Culture Wikia

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Julian calendar
Julian calendar

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  • * * ' * *
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1897 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1897
Ab urbe condita2650
Armenian calendar1346
Assyrian calendar6647
Bahá'í calendar53–54
Balinese saka calendar1818–1819
Bengali calendar1304
Berber calendar2847
British Regnal year60 Vict. 1 – 61 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2441
Burmese calendar1259
Byzantine calendar7405–7406
Chinese calendar丙申(Fire Monkey)
4593 or 4533
    — to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
4594 or 4534
Coptic calendar1613–1614
Discordian calendar3063
Ethiopian calendar1889–1890
Hebrew calendar5657–5658
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1953–1954
 - Shaka Samvat1818–1819
 - Kali Yuga4997–4998
Holocene calendar11897
Igbo calendar897–898
Iranian calendar1275–1276
Islamic calendar1314–1315
Japanese calendarMeiji 30
Javanese calendar1826–1827
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4230
Minguo calendar15 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar429
Thai solar calendar2439–2440
Tibetan calendar阳火猴年
(male Fire-Monkey)
2023 or 1642 or 870
    — to —
(female Fire-Rooster)
2024 or 1643 or 871

1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1897th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 897th year of the , the 97th year of the , and the 8th year of the decade. As of the start of 1897, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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March 4, President William McKinley

  • January 2 – The International Alpha Omicron Pi sorority is founded.
  • January 4 – A British force is ambushed by Chief Ologbosere, son-in-law of the Oba of Benin. This leads to a punitive expedition against Benin.
  • January 22 – In this date's issue of the journal Engineering, the word "computer", is first used to refer to a mechanical calculation device, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.[1]
  • January 23Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only capital case in United States history where spectral evidence helps secure a conviction.
  • January 31Czechoslav Trade Union Association is founded in Prague.
  • February 10 – Freedom of religion is proclaimed in Madagascar.
  • February 16 – The French conquer the island of Raiatea and capture the rebel chief Teraupoo, ending the Leeward Islands War and bringing all of the Society Islands under their control.
  • February 18Benin is put to the torch by the British Army's Benin Expedition.
  • February 24 – Foundation of Čekan Mekenroff 1897 association football club in Pozsony in the Kingdom of Hungary.
  • February 26 – The Sigma Pi fraternity is founded.
  • February 27 – The French military governor of Madagascar, Joseph Gallieni, exiles Queen Ranavalona III to Réunion, abolishing the monarchy the next day.
  • March 4William McKinley is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 13San Diego State University is founded.
  • March 22Emilio Aguinaldo unseats Andrés Bonifacio at the Tejeros Convention, becoming the new head of the Filipino revolutionary group Katipunan (KKK).


  • April 15 – Drillers near Bartlesville, Oklahoma, strike oil for the first time in the designated "Indian Territory", on land leased from the Osage Indians. The gusher, at the Nellie Johnstone Number One well, leads to rapid population growth.[2]
  • April 19 – The first Boston Marathon is held, with fifteen men competing, and won by John McDermott.[3]
  • April 30J. J. Thomson of the Cavendish Laboratory announces his discovery of the electron as a subatomic particle, over 1,800 times smaller than a proton (in the atomic nucleus), at a lecture at the Royal Institution in London.[4]
  • May 11 – A patent is awarded for the invention of the first automotive muffler, with the granting by the US Patent Office of application number 582,485 to Milton Reeves and his brother Marshall T. Reeves, of the Reeves Pulley Company of Columbus, Indiana.[5]
  • May 14
    • "The Stars and Stripes Forever', the American patriotic march by John Philip Sousa, is performed for the first time.[6]
    • (or May 15) – The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) is founded in Berlin as an LGBT campaigning organization, the first such in history.[7]
  • May 19Oscar Wilde is released from prison in England and goes into exile on the continent.
  • May 26 – Irish-born theatrical manager Bram Stoker's contemporary Gothic horror novel Dracula is first published (in London); it will influence the direction of vampire literature for the following century.[8]
  • June 22Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria celebrated in the United Kingdom.[9] No other British monarch celebrated such a jubilee until Elizabeth II in 2012.
File:Diamonds are a girl's best friend (8527831550).jpg

Display in celebration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee on Alma Place in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ulster


  • July 11S. A. Andrée's Arctic Balloon Expedition of 1897 begins. The ill-fated expedition to fly over the Arctic results in the death of the entire team within months.
  • July 17 – The Klondike Gold Rush begins when the first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle.
  • July 25 – Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories.
  • July 26August 2Siege of Malakand: British troops are besieged by Pashtun tribesmen in Malakand on the North-West frontier of the British Raj (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan).
  • July 31Mount Saint Elias, the second highest peak in the United States and Canada, is first ascended.
  • August 10 – At the Bayer pharmaceutical company, pharmacist Felix Hoffmann successfully synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid after isolating a compound from a plant of the Spiraea family; the company markets it under the brand name "Aspirin".[10]
  • August 21 – The Olds Motor Vehicle Co. is founded in Lansing, Michigan by Ransom E. Olds.
  • August 29 – The First Zionist Congress convenes in Basel, Switzerland.
  • August 31Thomas Edison is granted a patent for the Kinetoscope, a precursor of the movie projector.
File:Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg

October 6, Ethiopian flag.

  • September 1 – The Tremont Street Subway in Boston opens, becoming the first underground metro in North America.
  • September 10Lattimer massacre: A sheriff's posse kills 19 unarmed immigrant miners in Pennsylvania.
  • September 11 – After months of searching, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of Kaffa, bringing an end to that ancient kingdom.
  • September 12Battle of Saragarhi: Twenty-one Sikhs of the 36th Sikhs regiment of the British Indian Army defend an army post to the death against 10,000 Afghan and Orakzai tribesmen in the Tirah Campaign on the North-West frontier of the British Raj (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan).
  • September 20 – Greece and Turkey sign a peace treaty to end the Greco-Turkish War.
File:Uss baltimore c-3.jpg

October: USS Baltimore in Hawaii

  • September 21Francis P. Church responds to a letter to the editor that is known as the famous "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus" letter.


  • October 2 – The first issue of the radical paper Tocsin is published.
  • October 5 – After a long siege, Brazilian government troops take Canudos in north Brazil, crushing Antônio Conselheiro and his followers.
  • October 6Ethiopia uses the tricolor flag: green is for the land, yellow for gold, and red is symbolic of strength and the blood shed.
  • October 12
    • The Joseon kingdom becomes the Korean Empire, ending the Joseon era which has existed since 1392.
    • The City of Belo Horizonte, Brazil is created. The construction of the second Brazilian planned city is completed successfully, an immigration of 1,000,000 people is estimated.
    • The USS Baltimore (Cruiser # 3, later CM-1) is recommissioned, since 1890, for several months of duty in the Hawaiian Islands.
  • October 13 – The HMS Canopus, a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, is launched at Portsmouth, England; she will be deployed widely in World War I.
  • October 23 – The Kappa Delta sorority is founded in the United States.
  • November 1Juventus F.C. is founded as an association football club in Turin.
  • November 25 – Spain grants Puerto Rico autonomy.
  • December 9 – The first issue of the feminist newspaper La Fronde is published by Marguerite Durand.
  • December 12 – The comic strip The Katzenjammer Kids debuts in the New York Journal.
  • December 14Pact of Biak-na-Bato: The Philippine Revolution is settled with Spanish promises to reform.
  • December 28 – The play Cyrano de Bergerac, by Edmond Rostand, premieres in Paris.
  • December 30Natal annexes Zululand.
File:Ensba paris 1 artlibre jnl.jpg

Women study at École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Date unknown[]

  • France allows women to study at the École des Beaux-Arts.
  • Karl Lueger becomes mayor of Vienna.
  • Zhejiang University is founded in China.
  • The Duke University Debating Society is founded in the United States.
  • Émile Durkheim publishes his classic study Suicide.
  • The pan-African anthem "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" ("God Bless Africa") is composed as a Xhosa hymn by South African teacher Enoch Sontonga.
  • The British Ayrshire Yeomanry Cavalry adopts the sub-title Earl of Carrick's Own in honour of the future King Edward VII.
  • Dos Equis beer is first brewed in Mexico in anticipation of the new century.




Marion Davies

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F041449-0007, Hamburg, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Ludwig Erhard.jpg

Ludwig Erhard

File:Marian Anderson.jpg

Marian Anderson

  • January 3
    • Marion Davies, American actress (d. 1961)
    • Pola Negri – Polish born actress (d. 1987)
  • January 8Dennis Wheatley, English writer (d. 1977)
  • January 14Hasso von Manteuffel, German general and politician (d. 1978)
  • January 21René Iché, French sculptor (d. 1954)
  • January 23
    • Subhas Chandra Bose, Indian political leader, led the I.N.A.(d. 1945)
    • Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Austrian architect and anti-Nazi activist (d. 2000)
  • January 26Yakov Alksnis, Soviet aviator and commander of Red Army Air Forces (d. 1938)
  • January 28Ivan Stedeford, British Industrialist (d. 1975)
  • February 1Denise Robins (aka Francesca Wright, Ashley French, Harriet Gray, Julia Kane) British romance novelist (d. 1985)
  • February 4Ludwig Erhard, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1977)
  • February 7Quincy Porter, American composer (d. 1966)
  • February 8Zakir Hussain, Indian politician and 3rd President of India (d. 1969)
  • February 9Charles Kingsford Smith, Australian aviator famous for his trans-pacific flight (d. 1935)
  • February 10
  • February 21
    • Elizabeth Harrison, daughter of President Benjamin Harrison (d. 1955)
    • Celia Lovsky, Austrian American actress (d. 1979)
  • February 25
    • Peter Llewelyn Davies, British Publisher and one of the Llewelyn Davies boys (d. 1960)
    • possibly Mikhail Krichevsky, Ukrainian unverified supercentenarian and last Imperial Russian Army veteran of WWI (d. 2008)
  • February 27
    • Marian Anderson, American contralto (d. 1993)
    • Edgar Henry Banger, cartoonist, (d. 1968)
    • Ferdinand Heim, World War II German general, the "Scapegoat of Stalingrad" (d. 1977)
    • Bernard Lyot, French astronomer (d. 1952)



Lefty O'Doul

  • March 1Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith (d. 1957)
  • March 2Minor Hall, American jazz musician (d. 1959)
  • March 4Lefty O'Doul, American baseball player and restaurateur (d. 1969)
  • March 5
    • Set Persson, Swedish communist politician (d. 1960)
    • Soong Mei-ling, Chinese wife of Chiang Kai-shek (d. 2003)
  • March 6John D. MacArthur, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1978)
  • March 11Henry Cowell, American avant-garde composer (d. 1965)
  • March 15Jackson Scholz, American sprinter (d. 1986)
  • March 16Flora Eldershaw, Australian novelist, critic, and historian (d. 1956)
  • March 21Sim Gokkes, Dutch-Jewish composer (d. 1943)
  • March 24Wilhelm Reich, Austrian psychotherapist (d. 1957)
  • March 28
    • Frank Hawks, American aviator (d. 1938)
    • Sepp Herberger, German football coach (d. 1977)
  • March 31
    • Oto Iskandar di Nata, Indonesian politician (d. 1945)
    • Harold Houser, American admiral, 35th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1981)
  • April 4Dina Manfredini, Italian-American supercentenarian (d. 2012)
  • April 7
    • Erich Löwenhardt, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1918)
    • Walter Winchell, American broadcast journalist (d. 1972)
  • April 8Herbert Lumsden, British general (d. 1945)
  • April 9John B. Gambling, American radio talk-show host (d. 1974)
  • April 10Prafulla Chandra Sen, Indian politician and Chief Minister of West Bengal (d. 1990)
  • April 13Werner Voss, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1917)
  • April 17Thornton Wilder, American dramatist (d. 1975)
  • April 19
    • Jiroemon Kimura, Japanese supercentenarian; World's oldest person; last surviving man born before 20th century; last surviving person born in 1897 (d. 2013)
    • Peter de Noronha, Indian businessman (d. 1970)
  • April 21Aiden Wilson Tozer, American Protestant pastor (d. 1963)
  • April 23Lester B. Pearson, 14th Prime Minister of Canada, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1972)
  • April 25Mary, Princess Royal of England (d. 1965)
  • April 26
    • Eddie Eagan, American boxer and bobsledder (d. 1967)
    • Douglas Sirk, German-born director (d. 1987)
  • April 29Charles Seel, American actor (d. 1980)


File:Frank Capra.JPG

Frank Capra

File:Rt Hon Anthony Eden MP.jpg

Anthony Eden

  • May 2J. Fred Coots, American songwriter (d. 1985)
  • May 4Phelps Phelps, 38th Governor of American Samoa and United States Ambassador to the Dominican Republic (d. 1981)
  • May 14Sidney Bechet, American musician (d. 1959)
  • May 16Zvi Sliternik, Israeli entomologist (d. 1994)
  • May 17Odd Hassel, Norwegian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1981)
  • May 18Frank Capra, American producer, director, and writer (d. 1991)
  • May 19
    • Frank Luke, American World War I pilot (d. 1918)
    • Kitty McShane, Irish actress (d. 1964)
  • May 21Nikola Avramov, Bulgarian painter (d. 1945)
  • May 27John Cockcroft, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
  • May 29
  • June 7George Szell, Hungarian conductor (d. 1970)
  • June 8John G. Bennett, British mathematician (d. 1974)
  • June 11Ram Prasad Bismil, Indian Revolutionary, Founded H.R.A. in 1924. (d. 1927)
  • June 12Anthony Eden, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1977)
  • June 13Paavo Nurmi, Finnish runner (d. 1973)
  • June 16Georg Wittig, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1987)
  • June 19
    • Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)
    • Moe Howard, American comedian and actor (The Three Stooges) (d. 1975)
  • June 22Edmund A. Chester, American broadcaster and journalist (d. 1973)


  • July 7Mikhail Kovalyov, Soviet Army colonel-general (d. 1967)
  • July 9Albert C. Wedemeyer, American general (d. 1989)
  • July 14Plaek Phibunsongkhram, Thai field marshal, prime minister, and dictator (d. 1964)
  • July 20Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-born chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1996)
  • July 24Amelia Earhart, American aviator (year of death uncertain)
  • July 26Harold D. Cooley, American politician (d. 1974)
  • July 28James Fairbairn, Australian pastoralist, aviator, and politician (d. 1940)
  • July 29 – Sir Neil Ritchie, British WWII general (d. 1983)
  • August 2Max Weber, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1974)
  • August 5Aksel Larsen, Danish politician (d. 1972)
  • August 10John W. Galbreath, American businessman (d. 1988)
  • August 11Enid Blyton, British children's writer (d. 1968)
  • August 15Ludovic Arrachart, French aviator (d. 1933)
  • August 16Hersch Lauterpacht, Ukrainian-born international lawyer (d. 1960)
  • August 27Carlo del Prete, Italian aviator (d. 1928)
  • August 31Fredric March, American actor (d. 1975)


File:Walter Pidgeon-publicity.JPG

Walter Pidgeon

File:Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg

William Faulkner


Pope Paul VI


  • November 9
    • Harvey Hendrick, American baseball player (d. 1941)
    • Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1978)
  • November 15Sir Sacheverell Sitwell, Bt, English author (d. 1988)
  • November 17Frank Fay, American actor (d. 1961)
  • November 18Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
  • November 23Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Bengali author (d. 1999)
  • November 24Lucky Luciano, Sicilian-American Mafia boss (d. 1962)
  • November 30Virginia Henderson, American nurse theorist (d. 1996)
  • December 2Dean Alfange, American politician (d. 1989)
  • December 5
    • Gershom Scholem, German-born Israeli Jewish philosopher and historian (d. 1982)
    • Tina Lattanzi, Italian actress and voice actress (d. 1997)
  • December 14Kurt Schuschnigg, Chancellor of Austria (d. 1977)
  • December 18Fletcher Henderson, American musician (d. 1952)
  • December 24
    • Koto Okubo, Japanese supercentenarian, world's oldest living woman (d. 2013)
    • Lazare Ponticelli, Italian-French supercentenarian; last surviving officially recognized French veteran of the First World War (d. 2008)
  • December 25Dorothy Peterson, American film and television actress (d. 1979)
  • December 30Alfredo Bracchi, Italian author (d. 1976)
  • December 31Rhys Williams, Welsh actor (d. 1969)




Johannes Brahms

  • January 1Joseph S. Skerrett, American admiral (b. 1833)
  • February 4Major Charles Bendire, U.S. Army captain and ornithologist (b. 1836)
  • February 17Edmund Colhoun, American admiral (b. 1821)
  • February 19Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician (b. 1815)
  • March 9Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, Iranian teacher and writer (b. 1838)
  • March 11Henry Drummond, Scottish evangelical writer and lecturer (b. 1851)
  • March 19Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie, Irish-born traveler (b. 1810)
  • April 1Jandamarra, Aboriginal insurrectionist in Australia
  • April 3Johannes Brahms, German composer (b. 1833)
  • April 10Friedrich Franz III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1851)
  • May 4Duchess Sophie Charlotte in Bavaria (b. 1847)
  • May 7Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale (b. 1822)
  • May 10Andrés Bonifacio, Filipino revolutionary (b. 1863)
  • May 23Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, Indian rajah (b. 1850)
  • June 19Louis Brière de l'Isle, French general (b. 1827)


  • August 8Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish politician and historian (b. 1828)
  • August 24
    • Sébastien Lespès, French admiral (b. 1828)
    • Mutsu Munemitsu, Japanese statesman and diplomat (b. 1844)
  • August 31Louisa Lane Drew, actress and theater manager (b. 1820)
  • September 9
    • Richard Holt Hutton, English writer and theologian (b. 1826)
    • Ferenc Pulszky, Hungarian politician (b. 1814)
  • September 21Wilhelm Wattenbach, German historian (b. 1819)
  • September 27Charles-Denis Bourbaki, French military leader (b. 1816)
  • September 30 – Saint Thérèse of Lisieux, French Catholic saint (b. 1873)
  • October 3Yamaji Motoharu, Japanese general (b. 1841)
  • October 9
    • John M. B. Clitz, American admiral (b. 1821)
    • Jan Heemskerk, prime minister of the Netherlands (b. 1818)
  • October 2Edward Maitland, British writer (b. 1824)
  • October 27Alexander Milton Ross, Canadian abolitionist (b. 1832)
  • October 29Henry George, American economist (b. 1839)
  • November – Francisco Gonzalo Marín, Cuban poet and freedom fighter (b. 1863)
  • November 3Thomas Lanier Clingman, American "Prince of Politicians" (b. 1812)
  • November 17George Hendric Houghton, American Protestant Episcopal clergyman (b. 1820)
  • November 18Henry Doulton, English pottery manufacturer (b. 1820)
  • November 19William Seymour Tyler, American educator and historian (b. 1810)
  • November 20Ernest Giles, Australian explorer (b. 1835)
  • December 17Alphonse Daudet, French writer (b. 1840)
  • December 19Stanislas de Guaita, French poet (b. 1861)
  • December 28William Corby, American Catholic priest (b. 1833)

Date unknown[]

  • Owon, Korean painter (b. 1843)
  • Isidora Goyenechea, international Chilean industrialist and miner (b. 1836)


  1. Lisa McCoy, Computers and Programming (Infobase Publishing, 2010) p1
  2. Baird, W. David; Goble, Danney (1994). The Story of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 8.
  3. Matthews, Peter (2012). "Boston Marathon". Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. p. 40.
  4. Sutton, Christine (January 8, 1997). "Ninety years around the atom". New Scientist: 49.
  5. "Exhaust Muffler for Engines"; QRZ News, September 2014
  6. Woodstra, Chris; et al. (2005). "John Philip Sousa". All Music Guide to Classical Music. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 1296.
  7. Lauritsen, John; Thorstad, David (1995). The Early Homosexual Rights Movement (1864–1935) (Revised ed.). New York: Times Change Press. ISBN 0-87810-041-5.
  8. Joshi, S. T., ed. (2010). "Dracula (Stoker)". Encyclopedia of the Vampire: The Living Dead in Myth, Legend, and Popular Culture. ABC-Clio. p. 82.
  9. Keeling, Anne E. (2008). Great Britain and Her Queen. Echo Library. p. 77.
  10. Diarmuid Jeffreys, Aspirin: The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug (Bloomsbury, 2005) p70