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Template:C19 year in topic

1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1898th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 898th year of the , the 98th year of the , and the 9th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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File:World 1898 empires colonies territory.png

1898 world map


  • January 1New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York as the world's second largest. The city is geographically divided into five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Staten Island.
  • January 13 – Novelist Émile Zola's open letter to the President of the French Republic on the Dreyfus affair, J'accuse…!, is published on the front page of the Paris daily newspaper L'Aurore, accusing the government of wrongfully imprisoning Alfred Dreyfus and of antisemitism.
  • February 12 – The electric car belonging to Henry Lindfield of Brighton rolls out of control down a hill in Purley, London, England, and hits a tree; thus he becomes the world's first fatality from an automobile accident on a public highway.[1][2][3]
  • February 15Spanish–American War: The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor, Cuba, for reasons never fully established, killing 266 men. The event percipitates the United States' declaration of war on Spain two months later.
File:USS Maine h60255a.jpg

February 15: USS Maine is sunk.

  • March 24 – Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania, becomes the first person to buy an American-built automobile when he buys a Winton automobile that has been advertised in Scientific American.
  • March 26 – The Sabie Game Reserve in South Africa is created, the first officially designated game reserve.


  • April 5Annie Oakley promotes the service of women in combat situations with the United States military. On this day, she writes a letter to President McKinley "offering the government the services of a company of 50 'lady sharpshooters' who would provide their own arms and ammunition should war break out with Spain."[4] In the history of women in the military, there are records of female U.S. Revolutionary and Civil War soldiers who enlisted using male pseudonyms, but Oakley's letter represents possibly the earliest political move towards women's rights for combat service in the United States military.
  • April 22Spanish–American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
  • April 25Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain; the U.S. Congress announces that a state of war has existed since April 21 (later backdating this one more day to April 20).
  • April 25: In Essen German company Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk RWE is founded.[5]
  • April 26 – An explosion in Santa Cruz, California, kills 13 workers at the California Powder Works.[6]
  • May 1Spanish–American WarBattle of Manila Bay: Commodore Dewey destroys the Spanish squadron. The first battle of the war, as well as the first battle in the Philippines Campaign.
  • May 2 – Thousands of Chinese scholars and Beijing citizens seeking reforms protest in front of the capital control yuan.
  • May 7May 9Bava-Beccaris massacre: Hundreds of demonstrators are killed when General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris orders troops to fire on a rally in Milan, Italy.
  • May 8 – The first games of the Italian Football League are played.
  • May 12Bombardment of San Juan, the first major battle of the Puerto Rican Campaign during the Spanish–American War.
  • May 27 – The territory of Kwang-Chou-Wan is leased by China to France, according to the Treaty of 12 April 1892, as the Territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, forming part of French Indochina.[7]
  • May 28Secondo Pia takes the first photographs of the Shroud of Turin and discovers that the image on Shroud itself appears to be a photographic negative.
File:Philippines Flag Original.svg

The original flag of the Philippines as conceived by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The blue is of a lighter shade than the currently mandated royal blue, the sun has eight points as currently but many more rays and it has a mythical face.

  • June 1 – The Trans-Mississippi Exposition world's fair opens in Omaha, Nebraska.
  • June 7William Ramsay and Morris Travers discover neon at their laboratory at University College London after extracting it from liquid nitrogen.[8]
  • June 9 – The British government makes a 99 year rent of Hong Kong from China.
  • June 12Philippine Declaration of Independence: General Emilio Aguinaldo declares the Philippines' independence from Spain.
  • June 13Yukon Territory is formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital.
  • June 21Spanish–American War: The United States captures Guam making it the first U.S. overseas territory.


  • July 1Spanish–American War: Battle of San Juan Hill – United States troops including Buffalo Soldiers and Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders take a strategic position close to Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
  • July 3
    • Spanish–American War: Battle of Santiago de Cuba – The United States Navy destroys the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron.
    • Joshua Slocum completes a 3-year solo circumnavigation of the world.
  • July 4 – En route from New York to Le Havre, the ocean liner SS La Bourgogne collides with another ship and sinks off the coast of Sable Island, with the loss of 549 lives.
  • July 7 – The United States annexes the Hawaiian Islands.
  • July 17Spanish–American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under United States General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
  • July 18 – "The Adventures of Louis de Rougemont" first appear in The Wide World Magazine, as its August 1898 issue goes on sale.[9]
  • July 25Spanish–American War: The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with a landing at Guánica Bay.
  • August 12Spanish–American War: Hostilities end between American and Spanish forces in Cuba.
  • August 20 – Opening of the Gornergrat railway, connecting Zermatt to the Gornergrat.
  • August 23 – The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, sets sail from London.
  • August 25 – 700 Greeks and 15 Englishmen are slaughtered by the Turks in Heraklion, Greece, leading to the establishment of the autonomous Cretan State.
  • August 28Caleb Bradham names his soft drink Pepsi-Cola.
  • September 2Battle of Omdurman: British and Egyptian troops led by Horatio Kitchener defeat Sudanese tribesmen led by Khalifa Abdullah al-Taashi, thus establishing British dominance in the Sudan.
  • September 10 – Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni assassinates Empress Elisabeth of Austria in Geneva as an act of propaganda of the deed.
  • September 18Fashoda Incident: A powerful flotilla of British gunboats arrives at the French-occupied fort of Fashoda on the White Nile, leading to a diplomatic stalemate until French troops are ordered to withdraw on November 3.
  • September 21Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested.


  • October 1 – The Vienna University of Economics and Business is founded under the name K.U.K. Exportakademie.
  • October 3Battle of Sugar Point: Ojibwe tribesmen defeat U.S. government troops in northern Minnesota.
  • October 6 – The Sinfonia Club, later to become the Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, is founded at the New England Conservatory in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • October 12 – The first town council is established in Mateur (Tunisia).

November 26: blizzard.

  • October 15 The Fork Union Military Academy is founded, in Fork Union, Virginia.[10]
  • October 31Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem, is dedicated.
  • November 5Negros Revolution: Filipinos on the island of Negros revolt against Spanish rule and establish the short-lived Republic of Negros.
  • November 10Wilmington insurrection of 1898, a coup d'etat by the white Democratic Party of North Carolina, begins.
  • November 26 – A two-day blizzard known as the Portland Gale piles snow in Boston and severely impacts the Massachusetts fishing industry and several coastal New England towns.
  • December 9 – The first of the two Tsavo Man-Eaters is shot by John Henry Patterson; the second is killed 3 weeks later, after 135 workers have been killed by the lions.
  • December 10 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish–American War.
  • December 26Marie and Pierre Curie announce discovery of an element they name radium.
  • December 29 (December 17 Old Style) – Moscow Art Theatre production of The Seagull by Anton Chekhov opens.[11]

Unknown dates

  • North Petherton becomes the first town in England to install Acetylene lighting.
  • John Jacob Abel isolates epinephrine (adrenaline).
  • Wakita is founded in the Cherokee Strip, Oklahoma.
  • As a result of the merger of several small oil companies, John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company controls 84% of the USA's oil and most American pipelines.
  • Henry Adams Consulting Engineers founded by Henry Adams (mechanical engineer) in Baltimore, Maryland. The firm is still in business to this day. (1898–Present)



File:Sergei Eisenstein 03.jpg

Sergei Eisenstein


Bertolt Brecht

File:Leo Szilard.jpg

Leó Szilárd

File:Enzo Ferrari - Wheel of a racing car.jpg

Enzo Ferrari

  • January 1Tony DeMarco, American dancer (d. 1965)
  • January 3John Loder, British actor (d. 1988)
  • January 7Art Baker, American actor (d. 1966)
  • January 9Gracie Fields, British singer, actress and comedian (d. 1979)
  • January 16
    • Margaret Booth, American film editor (d. 2002)
    • Irving Rapper, English-born American director (d. 1999)
  • January 18Margaret Irving, American actress (d. 1988)
  • January 20
    • John George, Ottoman-born American actor (d. 1968)
    • Tudor Owen Welsh-American actor (d. 1979)
    • Norma Varden, British-born American actress (d. 1989)
  • January 21
    • Rudolph Maté, Polish-born American cinematographer and film director (d. 1964)
    • Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia (d. 1930)
  • January 22
    • Sergei Eisenstein, Russian and Soviet film director (d. 1948)
    • Elazar Shach, Haredi rabbi (d. 2001)
  • January 23
    • Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Colombian politician (d. 1948)
    • Randolph Scott, American film actor (d. 1987)
  • January 25Hymie Weiss, American gangster (d. 1926)
  • January 26Katarzyna Kobro, Russian sculptor (d. 1951)
  • February 1Leila Denmark, American pediatrician and supercentenarian (d. 2012)
  • February 2William "Billy" Costello, American voice actor, the original voice of Popeye (d. 1971)
  • February 3Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect (d. 1976)
  • February 5
    • Sidney Fields, American actor (d. 1975)
    • Denjirō Ōkōchi, Japanese actor (d. 1962)
  • February 10
    • Bertolt Brecht, German writer (d. 1956)
    • Robert Keith, American actor (d. 1966)
    • Joseph Kessel, French journalist and author (d. 1979)
  • February 11
    • Henry de La Falaise, French film director and Croix de guerre recipient (d. 1972)
    • Leó Szilárd, Hungarian-American physicist (d. 1964)
  • February 12
    • Wallace Ford, British actor (d. 1966)
    • Roy Harris, American composer (d. 1979)
    • Audrey Jeffers, Trinidadian social worker and politician (d. 1968)
    • Blue Washington, American actor and Negro league baseball player (d. 1970)
  • February 14
    • Eva Novak, American actress (d. 1988)
    • Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz, Argentine writer, journalist, essayist and poet (d. 1959)
    • Fritz Zwicky, Swiss physicist and astronomer (d. 1974)
  • February 15
    • Bud Geary, American actor (d. 1946)
    • Totò, Italian comedian, actor, poet, and songwriter (d. 1967)
    • Allen Woodring, American runner (d. 1982)
  • February 18
    • Enzo Ferrari, Italian race car driver and automobile manufacturer (d. 1988)
    • Luis Muñoz Marín, Puerto Rican poet, journalist and politician (d. 1980)
  • February 20Semyon Davidovich Kirlian, Russian inventor (d. 1978)
  • February 25William Astbury, English physicist and molecular biologist (d. 1961)
  • February 24Kurt Tank, German aeronautical engineer (d. 1983)
  • February 27Otto Hulett, American actor (d. 1983)
  • February 28
    • Hugh O'Flaherty, Irish Catholic priest (d. 1963)
    • Molly Picon, American actress and lyricist (d. 1992)
  • March 3Emil Artin, Austrian mathematician (d. 1962)
  • March 4Georges Dumézil, French philologist (d. 1940)
  • March 5
    • Misao Okawa, Japanese supercentenarian (d. 2015)
    • Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People's Republic of China (d. 1976)
  • March 6Therese Giehse, German actress (d. 1975)
  • March 10Cy Kendall, American actor (d. 1953)
  • March 11Dorothy Gish, American actress (d. 1968)
  • March 13Henry Hathaway, American film director and producer (d. 1985)
  • March 14Arnold Chikobava, Georgian linguist (d. 1985)
  • March 21Paul Alfred Weiss, Austrian biologist (d. 1989)
  • March 23Erich Bey, German admiral (d. 1943)
  • March 25Marcelle Narbonne, French supercentenarian, oldest European living person (d. 2012)
  • March 30Joyce Carey, English actress (d. 1993)
  • March 31Hermann van Pels, German-Dutch father of Peter van Pels, housemate of Anne Frank (d. 1944)


  • April 1William James Sidis, American mathematician (d. 1944)
  • April 2Harindranath Chattopadhyay, Indian poet, actor and politician (d. 1990)
  • April 3George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
  • April 4Agnes Ayres, American actress (d. 1940)
  • April 6Jeanne Hébuterne, French painter (d. 1920)
  • April 9Paul Robeson, American actor, singer, and political activist (d. 1976)
  • April 12Lily Pons, French-American opera singer and actress (d. 1976)
  • April 14Lee Tracy, American actor (d. 1968)
  • April 15Marian Driscoll Jordan, American actress (d. 1961)
  • April 19Constance Talmadge, American actress (d. 1973)
  • April 20Sidney Lanfield, American film director (d. 1972)
  • April 21Walter Forde, British actor, screenwriter, and film director (d. 1984)
  • April 23Ernest Laszlo, Hungarian-American cinematographer (d. 1984)
  • April 26
    • Vicente Aleixandre, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1984)
    • John Grierson, Scottish documentary filmmaker (d. 1972)
    • Tomu Uchida, Japanese film director (d. 1970)
  • May 2Henry Hall, British bandleader (d. 1989)
  • May 3Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1978)
  • May 5
    • Elsie Eaves, American civil engineer (d. 1983)
    • Blind Willie McTell, American singer (d. 1959)
    • Hans Heinrich von Twardowski, German actor (d. 1958)
  • May 6Konrad Henlein, Sudeten German Nazi leader (d. 1945)
  • May 13
    • Hisamuddin of Selangor, King of Malaysia (d. 1960)
    • Justin Tuveri, Italian veteran of the First World War (d. 2007)
  • May 14Betty Farrington, American actress (d. 1989)
  • May 15Arletty, French model and actress (d. 1992)
  • May 16
    • Tamara de Lempicka, Art Deco painter (d. 1980)
    • Kenji Mizoguchi, Japanese film director (d. 1956)
  • May 17Alfred Joseph Casson, Canadian painter (d. 1992)
  • May 19Julius Evola, Italian philosopher (d. 1974)
  • May 21Armand Hammer, American entrepreneur and art collector (d. 1990)
  • May 23
    • Frank McHugh, American actor (d. 1981)
    • Scott O'Dell, American author (d. 1989)
  • May 24Helen B. Taussig, American cardiologist (d. 1986)
  • May 25Bennett Cerf, American publisher (d. 1971)
  • May 27Lee Garmes, American cinematographer (d. 1978)
  • May 31
    • Ernest Haller, American cinematographer (d. 1974)
    • Dr. Norman Vincent Peale, American clergyman (d. 1993)
  • June 2Marie-Thérèse Bardet, French supercentenarian, oldest European living person (d. 2012)
  • June 3Stuart H. Ingersoll, American admiral (d. 1983)
  • June 4Harry Crosby, American publisher and poet (d. 1929)
  • June 5
    • Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet and playwright (d. 1936)
    • Guy La Chambre, French politician (d. 1975)
  • June 6
    • Walter Abel, American actor (d. 1987)
    • Ninette de Valois, Irish dancer and founder of The Royal Ballet, London (d. 2001)
    • Jim Fouché, second State President of South Africa (d. 1980)
  • June 10Virginia Valli, American film actress (d. 1968)
  • June 12Charley Foy, American actor (d. 1984)
  • June 17
    • M. C. Escher, Dutch artist (d. 1972)
    • Harry Patch, British World War I soldier, last Tommy Atkins (d. 2009)
  • June 18
    • Carleton Hobbs, English actor, playing Sherlock Holmes for two decades (d. 1978)
    • Dink Trout, American actor (d. 1950)
  • June 22Erich Maria Remarque, German writer (d. 1970)
  • June 23Lillian Hall-Davis, English actress (d. 1933)
  • June 25Buddy Roosevelt, American actor and stunt performer (d. 1973)
  • June 26Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer and manufacturer (d. 1978)
  • June 28Louis King, American film director (d. 1962)
  • June 30George Chandler, American actor (d. 1985)


File:George Gershwin 1937.jpg

George Gershwin

  • July 2
    • George Folsey, American cinematographer (d. 1988)
    • Anthony McAuliffe, American general (d. 1975)
    • Gen Paul, French artist (d. 1975)
  • July 3Donald Healey, English motor engineer and race car driver (d. 1988)
  • July 4
    • Gertrude Lawrence, English actress and singer (d. 1952)
    • Johnny Lee, American singer, dancer, and actor (d. 1965)
    • Gertrude Weaver, American supercentenarian (d. 2015)
  • July 6Hanns Eisler, German composer (d. 1962)
  • July 7Maria Nunes da Silva Portuguese supercentenarian (d. 2011)
    • Arnold Horween, Harvard Crimson and NFL football player (d. 1985)
  • July 14
    • David Horne, English actor (d. 1970)
    • John Twist, American screenwriter (d. 1976)
    • Youssef Wahbi, Egyptian actor and film director (d. 1982)
  • July 17
    • Osmond Borradaile, Canadian cameraman, cinematographer and veteran of First and Second World War (d. 1999)
    • Berenice Abbott, American photographer (d. 1991)
    • George Robert Vincent, American sound recording pioneer (d. 1985)
  • July 13Ivan Triesault, Estonian-born American actor (d. 1980)
  • July 18John Stuart, Scottish actor (d. 1979)
  • July 21Sara Carter, American country music singer, musician, and songwriter (d. 1979)
  • July 22
    • Stephen Vincent Benét, American writer (d. 1943)
    • Alexander Calder, American artist (d. 1976)
  • July 25Arthur Lubin, American film director (d. 1995)
  • July 28Lawrence Gray, American actor (d. 1970)
  • July 29Isidor Isaac Rabi, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
  • July 30Henry Moore, English sculptor (d. 1986)
  • July 31Ken Harris, American animator (d. 1982)
  • August 2Glenn Tryon, American actor, screenwriter, and film director (d. 1970)
  • August 5
    • Lewis R. Foster, American film director and screenwriter (d. 1974)
    • Kumbakonam Rajamanickam Pillai, Carnatic music violinist of Tamil Nadu, Southern India (d. 1970)
  • August 12
    • Kenneth Hawks, American film director (d. 1930)
    • Oskar Homolka, Austrian actor (d. 1978)
  • August 13Regis Toomey, American actor (d. 1991)
  • August 15Jan Brzechwa, Polish poet (d. 1966)
  • August 17Dewey Robinson, American actor (d. 1950)
  • August 18Lance Sharkey, Australian Communist Leader (d. 1967)
  • August 19Eleanor Boardman, American actress (d. 1991)
  • August 20
    • Leopold Infeld, Polish physicist (d. 1968)
    • Vilhelm Moberg, Swedish novelist and historian (d. 1973)
  • August 21Herbert Mundin, English actor (d. 1939)
  • August 25Van Nest Polglase, American art director and head of the design department at RKO Pictures (d. 1968)
  • August 26Peggy Guggenheim, American art collector (d. 1979)
  • August 29Preston Sturges, American director and writer (d. 1959)
  • August 30Shirley Booth, American actress (d. 1992)
  • September 1
    • Violet Carson, British actress (d. 1983).
    • Marilyn Miller, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. 1936)
  • September 2Arthur Young, English actor (d. 1959)
  • September 8Queenie Smith, American actress (d. 1978)
  • September 10
    • George Eldredge, American actor (d. 1977)
    • Bessie Love, American actress (d. 1986)
  • September 13Roger Désormière, French conductor (d. 1963)
  • September 16Baruch Lumet, Polish-born American actor (d. 1992)
  • September 19Giuseppe Saragat, former President of Italy (d. 1988)
  • September 22Katharine Alexander, American actress (d. 1981)
  • September 24Howard Walter Florey, Australian-born pharmacologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1968)
  • September 25Robert Brackman, American artist (d. 1980)
  • September 26George Gershwin, American composer (d. 1937)
  • September 29Trofim Lysenko, Russian biologist (d. 1976)
  • September 30
    • Renée Adorée, French actress (d. 1933)
    • Princess Charlotte of Monaco (d. 1977)


File:Karl Ziegler Nobel.jpg

Karl Ziegler

Date unknown

  • W. E. Butler, British occultist (d. 1978)
  • Maria Klenova, Russian marine geologist (d. 1976)
  • Andrés Soler, Mexican actor (d. 1969)
  • I. K. Taimni, Indian chemist (d. 1978)



File:Lewis Carroll photograph.jpg

Lewis Carroll


William Ewart Gladstone

  • January 3Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate brigadier general, Texas governor, and president of Texas A&M University (b.1838)
  • January 14Lewis Carroll, British writer, mathematician (Alice in Wonderland) (b. 1832)
  • January 16Charles Pelham Villiers, longest-serving MP in the British House of Commons (b. 1802)
  • January 18Henry George Lidell, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford (b. 1811)
  • February 1Tsuboi Kōzō, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
  • February 16Thomas Bracken, author of the official national anthem of New Zealand (God Defend New Zealand) (b. 1843)
  • March 1George Bruce Malleson, Indian officer and author (b. 1825)
  • March 6Andrei Alexandrovich Popov, Russian admiral (b. 1821)
  • March 10George Müller, Prussian evangelist and founder of the Ashley Down orphanage (b. 1805)
  • March 15Henry Bessemer, British engineer and inventor (b. 1813)
  • March 16Aubrey Beardsley, British artist (b. 1872)
  • March 18Matilda Joslyn Gage, American feminist (b. 1826)
  • March 27 – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Indian university founder (b. 1817)
  • April 15Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui, Maori military leader
  • April 18Gustave Moreau, French painter (b. 1826)
  • May 6Sotirios Sotiropoulos, Greek economist and politician (b. 1831)
  • May 19William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1809)
  • June 10Tuone Udaina, Croatian-Italian last speaker of the Dalmatian language (b. 1821)


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R29818, Otto von Bismarck.jpg

Otto von Bismarck

File:Kurzbio fontane05.jpg

Theodor Fontane

  • July 1Siegfried Marcus, Austrian automobile pioneer (b. 1831)
  • July 5Richard Pankhurst, (b. 1834)
  • July 12Louis-François Richer Laflèche, Roman Catholic Bishop of Trois-Rivières, Native American missionary (b. 1818)
  • July 30Otto von Bismarck, German statesman (b. 1815)
  • August 8Eugène Boudin, French painter (b. 1824)
  • September 2Wilford Woodruff, fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1807)
  • September 5Sarah Emma Edmonds, Canadian nurse and spy (b. 1841)
  • September 9Stéphane Mallarmé, French poet (b. 1842)
  • September 10Empress Elisabeth of Austria, empress consort of Austria, queen consort of Hungary (assassinated) (b. 1837)
  • September 16Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat (b. 1827)
  • September 20Theodor Fontane, German writer (b. 1819)
  • September 26Fanny Davenport, American actress (b. 1850)
  • September 28Tan Sitong, Chinese revolutionary (executed) (b. 1865)
  • September 29Louise of Hesse-Kassel, German princess, Queen Consort of Christian IX of Denmark (b. 1817)
  • October 24Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, French painter (b. 1824)
  • November 2George Goyder, surveyor-general of South Australia (b. 1826)
  • November 20Sir John Fowler, British civil engineer (b. 1817)
  • December 24Charbel Makhluf, Lebanese monk (b. 1828)


  1. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  2. Linfield, Malcolm (1999). "In Memory of Henry Lindfield – First Victim of the Motor Car". Lin(d)field One Name Group. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  3. "Henry Lindfield". Grace’s Guide. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  4. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). "Letter to President William McKinley from Annie Oakley" Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  5. Camillo J. Asriel, Das R.W.E., Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk A.-G., Essen a.d. Ruhr (Girsberger & Company, 1930) p1
  6. "The California Powder Works". Santa Cruz Public Library Local History Articles. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  7. Choveaux, A. (1925). "Situation économique du territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan en 1923". Annales de Géographie. 34 (187): 74–77.
  8. Christoph Ribbat, Flickering Light: A History of Neon (Reaktion Books, 2011) p23
  9. Linda Stratmann, Fraudsters and Charlatans: A Peek at Some of History's Greatest Rogues (The History Press, 2010)
  10. John S. Salmon, A Guidebook to Virginia's Historical Markers (University of Virginia Press, 1994) p48
  11. Benedetti, Jean (1999). Stanislavski: His Life and Art (Revised ed.). London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-52520-1.

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