Culture Wikia

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1904 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1904
Ab urbe condita2657
Armenian calendar1353
Assyrian calendar6654
Bahá'í calendar60–61
Balinese saka calendar1825–1826
Bengali calendar1311
Berber calendar2854
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 4 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2448
Burmese calendar1266
Byzantine calendar7412–7413
Chinese calendar癸卯(Water Rabbit)
4600 or 4540
    — to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4601 or 4541
Coptic calendar1620–1621
Discordian calendar3070
Ethiopian calendar1896–1897
Hebrew calendar5664–5665
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1960–1961
 - Shaka Samvat1825–1826
 - Kali Yuga5004–5005
Holocene calendar11904
Igbo calendar904–905
Iranian calendar1282–1283
Islamic calendar1321–1322
Japanese calendarMeiji 37
Javanese calendar1833–1834
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4237
Minguo calendar8 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar436
Thai solar calendar2446–2447
Tibetan calendar阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
2030 or 1649 or 877
    — to —
(male Wood-Dragon)
2031 or 1650 or 878

1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1904th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 904th year of the , the 4th year of the , and the 5th year of the decade. As of the start of 1904, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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File:Baltimore fire aftermath.jpg

February 7: Aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire.

  • January 7 – The distress signal CQD is established, only to be replaced 2 years later by SOS.
  • January 12Henry Ford sets a new automobile land speed record of 91.37 mph (147.05 km/h).
  • January 16 – The first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
  • January 18 – The Herero Rebellion in German South-West Africa begins.
  • January 23 – The Ålesund Fire destroys most buildings in the town of Ålesund, Norway, leaving about 10,000 people without shelter.
  • January 25Halford Mackinder presents a paper on "The Geographical Pivot of History" to the Royal Geographical Society of London in which he formulates the Heartland Theory, originating the study of geopolitics.


  • February 7 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, Maryland, destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours.
File:Port Arthur from Gold Hill.jpg

Port Arthur from Gold Hill

  • February 89Battle of Port Arthur: A surprise Japanese naval attack on Port Arthur (Lüshun) in Manchuria starts the Russo-Japanese War.
  • February 10Roger Casement publishes his account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo.
  • February 17Puccini's opera Madama Butterfly, with a background theme of Japan–United States relations, debuts at La Scala in Milan to no great acclaim. On May 28 a revised version opens in Brescia to huge success.
  • February 23 – For $10 million, the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone.
  • February 28Sport Lisboa e Benfica is founded in Portugal.


  • March 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edison's cylinder.
  • March 4Russo-Japanese War: Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, followed by 100,000 Japanese troops.
  • March 26 – 80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa by the British government.
  • March 31British expedition to TibetBattle of Guru: British troops under Colonel Francis Younghusband defeat ill-equipped Tibetan troops.


  • April 6Joseph F. Smith announces the Second Manifesto in General Conference of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ending in fact the practice of plural marriage which had continued to be practiced by many of its leaders in violation of the 1890 Manifesto officially banning the practice.
  • April 8
    • The Entente Cordiale is signed between the UK and France.
    • Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.
    • Aleister Crowley begins writing Liber Al vel Legis, better known as The Book of the Law, a text central to Thelema. He completes this task on April 10.
  • April 19 – The Great Toronto Fire destroys much of that city's downtown, but there are no fatalities.
  • April 27 – The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, under Chris Watson.
  • April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri (closes December 1).


  • May 4
    • United States Army engineers begin work on the Panama Canal.
    • German football club FC Schalke 04 is established.
  • May 5
    • Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics, Cy Young of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the modern era of baseball.
    • British expedition to Tibet: Hundreds of Tibetans attack the British camp at Changlo and, for a while, hold the advantage before being defeated by superior weapons and losing at least 200 men.[1]
  • May 9Great Western Railway of England 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro becomes the first railway locomotive to exceed 100 mph (probably).
  • May 15– The Russian minelayer Amur lays a minefield about 15 miles (24 km) off Port Arthur and sinks Japan's battleships Hatsuse, 15,000 tons, with 496 crew and Yashima.
  • May 21 – The International Federation of Association Football, FIFA, is established.
  • May 30Alpha Gamma Delta, which becomes an international women's fraternity, is founded by 11 women at Syracuse University.


  • June 10 – Irish author James Joyce meets his future wife Nora Barnacle.
  • June 15 – A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York City's East River kills 1,021.
  • June 16
    • Eugen Schauman assassinates Nikolai Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland.
    • James Joyce walks to Ringsend with Nora Barnacle; he later uses this date (Bloomsday) as the setting for his novel Ulysses.
  • June 28 – The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants.
  • June 28 – The original icon of Our Lady of Kazan was stolen and subsequently destroyed in Russia.
  • June 29 – The 1904 Moscow tornado occurs.



1904 Summer Olympics

  • July 1 – The third Modern Olympic Games opens in St. Louis, Missouri, United States as part of the World's Fair is 1st Summer Olympic Games of the 20th Century.


  • August 3British expedition to Tibet: The British expedition under Colonel Francis Younghusband takes Lhasa in Tibet.
  • August 11Battle of Waterberg: Lothar von Trotha defeats the Herero in German South-West Africa and drives them into the Omaheke desert, start of the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.
  • August 14Ismael Montes becomes President of Bolivia.
  • August 17Russo-Japanese War: A Japanese infantry charge fails to take Port Arthur.
  • August 18Chris Watson resigns as Prime Minister of Australia and is succeeded by George Reid.
  • August 22 – China's Deng Xiaoping (邓小平)is born in Sichuan Province.


  • September 7British expedition to Tibet: The Dalai Lama signs the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty with Colonel Francis Younghusband.
  • September 25The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints President Joseph F. Smith issues a Second Manifesto against polygamy.
  • September 26 – New Zealand dolphin Pelorus Jack is individually protected by Order in Council under the Sea Fisheries Act.[2]


  • October 1Phi Delta Epsilon, the international medical fraternity, is founded by Aaron Brown and eight of his friends at Cornell University Medical College.
  • October 5Alpha Kappa Psi, the co-ed Professional Business Fraternity, is founded on the campus of New York University.
  • October 9 – German journalist Anna Rüling, in a speech to the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee in Berlin, makes the first known public statement of the socio-legal problems faced by lesbians.
  • October 15Theta Tau, the Professional Engineering Fraternity, is founded at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.
  • October 19Polytechnic University of the Philippines is founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O'Reilley.
  • October 21Russo-Japanese WarDogger Bank incident: The Russian Baltic Fleet fires on British trawlers it mistakes for Japanese torpedo boats in the North Sea.
  • October 27 – The first underground line of the New York City Subway opens.
  • October 28Panama and Uruguay establishes diplomatic links.


File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg

November 8: Republican Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the United States by defeating Democrat Alton B. Parker.

  • November 8U.S. presidential election, 1904: Republican incumbent Theodore Roosevelt defeats Democrat Alton B. Parker.
  • November 16 – The settlement at Grytviken on the British South Atlantic island territory of South Georgia is established by Norwegian sea captain Carl Anton Larsen as a whaling station for his Compañía Argentina de Pesca.[3]
  • November 24 – The first successful caterpillar track is made (it later revolutionizes construction vehicles and land warfare).


  • December 2 – The St. Petersburg Soviet urges a run on the banks: the attempt fails and the executive committee is arrested.
  • December 3Charles Dillon Perrine discovers Jupiter's largest irregular satellite, Himalia.
  • December 4 – The K.U. or Konservativ Ungdom (Young Conservatives) is founded by Carl F. Herman von Rosen in Denmark.
  • December 6Theodore Roosevelt announced his "Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States would intervene in the Western Hemisphere should Latin American governments prove incapable or unstable.
  • December 10 – The Pi Kappa Phi fraternity is founded at the College of Charleston in Charleston, SC.
  • December 27 – The stage play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up premieres in London.
  • December 30 – The East Boston Tunnel opens.
  • December 31 – In New York City, the first New Year's Eve celebration is held in Times Square.
File:Leclerc p1040868.jpg

November 24: caterpillar track

Date unknown[]

  • The Loftus Road and Griffin Park football stadiums open in London.
  • Stuyvesant High School is founded in New York City.
  • St. Bernard's School is founded in New York City.
  • The Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls, now Bethune-Cookman University, is founded.
  • The subject of alcohol and heart attacks is first investigated.[clarification needed]



File:Grant, Cary (Suspicion) 01 Crisco edit.jpg

Cary Grant


  • February 1
    • Ángel Borlenghi, Argentine labor leader and politician (d. 1962)
    • S. J. Perelman, American humorist and author (d. 1979)
  • February 3
    • Luigi Dallapiccola, Italian composer (d. 1975)
    • Pretty Boy Floyd, American gangster (d. 1934)
  • February 4MacKinlay Kantor, American writer and historian (d. 1977)
  • February 10
    • John Farrow, Australian film director (d. 1963)
    • Zacharias Roy, The 1st Teamspeak User
  • February 11 – Sir Keith Holyoake, Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1983)
  • February 16
    • George F. Kennan, American diplomat (d. 2005)
    • Philip Rabinowitz (runner), South African record breaking sprinter (d. 2008)
    • James Baskett, African-American actor (Uncle Remus in Disney's Song of the South) (d. 1948)
  • February 20Alexei Kosygin, Premier of the Soviet Union (d. 1980)
  • February 22Ernst Jakob Henne, German motorcycle racer and racecar driver (d. 2005)
  • February 29Jimmy Dorsey, American bandleader (d. 1957)


File:Ted Geisel NYWTS 2 crop.jpg

Dr. Seuss

  • March 1
    • Glenn Miller, American bandleader (d. 1944)
    • Paul Hartman, American actor and dancer (d. 1973)
  • March 2Dr. Seuss, American children's author (The Cat in the Hat) (d. 1991)
  • March 4
    • George Gamow, Ukrainian-born physicist (d. 1968)
    • Joseph Schmidt, Austrian-Hungarian tenor and actor (d. 1942)
    • Chief Tahachee, American-born stage and film actor (d. 1978)
  • March 5Mow Pang Tzu, Republic of China air force general (d. 1987)
  • March 6Hugh Williams, English actor and dramatist (d. 1969)
  • March 7Reinhard Heydrich, German Nazi official (d. 1942)
  • March 14Doris Eaton Travis, American actress (d. 2010)
  • March 15J. Pat O'Malley, English actor (d. 1985)
  • March 20Frank Mills (politician), American politician in Ohio legislature (1969)
    • B. F. Skinner, American behavioral psychologist (d. 1990)
  • March 22Itche Goldberg, Yiddish author (d. 2006)
  • March 26
    • Gustave Biéler, Swiss-born hero of World War II (executed) (d. 1944)
    • Joseph Campbell, American author on mythology (d. 1987)
    • Xenophon Zolotas, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2004)


File:Kurt Georg Kiesinger (Nürburgring, 1969).jpg

Kurt Georg Kiesinger

File:Sir John Gielgud actor.jpg

Sir John Gielgud

  • April 1Nikolai Berzarin, Russian Red Army General (d. 1945)
  • April 3Sally Rand, American dancer and actress (d. 1979)
  • April 6Kurt Georg Kiesinger, former Chancellor of West Germany (d. 1988)
  • April 8John Hicks, English economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1989)
  • April 9Sharkey Bonano, American jazz musician (d. 1972)
  • April 13Elwood "Pete" Quesada, American air force general (d. 1993)
  • April 14John Gielgud, English actor (d. 2000)
  • April 15Arshile Gorky, Armenian-born painter (d. 1948)
  • April 16Fifi D'Orsay, Canadian actress (d. 1983)

J. Robert Oppenheimer


File:Salvador Dalí 1939.jpg

Salvador Dali

  • May 4
    • Joaquín García Morato, Spanish fighter ace (d. 1939)
    • Umm Kulthum, Egyptian singer and actress (d. 1975)
  • May 6
    • Moshé Feldenkrais, Ukrainian-born engineer (d. 1984)
    • Harry Martinson, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1978)
  • May 8John Snagge, British radio personality (d. 1996)
  • May 10James Roy Andersen, American general (d. 1945)
  • May 11Salvador Dalí, Spanish artist (d. 1989)
  • May 17
    • Marie-Anne Desmarest, French novelist (d. 1973)
    • Jean Gabin, French actor (d. 1976)
  • May 20Margery Allingham, British detective fiction writer (d. 1966)
  • May 21
    • Fats Waller, American pianist and comedian (d. 1943)
    • Robert Montgomery, American actor and director (d. 1981)
  • May 22Anne de Vries, Dutch writer (d. 1964)
  • May 25Charles L. Melson, United States Navy admiral (d. 1981)
  • May 26George Formby, English singer and comedian (d. 1961)
  • May 27Chūhei Nambu, Japanese athlete (d. 1997)
  • May 30Doris Packer, American actress (d. 1979)


File:Johny Weissmuller-publicity.JPG

Johnny Weissmuller

  • June 2
    • František Plánička, Czech footballer (d. 1996)
    • Johnny Weissmuller, American swimmer and actor (Tarzan) (d. 1984)
  • June 3Jan Peerce, American tenor (d. 1984)
  • June 6
    • Heinrich von Brentano, German politician (d. 1964)
    • Francisco López Merino, Argentine poet (d. 1928)
  • June 8Angus McBean, Welsh photographer (d. 1990)
  • June 18Keye Luke, Chinese-born American actor (d. 1991)
  • June 22William O. Gallery, American admiral (d. 1981)
  • June 24Phil Harris, American actor (d. 1995)
  • June 26Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born film actor (d. 1964)


File:Christopher Isherwood 6 Allan Warren.jpg

Christopher Isherwood

File:Werner Forssmann nobel.jpg

Werner Forssmann

File:Deng Xiaoping.jpg

Deng Xiaoping

  • July 2René Lacoste, French tennis player and businessman (d. 1996)
  • July 5Ernst Mayr, German-born biologist and author (d. 2005)
  • July 6Erik Wickberg, General of The Salvation Army (d. 1996)
  • July 8Henri Cartan, French mathematician (d. 2008)
  • July 12Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • July 15Rudolf Arnheim, German-born author (d. 2007)
  • July 24Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov, Soviet admiral (d. 1974)
  • July 26Edwin Albert Link, American pioneer in aviation, underwater archaeology, submersibles, inventor of aeronautical, navigation, and oceanographic equipment (d. 1981)
  • July 28Pavel Cherenkov, Soviet physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
  • July 29J. R. D. Tata, Indian businessman (d. 1993)


  • August 4
    • Witold Gombrowicz, Polish novelist and dramatist (d. 1969)
    • Helen Kane, American singer, dancer, comedian, and actress (d. 1966)
  • August 7Ralph Bunche, American diplomat, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1971)
  • August 12Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia (d. 1918)
  • August 13
    • Charles "Buddy" Rogers, American actor and jazz musician (d. 1999)
    • Jonathan Hole, American actor (d. 1998)
  • August 16
    • Minoru Genda, Japanese aviator, naval officer, and politician (d. 1989)
    • Wendell Meredith Stanley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
  • August 17
    • Mary Cain, American newspaper editor and politician (d. 1984)
    • Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (d. 1991)
  • August 19George de la Warr, British alternative physician (d. 1969)
  • August 21Count Basie, American musician and bandleader (d. 1984)
  • August 22
    • Deng Xiaoping, Chinese leader (d. 1997)
    • Jay Novello, American actor (d. 1982)
  • August 23
    • Viscountess Furness, born Thelma Morgan, American socialite twin (d. 1970)
    • Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt, born Gloria Morgan, American socialite twin (d. 1965)
    • William Primrose, Scottish violist (d. 1982)
  • August 24Ida Cook, English campaigner for Jewish refugees, and romantic novelist as Mary Burchell (d. 1986)
  • August 26
    • Christopher Isherwood, English writer (d. 1986)
    • Georgia Schmidt, American actress (d. 1997)
  • August 28Secondo Campini, Italian jet pioneer (d. 1980)
  • August 29Werner Forssmann, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1979)


File:Greer Garson in Pride and Prejudice2.jpg

Greer Garson


  • October 1
    • Irene Craigmile Bolam, American Amelia Earhart look-alike/believed alias (d. 1982)
    • A. K. Gopalan, Indian communist leader (d. 1977)
  • October 2Graham Greene, English author (d. 1991)
  • October 3Charles J. Pedersen, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1989)
  • October 9Wally Brown, American actor and comedian (d. 1961)
  • October 18Haim Shirman, Russian-born Israeli professor of medieval Spanish Jewish poetry (d. 1981)
  • October 20Tommy Douglas, Canadian politician (d. 1986)
  • October 23Harvey Penick, American golfer (d. 1995)
  • October 25Vladimir Peter Tytla, American animator (d. 1968)



File:Clarence Nash San Diego Comic Con 1982 crop.jpg

Clarence Nash

File:George Stevens with Oscar for Giant.jpg

George Stevens

  • December 4Albert Norden, German politician (d. 1982)
  • December 6Ève Curie, French author (d. 2007)
  • December 7Clarence Nash, American voice actor (d. 1985)
  • December 12 – Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg, French-born magazine editor and socialite (d. 1981)
  • December 18George Stevens, American film director (d. 1975)
  • December 20Rambai Barni Svastivatana, Queen consort of King Prajadhipok of Siam. (d. 1984)
  • December 24
    • Joseph M. Juran, American engineer and philanthropist (d. 2008)
    • Herbert D. Riley, United States Navy admiral (d. 1973)
  • December 25
    • Gerhard Herzberg, German-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1999)
    • Flemmie Pansy Kittrell, American nutritionist (d. 1980)
  • December 26Alejo Carpentier, Cuban writer (d. 1980)
  • December 27Linwood G. Dunn, special effects artist (d. 1998)
  • December 30
    • Dmitri Kabalevsky, Russian composer (d. 1987)
    • David M. Shoup, American general (d. 1983)

Date unknown[]

  • Bernard Castro, Italian inventor (d. 1991)
  • Tevfik Esenç, Turkish-born last speaker of the Ubykh language (d. 1992)
  • Soeman Hs, Indonesian author and educator (d. 1999)



File:Reina Isabel II de España.jpg

Isabella II of Spain


Antonín Dvořák

File:Manuel Candamo.jpg

Manuel Candamo

File:Henry M Stanley 1872.jpg

Henry Morton Stanley

  • January 2James Longstreet, Confederate Civil War general (b. 1821)
  • January 7Emmanuel Rhoides, Greek writer (b. 1836)
  • January 10Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter (b. 1824)
  • January 17Sir Henry Keppel, British admiral (b. 1809)
  • February 4Rudolf Maison, German sculptor (b. 1854)
  • February 8Alfred Ainger, English biographer (b. 1837)
  • February 15Mark Hanna, United States Senator from Ohio (b. 1837)
  • February 22Leslie Stephen, English writer and critic (b. 1832)
  • March 5
    • Alfred von Waldersee, German Army marshal (b. 1832)
    • John Lowther du Plat Taylor, British founder of the Army Post Office Corps (b. 1829)
  • March 17Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, grandson of King George III (b. 1819)
  • March 18William Elbridge Sewell, American naval officer and Governor of Guam (b. 1851)
  • April 5Tom Allen, British boxing champion (b. 1840)
  • April 10 – Queen Isabella II of Spain (b. 1830)
  • April 13Stepan Makarov, Russian admiral (killed in action) (b. 1849)
  • May 1Antonín Dvořák, Czech composer (b. 1841)
  • May 6Franz von Lenbach, German painter (b. 1836)
  • May 7Manuel Candamo, Peruvian politician, 30th President of Peru (b. 1841)
  • May 8Eadweard Muybridge, English photographer and motion picture pioneer (b. 1830)
  • May 10Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh explorer and journalist (b. 1841)
  • May 19Auguste Molinier, French historian (b. 1851)
  • June 3Vincent Tancred, South African cricketer (b. 1875)
  • June 4George Frederick Phillips, Canadian-born military hero (b. 1862)
  • June 12Camille of Renesse-Breidbach, Belgian Count (b. 1836)
  • June 16Nikolay Bobrikov, Russian soldier and politician, Governor-General of Finland (b. 1839)
  • June 22Karl Ritter von Stremayr, former Prime Minister of Austria (b. 1832)


File:Theodor Herzl.jpg

Theodor Herzl

File:Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau by Nadar.jpg

Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau

  • July 1George Frederic Watts, British symbolist painter and sculptor (b. 1817)
  • July 3Theodor Herzl, Austrian founder of Zionism (b. 1860)
  • July 6Abai Qunanbaiuli, Kazakh poet (b. 1845)
  • July 14Paul Kruger, President of the South African Republic. (b. 1825)
  • July 15Anton Chekhov, Russian writer (b. 1860)
  • July 26Henry Clay Taylor, American admiral (b. 1845)
  • August 6Eduard Hanslick, Austrian music critic (b. 1825)
  • August 10
    • Wilgelm Vitgeft, Russian admiral (killed in action) (b. 1847)
    • Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, French statesman, 68th Prime Minister of France (b. 1846)
  • August 12
    • Kawamura Sumiyoshi, Japanese admiral (b. 1836)
    • William Renshaw, British tennis player (b. 1861)
  • August 16 – Colonel Prentiss Ingraham, American author of dime fiction (b. 1843)
  • August 22Kate Chopin, American author (b. 1850)
  • August 25Henri Fantin-Latour, French painter (b. 1836)
  • August 29 – Ottoman Sultan Murad V (b. 1840)
  • September 22Wilson Barrett, English actor (b. 1846)
  • September 24Niels Ryberg Finsen, Icelandic/Faroese/Danish physician and scientist (b. 1860)
  • September 26
    • Lafcadio Hearn, American-Japanese author (b. 1850)
    • John F. Stairs, Canadian businessman and statesman (b. 1848)
  • October 4
    • Frédéric Bartholdi, French sculptor (b. 1834)
    • Laurence Hope, English poet (b. 1865)
  • October 15George, King of Saxony (b. 1832)
  • October 21Isabelle Eberhardt, Swiss-Algerian explorer (b. 1877)
  • November 28Fanny Janauschek, Czech actress (b. 1829)

Nobel Prizes[]


  1. Grant, Neil (1993). Chronicle of 20th Century Conflict. New York City: Reed International Books Ltd. & Smithmark Publishers Inc. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-8317-1371-2.
  2. Alpers, A.F.G. (1966). "Pelorus Jack". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
  3. Headland, R. K. (1984). The Island of South Georgia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25274-1.