Culture Wikia

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1899 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1899
Ab urbe condita2652
Armenian calendar1348
Assyrian calendar6649
Bahá'í calendar55–56
Balinese saka calendar1820–1821
Bengali calendar1306
Berber calendar2849
British Regnal year62 Vict. 1 – 63 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2443
Burmese calendar1261
Byzantine calendar7407–7408
Chinese calendar戊戌(Earth Dog)
4595 or 4535
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4596 or 4536
Coptic calendar1615–1616
Discordian calendar3065
Ethiopian calendar1891–1892
Hebrew calendar5659–5660
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1955–1956
 - Shaka Samvat1820–1821
 - Kali Yuga4999–5000
Holocene calendar11899
Igbo calendar899–900
Iranian calendar1277–1278
Islamic calendar1316–1317
Japanese calendarMeiji 32
Javanese calendar1828–1829
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4232
Minguo calendar13 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar431
Thai solar calendar2441–2442
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
2025 or 1644 or 872
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
2026 or 1645 or 873

1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1899th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 899th year of the , the 99th year of the , and the 10th and last year of the decade. As of the start of 1899, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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January 1: Cuba free.


January 21: Opel car.

  • January 22 – The leaders of six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne to discuss the confederation of Australia as a whole.
  • January 23
    • Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic.
    • British Southern Cross Expedition crosses the Antarctic Circle.
  • February 2 – The Australian Premiers' Conference held in Melbourne agrees that Australia's capital (Canberra) should be located between Sydney and Melbourne.
  • February 4 – The Philippine–American War begins as hostilities break out in Manila.
  • February 6Spanish–American War: A peace treaty between the United States and Spain is ratified by the United States Senate.
  • February 12February 14Great Blizzard of 1899: Freezing temperatures and snow extend well south into North America, including southern Florida. It is the latest in a series of disasters to Florida's citrus industry.
  • February 14Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
  • February 15 – The February Manifesto is issued by the Emperor of Russia decreeing that a veto by the Diet of Finland may be overruled in legislative matters concerning the interest of all Russia, including autonomous Finland. The manifesto is viewed as unconstitutional and a coup d'état by many Finns who have come to consider their country a separate constitutional state in its own right in union with the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the manifesto also fails to elaborate the criteria that a law has to meet in order to be considered to concern Russian imperial interests and not an internal affair of Finland – affairs over which the Diet's authority is supposed have remained unaltered – leaving it to be decided by the autocratic Emperor. This results in Finnish fears that the Diet of Finland may be overruled arbitrarily.
  • February 16Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur, the first Association football club in Iceland, is established in the island's capital, Reykjavík.
  • February 25 – In an accident at Grove Hill, Harrow, London, England, Edwin Sewell becomes the world's first driver of a petrol-driven vehicle to be killed; his passenger, Maj. James Richer, dies of injuries three days later.[1]
  • March 1 – In Afghanistan, Capt. George Roos-Keppel makes a sudden attack on a predatory band of Chamkannis that have been raiding in the Kurram Valley, and captures 100 prisoners with 3,000 head of cattle.
  • March 2 – In Washington state, USA, Mount Rainier National Park is established.
  • March 4Cyclone Mahina strikes Bathurst Bay, Queensland. A 12 m wave reaches up to 5 km inland, leaving over 400 dead, the deadliest natural disaster in Australia's history.

March 6: Aspirin.

  • March 6Felix Hoffmann patents aspirin and Bayer registers its name as a trademark.
  • March 8 – The Frankfurter Fußball-Club Victoria von 1899 (predecessor of Eintracht Frankfurt) is founded.
  • March 20 – At Sing Sing prison in Ossining, New York, Martha M. Place becomes the first woman executed in an electric chair.
  • March 24George Dewey is made Admiral of the US Navy.
  • March 27
    • Guglielmo Marconi successfully transmits a radio signal across the English Channel.[2]
    • Philippine–American WarBattle of Marilao River: Filipino forces under the personal command of Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Philippines, fail to prevent troops of the United States Army crossing the river.
  • March 30 German Society of Chemistry issued an invitation to other national scientific organizations to appoint delegates to the International Committee on Atomic Weights.


  • April 15 – Students at the University of California, Berkeley steal the Stanford Axe from Stanford University yelling at leaders following a baseball game, thus establishing the Axe as a symbol of the rivalry between the schools.
  • April 26Jean Sibelius' 1. Symphony premiers in Helsinki.
  • May 3Ferencvárosi TC Association football club is founded in Budapest.
  • May 13Esporte Clube Vitória Association football club is founded in Salvador, Brazil.
  • May 14 – Three times world champion Club Nacional de Football is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay.
  • May 18 – The First Hague Peace Conference is opened in The Hague by Willem de Beaufort, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.
  • May 30 – Female outlaw Pearl Hart robs a stage coach 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Globe, Arizona.
  • May 31 – Launch of the Harriman Alaska Expedition.
  • June 12 – The New Richmond tornado completely destroys the town of New Richmond, Wisconsin, killing 117 and injuring more than 200.
  • June 17David Hilbert creates the modern concept of geometry with the publication of his book Grundlagen der Geometrie, released on this date at Göttingen.[3]
  • June 19Edward Elgar's Enigma Variations premiered in London.
  • June 2227 – The highest ever recorded individual cricket score, 628 not out, is made by A. E. J. Collins.
  • June 25 – Three Denver newspapers publish a story (later proved to be a fabrication) that the Chinese government under the Guangxu Emperor is going to demolish the Great Wall of China.
  • June 27 – The paperclip is patented by Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor.[4]
  • June 30Mile-a-Minute Murphy earns his nickname after he becomes the first man to ride a bicycle for one mile (1.6 km) in under a minute on Long Island.


  • July 1 – The International Council of Nurses is founded in London at a meeting of the Matron's Council of Great Britain and Ireland.[5]
  • July 14 – First Republic of Acre declared in South America.
  • July 17
    • America's first juvenile court is established in Chicago.
    • NEC Corporation is organized as the first Japanese joint venture with foreign capital.
    • Battle of Togbao: The French BretonnetBraun mission is destroyed in Chad, by the warlord Rabih az-Zubayr.
    • The Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation takes effect, ending extraterritoriality and the unequal status of Japan in foreign commerce.[6]
  • July 19 – The Newsboys' strike takes place when the Newsies of New York go on strike (until August 2).
  • July 27 – Gold is discovered in Nome, Alaska, leading to the Nome Gold Rush.[7]
  • July 29 – The first Peace Conference ends with the signing of the First Hague Convention.
  • July 30 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition ends successfully.
  • August 3 – The John Marshall Law School is founded in Chicago
  • August 10Marshall "Major" Taylor wins the world 1-mile (1.6 km) professional cycling championship in Montreal, securing his place as the first African American world champion in any sport.[8]
  • August 17 – The San Ciriaco hurricane makes landfall in North Carolina's Outer Banks, completely destroying the town of Diamond City.
  • August 28 – At least 512 are killed when a debris hill from the Sumitomo Besshi copper mine at Niihama, Shikoku, Japan, collapses after heavy rain; 122 houses, a smelting factory, hospital and many other facilities are destroyed.[citation needed]
  • August 31Olympique de Marseille, as well known for football club in France, founded.[citation needed]
  • September 6 – The White Star Line's transatlantic ocean liner RMS Oceanic sails on her maiden voyage. At 17,272 gross tons and 704 ft (215 m), she is the largest ship afloat, following scrapping of the SS Great Eastern a decade earlier.[9]
  • September 13Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya.
  • September 18Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag is registered for copyright as ragtime music enjoys mainstream popularity in the United States.
  • September 19Alfred Dreyfus is pardoned in France.


  • The Duke of York Island outside Antarctica is discovered by the British Southern Cross Expedition.
  • October 11 – The Second Boer War: In South Africa, a war between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.
  • October 13 – Second Boer War: Siege of Mafeking begins.
  • October 14 – Second Boer War: Kimberley comes under siege by the Boers.
  • October 20 – Second Boer War: Battle of Talana Hill: In the first major clash of the conflict, near Dundee, Natal, the British Army drives the Boers from a hilltop position, but with heavy casualties, including their commanding general Sir Penn Symons.
  • October 30 – Second Boer War: The Siege of Ladysmith begins.
  • October 30 – The Augusta High School Building is completed in Augusta, Kentucky; Augusta Methodist College shuts down.
  • November 4 – The Alpha Sigma Tau Sorority is founded in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
  • November 8 – The New York Zoological Society opens the Bronx Zoological Park to the public in New York City.
  • November 15 – The American Line's SS St. Paul becomes the first ocean liner to report her imminent arrival by wireless telegraphy when Marconi's station at The Needles contacts her 66 nautical miles (122 km) off the coast of England.
  • November 24Mahdist War: Decisive British and Egyptian victory at the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat ends the war in Sudan.
  • November 29 – The FC Barcelona Association football club is founded.
  • December 2
    • Philippine–American WarBattle of Tirad Pass ("The Filipino Thermopylae"): General Gregorio del Pilar and his troops are able to guard the retreat of Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo before being wiped out.
    • During the new moon, a near-grand conjunction of the classical planets and several binocular Solar System bodies occur. The Sun, Moon, Mercury, Mars and Saturn are all within 15° of each other, with Venus 5° ahead of this conjunction and Jupiter 15° behind. Accompanying the classical planets in this grand conjunction are Uranus (technically visible unaided in pollution-free skies), Ceres and Pallas.
  • December 10 – 4-month-old Sobhuza II begins his 82-year reign as King of Swaziland on the death of his father, Ngwane V; his grandmother Labotsibeni Mdluli serves as queen regent.
  • December 15Glasgow School of Art opens its new building, the most notable work of Scottish architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[10]
  • December 16
    • The Association football club A.C. Milan is founded in Italy.
    • Augusta High School in Augusta, Kentucky, burns down due to a heating plant failure.
  • December 31 – A large standing stone at Stonehenge falls over, the most recent time this has happened.

Date unknown[]

  • The significance of Chinese oracle bones is discovered.
  • The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the town of Manteo, which was originally laid out as the Dare county seat in 1870.
  • Riro, last of the Kings of Easter Island, on a visit to Valparaíso, Chile, dies either from alcohol poisoning or an assassination plot by the Chilean government.[11]
  • Oxo beef stock cubes introduced by Liebig's Extract of Meat Company.
  • Alfred R. Tucker becomes Bishop of Uganda.[12]
  • German company Miele is founded.




File:Ramon Novarro photograph.jpg

Ramon Novarro

File:Erich Kästner 1961.jpg

Erich Kästner

  • February 2Herbie Faye, American actor (d. 1980)
  • February 3
    • Doris Speed, British actress (d. 1994)
    • Lao She, Chinese author (d. 1966)
  • February 6Ramón Novarro, Mexican actor (d. 1968)
  • February 7Earl Whitehill, American baseball player (d. 1954)
  • February 15
    • Georges Auric, French composer (d. 1983)
    • Gale Sondergaard, American actress (d. 1985)
  • February 17
    • Jibanananda Das, Indian poet, writer, novelist and essayist in Bengali (d. 1954)
    • Leo Najo, American baseball player (d. 1978)
  • February 19Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, German scientist (d. 1961)
  • February 22
    • Joseph Le Brix, French aviator and naval officer (d. 1931)
    • George O'Hara, American actor (d. 1966)
    • Ian Clunies Ross, Australian scientist (d. 1959)
    • Dechko Uzunov, Bulgarian painter (d. 1986)
  • February 23Erich Kästner, German writer (d. 1974)
  • February 26
    • Alec Campbell, Australian WWI soldier, last Australian Gallipoli veteran (d. 2002)
    • Max Petitpierre, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1994)
  • February 27Charles Best, Canadian medical scientist (d. 1978)


File:Gloria Swanson photograph.jpg

Gloria Swanson

  • March 4Harry R. Wellman, University of California president (d. 1997)
  • March 8
    • Eric Linklater, American author (d. 1974)
    • Elmer Keith, American rancher, author, firearms enthusiast (d. 1984)
  • March 11 – King Frederick IX of Denmark (d. 1972)
  • March 13John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1980)
  • March 18Jean Goldkette, French-born musician (d. 1962)
  • March 24Dorothy C. Stratton, American director of the SPARS during World War II (d. 2006)
  • March 27Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
  • March 28August Anheuser Busch, Jr., Founder of Anheuser-Busch brewery company (d. 1989)
  • March 28Harold B. Lee, eleventh president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1973)
  • March 29Lavrentiy Beria, Soviet official (d. 1953)


File:Duke Ellington restored.jpg

Duke Ellington


File:Astaire, Fred - Never Get Rich.jpg

Fred Astaire

File:Suzanne Lenglen 02.jpg

Suzanne Lenglen

  • May 6Billy Cotton, British entertainer and bandleader (d. 1969)
  • May 8Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1992)
  • May 10
  • May 12Indra Devi, Baltic-born yogi and actress (d. 2002)
  • May 15Jean-Étienne Valluy, French general (d. 1970)
  • May 17Carmen de Icaza, Spanish writer (d. 1979)
  • May 20John Marshall Harlan II, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1971)
  • May 23Jeralean Talley, American supercentenarian (d. 2015)
  • May 24
    • Suzanne Lenglen, French tennis player (d. 1938)
    • Kazi Nazrul Islam, Bangladeshi National poet (d. 1976)
  • May 30Irving Thalberg, American film producer (d. 1936)



File:George Cukor - 1946.jpg

George Cukor

File:James cagney promo photo.jpg

James Cagney


Ernest Hemingway

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2007-0037, Gustav Heinemann.jpg

Gustav Heinemann

  • July 1
    • Charles Laughton, English-American stage and film actor (d. 1962)
    • Konstantinos Tsatsos, President of Greece (d. 1987)
  • July 5Marcel Achard, French play and scriptwriter (d. 1974)
  • July 6Susannah Mushatt Jones, American supercentenarian (d. 2016)
  • July 7
    • George Cukor, American film director (d. 1983)
    • Jesse Wallace, American naval officer, 29th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1961)
  • July 11
    • Frank R. Walker, American admiral (d. 1976)
    • E. B. White, American writer (d. 1985)
  • July 15Seán Lemass, Taoiseach of Ireland (d. 1971)
  • July 17James Cagney, American actor (d. 1986)
  • July 21
  • July 22 – King Sobhuza II of Swaziland (d. 1982)
  • July 23Gustav Heinemann, former German president (d. 1976)
  • July 24Chief Dan George (d. 1981)
  • July 29
    • Walter Beall, American baseball player (d. 1959)
    • Alice Terry, American film actress (d. 1987)


File:PL Travers.jpg

P. L. Travers

File:Hitchcock, Alfred 02.jpg

Alfred Hitchcock

File:Charles Boyer photograph.jpg

Charles Boyer

  • August 4Ezra Taft Benson, 13th president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1994)
  • August 9
    • Paul Kelly, stage & film actor (d. 1956)
    • P. L. Travers, Australian-born British actress, journalist and author (d. 1996)
  • August 13Alfred Hitchcock, British film director (d. 1980)
  • August 24
    • Jorge Luis Borges, Argentine writer (d. 1986)
    • Albert Claude, Belgian biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1983)
  • August 27Byron Foulger, American actor (d. 1970)
  • August 28
    • Charles Boyer, French actor (d. 1978)
    • Vernon Huber, American Rear admiral (United States); 36th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1967)
  • August 29
    • Lyman Lemnitzer, American general (d. 1988)
    • Rufino Tamayo, Mexican painter (d. 1991)
  • August 30Ray Arcel, American boxing trainer (d. 1994)
  • August 31Boots Adams, American business magnate, president of Phillips Petroleum Company (d. 1975)


  • September 1
    • Andrei Platonovich Klimentov, Russian-born Soviet writer (d. 1951)
    • Takuma Nishimura, Japanese general (d. 1951)
  • September 3Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australian biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1985)
  • September 9
    • Brassaï, French photographer (d. 1984)
    • Waite Hoyt, American baseball player (d. 1984)
  • September 13Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Romanian fascist politician, leader of the Iron Guard (d. 1938)
  • September 17Harold Bennett, British actor (d. 1981)
  • September 21Frederick Coutts, 8th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1986)
  • September 23Tom C. Clark, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1977)
  • September 28Boris Yefimov, Russian political cartoonist (d. 2008)



  • November 5Forrest Lewis, American actor (d. 1977)
  • November 6Feng Zhanhai, Chinese military leader and government official (d. 1963)
  • November 7Yitzhak Lamdan, Russian-born Israeli poet and columnist (d. 1954)
  • November 13Vera Caspary, American screenwriter, novelist, playwright (d. 1987)
  • November 15
    • Avdy Andresson, Estonian Minister of War in Exile (d. 1990)
    • Iskander Mirza, first President of Pakistan (d. 1969)
  • November 17Douglas Shearer, American film sound engineer (d. 1971)
  • November 18Eugene Ormandy, Hungarian conductor (d. 1985)
  • November 19Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Shia Ayatollah (d. 1992)
  • November 21Jobyna Ralston, American actress (d. 1967)
  • November 22Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, pianist, singer, actor, and bandleader (d. 1981)
  • November 23Manuel dos Reis Machado, Brazilian martial arts Master (d. 1974)
  • November 24Soraya Tarzi, Afghan feminist and queen (d. 1968)
  • November 26
    • Mona Bruns, American actress on the stage, films, radio, and television (d. 2000)
    • Richard Hauptmann, German murderer of Charles Lindbergh, Jr. (d. 1936)
    • Maurice Rose, American general (d. 1945)
  • November 29Emma Morano, Italian supercentenarian, oldest living person, oldest Italian person ever, and last known living person born in the 1800s.


File:Noël Coward 01.jpg

Noël Coward

File:Humphrey Bogart 1945.JPG

Humphrey Bogart

  • December 1Gaetano Lucchese, American gangster and future boss of the Lucchese crime family (d. 1967)
  • December 2
    • John Barbirolli, English conductor (d. 1970)
    • Ray Morehart, American baseball player (d. 1989)
  • December 3Hayato Ikeda, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1965)
  • December 8John Qualen, Canadian-American actor (d. 1987)
  • December 9Jean de Brunhoff, French writer (d. 1937)
  • December 15Harold Abrahams, British athlete (d. 1978)
  • December 14DeFord Bailey, American country musician (d. 1982)
  • December 16
    • Noël Coward, English actor, playwright, and composer (d. 1973)
    • Aleksander Zawadzki, former President of Poland (d. 1964)
  • December 18Peter Wessel Zapffe, Norwegian author and philosopher (d. 1990)
  • December 25
    • Humphrey Bogart, American actor (d. 1957)
    • Frank Ferguson, American actor (d. 1978)
  • December 28Eugeniusz Bodo, Polish actor (d. 1943)
  • December 29Nie Rongzhen, Chinese Communist military leader (d. 1992)
  • December 31Friedrich Panse, German psychiatrist (d. 1973)

Date unknown[]

  • Claire Huchet Bishop, author of The Five Chinese Brothers with the illustrator Kurt Wiese and The Man Who Lost His Head with the illustrator Robert McCloskey (d. 1993)
  • Burr Shafer, American cartoonist (d. 1965)
  • Otto Klemperer, German physicist (d. 1987)



File:Alfred Sisley photo full.jpg

Alfred Sisley

File:Paul Julius Reuter 1869.jpg

Paul Reuter

File:Antonio luna small.jpg

Antonio Luna

  • January 23Romualdo Pacheco, Governor of California (b. 1831)
  • January 29Alfred Sisley, French Impressionist landscape painter (b. 1839)
  • January 31Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma, Princess-consort of Bulgaria (b. 1870)
  • February 6
    • Leo von Caprivi, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1831)
    • Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (b. 1874)
  • February 16Félix Faure, President of France (b. 1841)
  • February 25Paul Reuter, German-born news agency founder (b. 1816)
  • March 3William P. Sprague, American politician from Ohio (b. 1827)
  • March 6 – Princess Kaʻiulani, last monarch of Hawaii (b. 1875)
  • March 20Martha Place, American murderer, first woman executed in the electric chair (b. 1849)
  • March 24Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin, Swiss national and international women's rights activist and pacifist (b. 1826)
  • April 1Charles C. Carpenter, American admiral (b. 1834)
  • April 5T. E. Ellis, Welsh politician (b. 1859)
  • April 7Pieter Rijke, Dutch physicist (b. 1812)
  • April 16Emilio Jacinto, Filipino poet and revolutionary (b. 1875)
  • April 22Johann Köler, Estonian painter (b. 1826)
  • May 24William Brett, 1st Viscount Esher, British law lord (b. 1817)
  • May 25Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, President of the First Spanish Republic (b. 1832)
  • June 3Johann Strauss, Jr., Austrian composer (b. 1825)
  • June 4Eugenio Beltrami, Italian mathematician (b. 1835)
  • June 5Antonio Luna, Filipino general (killed in action) (b. 1866)
  • June 7Augustin Daly, American theatrical impresario and playwright (b. 1838)
  • June 10Ernest Chausson, French composer (b. 1855)


File:Robert Bunsen 02.jpg

Robert Bunsen

  • July 18Horatio Alger, Jr., American writer (b. 1832)
  • July 21Robert G. Ingersoll, American politician (b. 1833)
  • July 27Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa, German chess-master (b. 1818)
  • August 4Karl, Freiherr von Prel, German philosopher (b. 1839)
  • August 9Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia, Russian Grand Duke, younger brother of Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1871)
  • August 16Robert Bunsen, German chemist (b. 1811)
  • September 2Ernest Renshaw, British tennis player (b. 1861)
  • September 12Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (b. 1843)
  • September 17Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist (b. 1842)
  • September 28Giovanni Segantini, Italian painter (b. 1858)
  • October 2Percy Pilcher, British aviation pioneer and glider pilot (b. 1866)
  • October 23Penn Symons, British general (died of wounds) (b. 1843)
  • October 30William Henry Webb, American industrialist and philanthropist (b. 1816)
  • November 16
    • Vincas Kudirka, Lithuanian doctor, poet, and national hero (b. 1858)
    • Julius Hermann Moritz Busch, German publicist (b. 1821)
  • November 21Garret Hobart, 24th Vice President of the United States (b. 1844)
  • November 23Thomas Henry Ismay, British owner of the White Star Line (b. 1837)
  • November 24Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Sudanese political and religious leader (killed in battle) (b. 1846)
  • November 28Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione (b. 1837)
  • December 2Gregorio del Pilar, Filipino general (killed in battle) (b. 1875)
  • December 10 – King Ngwane V of Swaziland (b. 1876)
  • December 19Henry Ware Lawton, American general (b. 1843)
  • December 22Dwight L. Moody, American evangelist (b. 1837)
  • December 27Erebus Black, English occultist (b. 1851)

Date unknown[]

  • Emma Hardinge Britten, British writer (b. 1823)


  1. "Motoring Firsts". National Motor Museum Trust. Archived from the original on August 21, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  2. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  3. Klaus Volkert, ed., David Hilbert: Grundlagen der Geometrie (Springer, 2015) p. ix; Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940 (Elsevier, 2005), p713
  4. Inventors: Paperclip.
  5. Lewenson, Sandra B. (2013). Taking Charge: Nursing, Suffrage, and Feminism in America, 1873-1920. Routledge. p. 95.
  6. Henning, Joseph M. (2000). Outposts of Civilization: Race, Religion, and the Formative Years of American-Japanese Relations. New York University Press. p. 134.
  7. Berton, Pierre (1972). Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899. Anchor Canada.
  8. "Professional Information". The Major Taylor Society. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  9. "R.M.S. Oceanic (II)". Jeff Newman. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  10. "Congratulations to the Glasgow School of Art as they celebrate 100th anniversary of the Mackintosh Building". Museums Galleries Scotland. December 15, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  11. Fischer, Steven R., Island at the End of the World, p. 153
  12. "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library. 1908. Retrieved September 24, 2013.