Culture Wikia

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Template:C19 year in topic

1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1894th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 894th year of the , the 94th year of the , and the 5th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • January 4A military alliance is established between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire.
  • January 7William Kennedy Dickson receives a patent for motion picture film.
  • January 9New England Telephone and Telegraph installs the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts.
  • February – In Korea, peasant unrest erupts in the Donghak Peasant Revolution, a massive revolt of followers of the Donghak movement. Both China and Japan send military forces, claiming to come to the ruling Joseon dynasty government's aid.
  • February 12
    • French anarchist Émile Henry sets off a bomb in a Paris café, killing one person and wounding twenty.
    • The barque Elisabeth Rickmers of Bremerhaven is wrecked at Haurvig, Denmark, but all crew and passengers are saved.
  • February 15 – At 04:51 GMT, French anarchist Martial Bourdin attempts to destroy the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London, England, with a bomb, killing himself instead.
  • February 17 – American outlaw John Wesley Hardin is released from prison.
  • March 1 – The Local Government Act (coming into effect December 1894–January 1895) reforms local government in Britain, creating a system of urban and rural districts with elected councils, with elected parish councils in rural areas, and gives women, irrespective of marital status, the right to vote and stand in local (but not national) elections.[1]
  • March 12 – For the first time, Coca-Cola is sold in bottles.
  • March 21 – A syzygy of planets occurs as Mercury transits the Sun as seen from Venus, and Mercury and Venus both transit the Sun as seen from Saturn, but no two of the transits are simultaneous.
  • March 25Coxey's Army (of the unemployed), the first significant protest march in the United States, departs from Massillon, Ohio, for Washington, D.C.
File:Commemorative Coca Cola bottles.jpg

March 12: Coca-Cola in bottles (replicas).


  • April 11 – Britain establishes a Protectorate over Uganda.[1]
  • April 16Manchester City Football Club is formed in England.
  • April 21 A bituminous coal miners' strike closes mines across the central United States.
  • April 23 – St. George's Day – Howard Ruff founded the Royal Society of St George to foster the love of England and to strengthen England and the Commonwealth by spreading the knowledge of English History, Traditions and Ideals.
  • April 27 – Canada's largest known landslide occurred in Saint-Alban, Quebec. Displeasing 185 million cubic metres (6.5×10^9 cu ft) of rock and dirt, leaving a 40 metres (130 ft) scar, that covered covered 4.6 million square metres (50×10^6 sq ft).[2][3]
  • May – Bubonic plague breaks out in the Tai Ping Shan area of Hong Kong (by the end of the year, the death toll is 2,552 people).
  • May 1
    • Coxey's Army arrives in Washington; Coxey is arrested.
    • The May Day Riots (against unemployment) break out in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • May 11Pullman Strike: Three thousand Pullman Palace Car Company factory workers go on a "wildcat" (without union approval) strike in Illinois.
  • May 14
    • A meteor shower is seen in southern France.
    • Blackpool Tower is opened in Blackpool, England.
  • May 21 – The Manchester Ship Canal and Docks are opened by Queen Victoria, linking the previously landlocked English industrial city of Manchester to the Irish Sea.
  • June 22Dahomey becomes a French colony.
  • June 23 – The International Olympic Committee is founded at the Sorbonne, Paris, at the initiative of Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
  • June 24Sadi Carnot, president of France, is assassinated.
  • June 30 – The Tower Bridge in London opens for traffic.
File:BlackpoolTower OwlofDoom.jpg

May 14: Blackpool Tower.


  • July – A fire at the site of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago destroys most of the remaining buildings.
  • July 4
    • The Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B. Dole.
    • The football club FC La Chaux-de-Fonds is founded in Switzerland.
File:Court of Honor and Grand Basin.jpg

July: Fire damages Columbian Exposition.

  • July 22Paris–Rouen Competition for Horseless Carriages, the first automobile competition.
  • August 1 – War is declared between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, over their rival claims of influence on their common ally, the Joseon dynasty of Korea. The event marks the start of the First Sino-Japanese War.
  • August 15Sante Geronimo Caserio is executed for the assassination of Marie François Sadi Carnot.
  • September 1Great Hinckley Fire: A forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota, kills more than 450 people.
  • September 4 – In New York City, 12,000 tailors strike against sweatshop working conditions.


  • October 1 – The Owl Club of Cape Town, South Africa, a dining club, has its first formal meeting.
  • October 15Dreyfus affair: French Army officer Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.
  • October 30 – Domenico Menegatti obtains a patent for a procedure to be applied in producing pandoro industrially.
  • November 1 – Russian emperor Alexander III is succeeded by his son Nicholas II.
  • November 6 – Major Republican landslide in the United States House of Representatives elections, which sets the stage for the decisive presidential election of 1896.
  • November 7 – The Masonic Grand Lodge de France is founded, splitting from the larger and older Grand Orient de France.
  • November 21Battle of Lushunkou (First Sino-Japanese War) – Japanese troops secure a decisive victory over the Chinese, capture the port city of Lüshunkou and begin the "Port Arthur massacre" in which more than 1,000 Chinese servicemen and civilians.
  • December 18 – Women in South Australia are legislated to become the first in Australia to gain the right to vote and to be elected to Parliament, taking effect from 1895.
  • December 21Mackenzie Bowell becomes Canada's fifth prime minister.
  • December 22Dreyfus affair: French Army officer Alfred Dreyfus is convicted of treason.
File:Tsar Nicholas II -1898.JPG

November 1: Nicholas II becomes Tsar of Russia.

Date unknown

  • Petrópolis becomes the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro until 1902.[4]
  • Western countries give up their extraterritorial rights in Japan.
  • New Zealand enacts the world's first minimum wage law.
  • Grace Kimmins founds the Guild of the Poor Brave Things in England for the education of crippled boys.
  • The National College of Music, London, is founded by the Moss family.
  • In the U.S., the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects is founded.
  • Chatham Episcopal Institute (now known as Chatham Hall ) is founded in Chatham, Virginia, U.S.
  • Sir William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh discover the first noble gas, argon.
  • Oil is discovered on the Osage Indian reservation, making the Osage the "richest group of people in the world".
  • Kate Chopin writes The Story of An Hour (fiction).
  • Pomfret School is founded.
  • Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern publish The Little Lost Child, promoting its release with the earliest version of music video known as the illustrated song.
  • Frederick W. Tamblyn founded the Tamblyn School of Penmanship which later became Ziller of Kansas City, the oldest Calligraphy studio still operating in United States.




  • March 14Osa Johnson, American adventurer and documentary filmmaker (d. 1953)
  • March 16Stuart Buchanan, American actor (d. 1974)
  • March 17Paul Green, novelist and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright (d. 1981)
  • March 19Moms Mabley, African American comedian (d. 1975)
  • March 20Hans Langsdorff, German naval officer (d. 1939)
  • March 27René Fonck, French World War I flying ace (d. 1953)
  • March 30Nikolai P. Barabashov, Russian astronomer (d. 1971)
File:Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919.jpg

King Edward VIII

File:Alfred Kinsey 1955.jpg

Alfred Kinsey

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S. Chruchstschow.jpg

Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev

  • April 5Chesney Allen, British entertainer and comedian (d. 1982)
  • April 6Gertrude Baines, American supercentenarian, (d. 2009)
  • April 9Keiji Shibazaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1943)
  • April 10
    • Shri Ghanshyam Das Birla, Indian industrialist, Gandhian and educationalist (d. 1983)
    • Ben Nicholson English abstract artist (d. 1982)
  • April 13Arthur Fadden, Australian Prime Minister (d. 1973)
  • April 15Bessie Smith, American blues singer (d. 1937)
  • April 17Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet politician (d. 1971)
  • April 26Rudolf Hess, German Nazi official (d. 1987)
  • April 27Nicolas Slonimsky, Russian/American musicologist (d. 1995)


  • May 2Joseph Henry Woodger, British theoretical biologist (d. 1981)
  • May 11Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (d. 1991)
  • May 15Eddie Stumpf, American baseball player, manager and executive (d. 1978)
  • May 16Walter Yust, American encyclopædia editor (d. 1960)
  • May 19Heinz Ziegler, German general (d. 1972)
  • May 20Chandrashekarendra Saraswati, Indian religious scholar and saint (d. 1994)
  • May 27
    • Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer (d. 1961)
    • Dashiell Hammett, American detective fiction writer (d. 1961)
  • May 29Josef von Sternberg, Austrian-American film director (d. 1969)
  • May 30Hubertus van Mook, Acting Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1942 to 1948 (d. 1965)
  • May 31Fred Allen, American comedian (d. 1956)
  • June 4Gabriel Pascal, Hungarian film producer (d. 1954)
  • June 7Roy Thomson, Canadian publisher (d. 1976)
  • June 9Nedo Nadi, Italian fencer (d. 1940)
  • June 14Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (d. 1924)
  • June 23
    • King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, afterwards The Duke of Windsor (d. 1972)
    • Harold Barrowclough, New Zealand general, lawyer and chief justice (d. 1972)
    • Alfred Kinsey, American sexologist (d. 1956)
  • June 28Arthur D. Struble, American admiral (d. 1983)


  • July 8Carlo Ludovico Bragaglia, Italian film director (d. 1998)
  • July 9Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1984)
  • July 18Isaac Babel, Ukrainian writer (d. 1940)
  • July 19Khawaja Nazimuddin, Pakistani Prime Minister (d. 1965)
  • July 20Wiley Blount Rutledge, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1949)
  • July 26Aldous Huxley, English novelist (d. 1963)
  • August 1Kurt Wintgens, German fighter pilot and air ace in World War I (d. 1916)
  • August 3Harry Heilmann, American baseball player (d. 1951)
  • August 10V. V. Giri, Indian politician and 4th President of India (d. 1980)
  • August 16George Meany, American labor leader (d. 1980)
  • August 26Maksim Purkayev, Soviet general (d. 1953)
  • August 28
    • Karl Böhm, Austrian conductor (d. 1981)
    • Elisha Scott, Irish footballer (d. 1959)


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1994-034-22A, Heinrich Lübke.jpg

Heinrich Lübke

  • October 14Heinrich Lübke, German president (d. 1972)
  • October 15Moshe Sharett, Israeli Prime Minister (d. 1965)
  • October 18H. L. Davis, American fiction writer (d. 1960)
  • October 25
    • Claude Cahun, French photographer and writer (d. 1954)
    • Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, Turkish poet, songwriter and saz player (d. 1973)
  • October 27Fritz Sauckel, German Nazi politician and war criminal (d. 1946)


File:E. C. Segar.png

E.C. Segar


  • K. M. Panikkar, Indian scholar, diplomat and journalist (d. 1963)



File:Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.jpg

Heinrich Hertz

File:Adolphe Sax.jpg

Adolphe Sax


Gustave Caillebotte

  • January 1Heinrich Hertz, German physicist (b. 1857)
  • January 13Nadezhda von Meck, patron of Tchaikovsky (b. 1831)
  • February 3Auguste Vaillant, French anarchist (b. 1861) (executed)
  • February 4Adolphe Sax, Belgian instrument maker, inventor of the saxophone (b. 1814)
  • February 8Robert Michael Ballantyne, Scottish novelist (b. 1825)
  • February 11Margaret Henley, inspiration for the name "Wendy" in Peter Pan (b. 1888)
  • February 15May Brookyn, American actress (b. ?1854)
  • February 21Gustave Caillebotte, French painter (b. 1848)
  • February 27
    • Hilarión Daza, President of Bolivia (assassinated) (b. 1840)
    • Carl Schmidt, Baltic German chemist (b. 1822)
  • March 2
    • Jubal Early, Confederate general (b. 1816)
    • William H. Osborn, American railroad executive (b. 1820)
  • March 3Ned Williamson, American baseball player (b. 1857)
  • March 20Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian politician (b. 1802)
  • April 8Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Bengali poet (b. 1838)
  • June 3Karl Eduard Zachariae von Lingenthal, German jurist and expert on Byzantine law (b. 1812)
  • June 7 – King Hassan I of Morocco (b. 1836)
  • June 23
    • Marietta Alboni, Italian opera singer (b. 1826)
    • Władysław Czartoryski, Polish political activist and art collector (b. 1828)
  • July 24George Peter Alexander Healy, American portrait painter (d. 1813)
  • June 25
    • Marie François Sadi Carnot, French statesman (assassinated) (b. 1837)
    • Charles Romley Alder Wright, British chemist synthesized Heroin (b. 1844)


File:Hermann von Helmholtz.jpg

Hermann von Helmholtz

File:Robert Louis Stevenson Knox Series.jpg

Robert Louis Stevenson

  • July 30Walter Pater, English essayist and critic (b. 1839)
  • September 1Nathaniel P. Banks, American politician and general (b. 1816)
  • September 8Hermann von Helmholtz, German physician and physicist (b. 1821)
  • September 13Emmanuel Chabrier, French composer (b. 1841)
  • October 7Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., American author (b. 1809)
  • October 20James Anthony Froude, English historian (b. 1818)
  • October 30Juan Cortina, Mexican folk hero (b. 1824)
  • November 1 – Emperor Alexander III of Russia (b. 1845)
  • November 20Anton Rubinstein, Russian pianist and composer (b. 1829)
  • November 25Solomon Caesar Malan, Swiss-born orientalist (b. 1812)
  • December 3Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish author (b. 1850)
  • December 8Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematician (b. 1821)
  • December 12John Sparrow David Thompson, 4th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1845)
  • December 28Chamarajendra Wadiyar X, Maharajah of Mysore (b. 1863)

Date unknown

  • Paul Lecreux, French sculptor (b. ca. 1826)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 321–322. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  2. "Landslides". Get Prepared. Public Safety Canada. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  3. "History of Saint-Alban". Saint Alban (in French). City of Saint Alban. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  4. "Emperor Street". World Digital Library. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013.