Culture Wikia
Culture Wikia

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Template:C19 year in topic

1895 (Script error: No such module "Roman".) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the , the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the , and the Script error: No such module "Ordinal". year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

File:Erste Benzin-Omnibus der Welt.jpg

The first internal combustion bus, 1895 (Siegen to Netphen in Germany)

  • January 5Dreyfus affair: French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his army rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island.[1]
  • January 17Félix Faure is elected President of French Republic after the resignation of Jean Casimir-Perier.
  • January 21 – The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is founded in England by Octavia Hill, Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley.
  • February 9 – Mintonette, later known as volleyball, is created by William G. Morgan at Holyoke, Massachusetts.
  • February 11 – The lowest ever UK temperature of Script error: No such module "convert". is recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire. This record is equalled in 1982 and again in 1995.
  • February 14Oscar Wilde's last play, the comedy The Importance of Being Earnest, is first shown at St James's Theatre in London.
  • February 20Venezuelan crisis of 1895: U.S. President Grover Cleveland signs into law a bill resulting from the proposition of House Resolution 252 by William Lindsay Scruggs and Congressman Leonidas Livingston to the third session of the 53rd Congress of the United States of America. The bill recommends Venezuela and Great Britain settle their dispute by arbitration.
  • February 25 – The first rebellions take place marking the start of the Cuban War of Independence.
  • March 1William Lyne Wilson is appointed United States Postmaster General.
  • March 3 – In Munich, bicyclists have to pass a test and display license plates.
  • March 4 – Japanese troops capture Liaoyang and land in Taiwan.
  • March 15Bridget Cleary is killed and her body burned in County Tipperary, Ireland, by her husband, Michael; he is subsequently convicted and imprisoned for manslaughter, his defence being a belief that he had killed a changeling left in his wife's place after she had been abducted by fairies.[2]
  • March 18 – First worldwide gasoline bus started in Germany between Siegen and Netphen
  • March 30Rudolf Diesel patents the Diesel engine in Germany.
File:Degradation alfred dreyfus.jpg

January 5: Dreyfus affair

File:Shunpanrou interior.jpg

April 17: Shimonoseki treaty: Qing China renounces claim on Korea

File:Flag of Formosa 1895.svg

May 24: Republic of Formosa

April–June

  • April 6Oscar Wilde is arrested in London for "gross indecency" after losing a criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry.
  • April 14A major earthquake severely damages Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola.
  • April 16 – The town of Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, is incorporated.
  • April 17 – The Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed between China and Japan. This marks the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, and the defeated Qing Empire is forced to renounce its claims on Korea and to concede the southern portion of Fengtien province, Taiwan, and the Pescadores Islands to Japan.[3] The huge indemnity exacted from China is used to establish the Yawata Iron and Steel Works in Japan.
  • April 22Gongche Shangshu movement: 603 candidates sign a 10,000-word petition against the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
  • May 1Dundela Football, Sports & Association Club formed in Belfast.
  • May 2Gongche Shangshu movement: Thousands of Beijing scholars and citizens protest against the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
  • May 24 – Anti-Japanese officials led by Tang Ching-sung in Taiwan declare independence from the Qing dynasty, forming the short-lived Republic of Formosa.
  • May 25R. v. Wilde: Oscar Wilde is convicted in London of "unlawfully committing acts of gross indecency with certain male persons" (under the Labouchere Amendment) and given a two years' sentence of hard labour, during which he will write De Profundis.
  • May 27In re Debs: The Supreme Court of the United States decides that the federal government has the right to regulate interstate commerce, legalizing the military suppression of the Pullman Strike.
  • June 11
    • Britain annexes Tongaland, between Zululand and Mozambique.
    • Paris–Bordeaux–Paris is sometimes called the first automobile race in history or the "first motor race".
  • June 20 – The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea to the Baltic across the base of the Jutland peninsula in Germany, is officially opened.
  • June 28
    • The union of Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador begins (ends in 1898).
    • The United States Court of Private Land Claims rules that James Reavis's claim to Barony of Arizona is "wholly fictitious and fraudulent".

July–September

File:SabinoAranaTxapeldun.jpg

July 31: Sabino Arana founds the Basque Nationalist Party

File:CosmopolitanMagazineOctober1895.jpg

October: The Cosmopolitan

File:Train wreck at Montparnasse 1895.jpg

October 22: Montparnasse derailment

  • Night of July 10July 11 – The Doukhobors' pacifist protests culminate in the "Burning of the ass" in the South Caucasus.
  • July 15Archie MacLaren scores an English County Championship cricket record innings of 424 for Lancashire against Somerset at Taunton.
  • July 31 – The Basque Nationalist Party (Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea-Partido Nacionalista Vasco) is founded by Basque nationalist leader Sabino Arana.
  • August 7 – The Aljaž Tower, a symbol of the Slovenes, is erected on Mount Triglav.
  • August 10 – The first ever indoor promenade concert, origin of The Proms, is held at the Queen's Hall in London, opening a series conducted by Henry Wood.[4]
  • August 19American frontier murderer and outlaw John Wesley Hardin is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
  • August 29
    • The Northern Rugby Football Union (the modern-day Rugby Football League) is formed at a meeting of 21 rugby clubs at the George Hotel, Huddersfield in the north of England,[5] leading to the creation of the sport of rugby league football.
    • Mat Salleh Rebellion in North Borneo is incited.
  • c. September – Foundation of Shelbourne F.C. in Dublin.
  • September 3 – The first professional American football game is played, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club (Latrobe wins 12–0).
  • September 7 – The first game of what will become known as rugby league football is played in England, starting the 1895–96 Northern Rugby Football Union season.
  • September 18
    • Booker T. Washington delivers the Atlanta compromise speech.[6]
    • Tomoji Tanabe is born in Miyakonojō, Miyazaki, Japan. He will become the last living man born in 1895, dying on June 19, 2009, at the age of 113.
    • Daniel David Palmer performs the first chiropractic spinal adjustment, on Harvey Lillard whose complaint was partial deafness after an injury.

October–December

  • October
    • Rudyard Kipling publishes the story "Mowgli Leaves the Jungle Forever" in The Cosmopolitan illustrated magazine in the United States (price 10 cents), collected in The Second Jungle Book published in England in November.
    • The London School of Economics holds its first classes in London, England.
  • October 1 – French troops capture Antananarivo in Madagascar.
  • October 8 – The Eulmi Incident: Empress Myeongseong of Korea is killed at her private residence within Gyeongbokgung Palace by Japanese agents.
  • October 22Montparnasse derailment: A train runs through the exterior wall of Gare Montparnasse terminus in Paris.
  • October 23 – The city of Tainan, last stronghold of the Republic of Formosa, capitulates to the forces of the Empire of Japan, ending the short-lived republic and beginning the era of Taiwan under Japanese rule.
  • October 31 – A major earthquake occurs in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of the midwestern United States, the last to date.
  • November 5George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.
  • November 8Wilhelm Röntgen discovers a type of radiation later known as X-rays.
  • November 25
    • Oscar Hammerstein opens the Olympia Theatre, the first theatre to be built in New York City's Times Square district.
    • Chicago Times-Herald race: The first American automobile race in history is sponsored by the Chicago Times-Herald. Press coverage first arouses significant American interest in the automobile.[7]
  • November 27 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
  • December –
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    • Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War begins.
  • December 7 – A corps of 2,350 Italian troops, mostly Askari, are crushed by 30,000 Abyssian troops at Amba Alagi.
  • December 11Svante Arrhenius becomes the first scientist to deliver quantified data about the sensitivity of global climate to atmospheric carbon dioxide (the "Greenhouse effect") as he presents his paper "On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air Upon The Temperature of the Ground" to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[8]
  • December 15 – The railways of the Cape of Good Hope, Colony of Natal, the Orange Free State, the South African Republic and southern Mozambique are all linked at Union Junction near Alberton.[9]
  • December 24 – Christmas Eve:
    • Kingstown lifeboat disaster: 15 crew are lost when their life-boat capsizes while trying to rescue the crew of the SS Palme off Kingstown (modern-day Dún Laoghaire) near Dublin, Ireland.
    • George Washington Vanderbilt II officially opens his Biltmore Estate, inviting his family and guests to celebrate his new home in Asheville, North Carolina.
  • December 28Auguste and Louis Lumière display their first moving picture film in Paris.

Date unknown

  • The gold reserve of the U.S. Treasury is saved when J. P. Morgan and the Rothschilds loan $65 million worth of gold to the United States government.
  • The world's first portable handheld electric drill is developed by brothers Wilhelm and Carl Fein in Germany.
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky proposes a space elevator.
  • Grace Chisholm Young becomes the first woman awarded a doctorate at a German university.
  • W. E. B. Du Bois becomes the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University.
  • The Swarovski Company is founded by Armand Kosman, Franz Weis and Daniel Swarovski in the Austrian Tyrol for the production of crystal glass.
  • The name 'HP Sauce' is first registered in the United Kingdom for a brown sauce.
  • The Duck Reach Power Station opens in Tasmania, first publicly owned hydroelectric plant in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • The first Boxer dog show is held at Munich, Germany.
  • A huge crowd at the first Welsh Grand National at Ely Racecourse, Cardiff, breaks down barriers and almost overwhelms police trying to keep out gatecrashers.[10]
  • German trade unions have c. 270,000 members.

Births

January–March

File:FBIHoover.jpg

J. Edgar Hoover

File:Babe Ruth Red Sox 1918.jpg

Babe Ruth

  • January 1
    • Bert Acosta, American aviator (d. 1954)
    • J. Edgar Hoover, American Federal Bureau of Investigation director (d. 1972)
  • January 4Leroy Grumman, American aeronautical engineer, test pilot and industrialist (d. 1982)
  • January 9Lucian Truscott, American general (d. 1965)
  • January 15
    • Leo Aryeh Mayer, Israeli professor and scholar of Islamic art (d. 1959)
    • Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, Finnish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • January 19
    • Isamu Chō, Japanese general (d. 1945)
    • Arthur Coningham, British air force air marshal (d. 1948)
  • January 21
    • Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish-French couturier (d. 1972)
    • Davíð Stefánsson, Icelandic poet (d. 1964)
  • January 23Raymond Griffith, American actor (d. 1957)
  • January 24Eugen Roth, German writer (d. 1976)
  • January 30Wilhelm Gustloff, German-born Swiss Nazi party leader (d. 1936)
  • February 2George Halas, American football player, coach, and co-founder of the National Football League (d. 1983)
  • February 6Babe Ruth, American baseball player (d. 1948)
  • February 10John Black, English chairman of Standard-Triumph (d. 1965)
  • February 14Max Horkheimer, German philosopher and sociologist (d. 1973)
  • February 15Earl Thomson, Canadian athlete (d. 1971)
  • February 18 (O.S. 6 February) – Semyon Timoshenko, Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1970)
  • February 19
    • Louis Calhern, American actor (d. 1956)
    • Diego Mazquiarán, Spanish matador (d. 1940)
  • February 21Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1976)
  • February 25Lew Andreas, American basketball coach (d. 1984)
  • February 27Edward Brophy, American character actor (d. 1960)
  • February 28
    • Louise Lovely, Australian actress (d. 1980)
    • Marcel Pagnol, French novelist and playwright (d. 1974)
  • March 3
    • Ragnar Frisch, Norwegian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
    • Matthew Ridgway, Commander of NATO, United States Army Chief of Staff (d. 1993)
  • March 4
    • Shemp Howard, American actor and comedian (The Three Stooges) (d. 1955)
    • Milt Gross, American comic book illustrator and animator (d. 1953)
  • March 12William C. Lee, U.S. general (d. 1948)
  • March 20
    • Robert Benoist, French race car driver and war hero (d. 1944)
    • Johnny Morrison, professional baseball player (d. 1966)
  • March 23Encarnacion Alzona, Filipino historian (d. 2001)
  • March 27Ruth Snyder, American murderer (d. 1928)
  • March 28Spencer W. Kimball, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1985)
  • March 29
    • Ernst Jünger, German author (d. 1998)
    • George Vasey, Australian general (d. 1945)

April–June

  • April 1Alberta Hunter, American singer (d. 1984)
  • April 3Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer (d. 1968)
  • April 9Mance Lipscomb, American singer (d. 1976)
  • April 13Olga Rudge, American violinist (d. 1996)
  • April 15
    • Corrado Alvaro, Italian writer and journalist (d. 1968)
    • Clark McConachy, New Zealand snooker and billiards player (d. 1980)
  • April 20Emile Christian, American musician (d. 1973)
  • April 26Hans Kopfermann, German physicist (d. 1963)
  • April 29Malcolm Sargent, English conductor (d. 1967)
  • May 6Rudolph Valentino, Italian actor (d. 1926)
  • May 8Fulton J. Sheen, American Catholic archbishop and television personality (d. 1979)
  • May 9Richard Barthelmess, American actor (d. 1963)
  • May 10Kama Chinen, Japanese woman supercentenarian and oldest person in the world (d. 2010)
  • May 11Jiddu Krishnamurti, Indian writer (d. 1986)
  • May 17
    • Mary Josephine Ray, Canadian woman supercentenarian and second oldest person in the world (d. 2010)
    • Saul Adler FRS, Russian-born British-Israeli expert on parasitology (d. 1966)
  • May 21Lázaro Cárdenas, 44th President of Mexico (d. 1970)
  • May 25Dorothea Lange, American documentary photographer and photojournalist (d. 1965)
  • June 4Dino Grandi, Italian Fascist politician (d. 1988)
  • June 10Hattie McDaniel, actress, first African-American woman to win an Academy Award (in 1939) (d. 1952)
  • June 12Wilfrid Kent Hughes, Australian Olympian and politician (d. 1970)
  • June 17Ruben Rausing, Swedish entrepreneur and founder of Tetra Pak (d. 1983)
  • June 24Jack Dempsey, American heavyweight boxer (d. 1983)

July–September

File:Carl Orff.jpg

Carl Orff

File:John G. Diefenbaker.jpg

John Diefenbaker

  • July 1Lucy Somerville Howorth, American lawyer, feminist and politician (d. 1997)
  • July 2Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi, Russian aircraft engineer (d. 1975)
  • July 8Igor Tamm, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
  • July 9Gunnar Aaby, Danish soccer player (d. 1966)
  • July 10Carl Orff, German composer (d. 1982)
  • July 12
    • Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian soprano (d. 1982)
    • Buckminster Fuller, American architect (d. 1983)
  • July 14F. R. Leavis, English literary critic (d. 1978)
  • July 19Xu Beihong, Chinese painter (d. 1953)
  • July 22León de Greiff, Colombian poet (d. 1976)
  • July 24Robert Graves, English writer (d. 1985)
  • July 25
    • Yvonne Printemps, French singer and actress (d. 1977)
    • Ingeborg Spangsfeldt, Danish actress (d. 1968)
  • July 26Gracie Allen, American actress and comedian (d. 1964)
  • August 3Neva Morris, American supercentenarian (d. 2010)
  • August 6Ernesto Lecuona, Cuban pianist and composer (d. 1963)
  • August 8Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (d. 1919)
  • August 10Harry Richman, American entertainer (d. 1972)
  • August 12Lynde D. McCormick, American admiral (d. 1956)
  • August 16
    • Liane Haid, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
    • Lucien Littlefield, American actor (d. 1960)
  • August 18Sibyl Morrison, Australian barrister (d. 1961)
  • August 19François Demol, Belgian footballer (d. 1966)
  • August 24
    • Guido Masiero, Italian World War I flying ace and aviation pioneer (d. 1942)
    • Tuanku Abdul Rahman, King of Malaysia (d. 1960)
  • September 1
    • Chembai, Indian Carnatic musician (d. 1974)
    • Engelbert Zaschka, German helicopter pioneer (d. 1955)
  • September 7
    • Sir Brian Horrocks, British general (d. 1985)
    • Jacques Vaché, French writer, associated with Surrealism (d. 1919)
  • September 11Vinoba Bhave, Indian religious leader (d. 1982)
  • September 13Ruth McDevitt, American actress (d. 1976)
  • September 18
    • John Diefenbaker, 13th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1979)
    • Tomoji Tanabe, Japanese supercentenarian (d. 2009)
  • September 21Juan de la Cierva, Spanish civil engineer, aviator, aeronautical engineer and inventor of the autogyro (d. 1936)
  • September 22Paul Muni, American actor (d. 1967)
  • September 24André Frédéric Cournand, French-born physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1988)
  • September 29Joseph Banks Rhine, American parapsychologist (d. 1980)
  • September 30Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1977)

October–December

File:Busterkeaton edit.jpg

Buster Keaton

File:Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg

Gerhard Domagk

File:Paul Hindemith 1923.jpg

Paul Hindemith

File:King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946.jpg

George VI

Deaths

January–June

  • January 9Aaron Lufkin Dennison, American watchmaker (b. 1812)
  • January 10Benjamin Godard, French composer (b. 1849)
  • January 24Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (b. 1849)
  • February 9Ōdera Yasuzumi, Japanese general (killed in action) (b. 1846)
  • February 10Liu Buchan, Chinese admiral (suicide) (b. 1852)
  • February 12Ding Ruchang, Chinese army officer and admiral (killed in action) (b. 1836)
  • February 18Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, Austrian general (b. 1817)
  • February 20Frederick Douglass, American ex-slave and author (b. 1818)
  • February 25Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare, politician (b. 1815)
  • February 26Salvador de Itúrbide y de Marzán, Prince of Mexico (b. 1849)
  • March 2Berthe Morisot, French painter (b. 1841)
  • March 10Charles Frederick Worth, English-born couturier (b. 1826)
  • April 4Nikolai Baranov, Russian politician (b. 1843)
  • March 13Louise Otto-Peters, German women's rights movement activist (d. 1819)
  • May 19José Martí, Cuban independence leader (b. 1853)
  • May 21Franz von Suppé, Austrian composer (b. 1819)
  • May 23Franz Ernst Neumann, German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician (b. 1798)
  • May 26Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Ottoman statesman (b. 1822)
  • May 28Walter Q. Gresham, American politician (b. 1832)
  • June 6Gustaf Nordenskiöld, Swedish explorer (b. 1868)
  • June 27Sophie Adlersparre, Swedish feminist (b. 1823)
  • June 29
    • Thomas Henry Huxley, English evolutionary biologist (b. 1825)
    • Green Clay Smith, American politician (b. 1826)
    • Floriano Vieira Peixoto, 2nd president of Brazil (b. 1839)
    • Émile Munier, French artist (b. 1840)

July–December

File:Engels.jpg

Friedrich Engels

File:Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar Crisco edit.jpg

Louis Pasteur

  • July 28Edward Beecher, American theologian (b. 1803)
  • August 4Louis-Antoine Dessaulles, Quebec journalist and politician (b. 1818)
  • August 5Friedrich Engels, German communist philosopher (b. 1820)
  • August 22Luzon B. Morris, American politician (b. 1827)
  • September 26Ephraim Wales Bull, American horticulturalist, creator of Concord grape (b. 1806)
  • September 28Louis Pasteur, French microbiologist and chemist (b. 1822)
  • October 8Empress Myeongseong (Queen Min), last Korean empress (b. 1851), assassinated
  • October 25Charles Hallé, German-born pianist and conductor (b. 1819)
  • November 5Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa of Japan (b. 1847)
  • November 23Mauritz de Haas, Dutch-American marine painter (b. 1832)
  • November 27Alexandre Dumas, fils, French author and playwright (b. 1824)
  • December 13Ányos Jedlik, Hungarian physicist, inventor of the dynamo (b. 1800)
  • December 27Eivind Astrup, Norwegian Arctic explorer (b. 1871)

References

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  8. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science April 1896.
  9. Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 183, ref. no. 200954-13
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