraham Egerton, 1st Earl Egerton, chairman of the Manchester Ship Canal (b. 1832)
  • March 24John Millington Synge, Irish playwright (b. 1871)
  • March 25Ruperto Chapí, Spanish composer (b. 1854)
  • April 3Pascual Cervera y Topete, Spanish admiral (b. 1839)
  • April 8Helena Modjeska, Polish actress (b. 1840)
  • April 10Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet (b. 1837)
  • April 13Sir Donald Currie GCMG, shipping magnate (b. 1825)
  • April 14Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman, 10th President of Argentina (b. 1844)
  • April 28Frederick Holbrook, Vermont governor (b. 1813)
  • May 10Futabatei Shimei, Japanese author and translator (b. 1864)
  • May 12Hugh Henry Gough, British general and Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1833)
  • May 17Helge Alexander Haugan, American banking executive (b. 1847)
  • May 18
    • Isaac Albéniz, Spanish composer (b. 1860)
    • George Meredith, English novelist and poet (b. 1828)
  • June 14Afonso Pena, 6th President of Brazil (b. 1847)
  • June 24Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (b. 1849)

July–December

File:Ito Hirobumi.jpg

Ito Hirobumi

File:Leopold ii garter knight.jpg

King Leopold II of Belgium

  • July 8Gaston Alexandre Auguste, Marquis de Galliffet, French general (b. 1830)
  • July 9Kasimir Felix Graf von Badeni, 13th Minister-President of Cisleithania (b. 1846)
  • July 11Simon Newcomb Canadian-American astronomer and mathematician (b. 1835)
  • July 18Carlos, Duke of Madrid (b. 1848)
  • July 19Arai Ikunosuke, Japanese samurai (b. 1836)
  • July 22Detlev von Liliencron, German poet (b. 1844)
  • August 5Miguel Antonio Caro, Colombian political leader (b. 1843)
  • August 8Mary MacKillop, Australian saint (b. 1842)
  • August 14William Stanley, inventor and engineer (b. 1829)
  • August 15Euclides da Cunha, Brazilian author (b. 1866)
  • August 27Emil Christian Hansen, Danish fermentation physiologist (b. 1842)
  • September 2Louis Delacenserie, Belgian architect (b. 1838)
  • September 4Clyde Fitch, American dramatist (b. 1865)
  • September 7Eugène Lefebvre, pioneer French aviator (b. 1878)
  • September 22 – Captain Ferdinand Ferber, French Army officer and pioneer aviator (b. 1862)
  • September 27Gyula Donáth, Hungarian sculptor (b. 1850)
  • September 29Vladimir Vidrić, Croatian poet (b. 1875)
  • October 13Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, Spanish anarchist (executed) (b. 1859)
  • October 19Cesare Lombroso, Italian criminologist and physician (b. 1835)
  • October 26Itō Hirobumi, 1st Prime Minister of Japan (assassinated) (b. 1841)
  • November 9William Powell Frith, English painter (b. 1819)
  • November 18Renée Vivien Scottish/American poet (b. 1877)
  • December 10Red Cloud, Sioux warrior (b. 1822)
  • December 14Agustí Querol Subirats, Spanish sculptor (b. 1860)
  • December 15Francisco Tárrega, Spanish guitarist and composer (b. 1852)
  • December 17 – King Leopold II of Belgium (b. 1835)
  • December 16Lina Morgenstern, German writer, educator, feminist and pacifist (b. 1830)
  • December 18Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich, Russian royal (b. 1832)
  • December 26Frederic Remington, American cowboy artist and sculptor (b. 1864)

Date unknown

  • Gideon T. Stewart, American educator and politician (b. 1824)

Nobel Prizes

  • PhysicsGuglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
  • ChemistryWilhelm Ostwald
  • MedicineEmil Theodor Kocher
  • LiteratureSelma Lagerlöf
  • PeaceAuguste Marie François Beernaert and Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant

References

  1. "The Magnetic South Pole". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Magnetics Group, Ocean Bottom Magnetology Laboratory. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
  2. Radio Broadcast, April, 1924, pp. 449-455: CQD.
  3. "North Pole." The Explorer's Club. Accessed 5 Feb 2014.
  4. Eksteins, Modris (2000). Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 25–26.
  5. South African Power Flying Association - 1910 to 1920 - Early Flying in South Africa (Accessed on 26 November 2016)
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