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Template:C19 year in topic

1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1893rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 893rd year of the , the 93rd year of the , and the 4th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

File:MIH-film12 color cerrected denoise.jpg

January 2: standard railroad chronometers.

File:LocationCotedIvoire.png

March 10: Ivory Coast becomes French colony.

  • January 2Webb C. Ball introduces railroad chronometers, which become the general railroad timepiece standards in North America.
  • January 13 – The Independent Labour Party of the United Kingdom has its first meeting.
  • January 15 – The Telefon Hírmondó service starts with around 60 subscribers in Budapest.
  • January 17Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii: Lorrin A. Thurston and the Citizen's Committee of Public Safety in Hawaii with the intervention of the United States Marine Corps overthrow the government of Queen Liliuokalani.
  • January 21 – The Cherry Sisters first perform in Marion, Iowa.
  • February 1Thomas Edison finishes construction of the first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey.
  • February 19 – The Template:SS is believed to have sunk due to a storm.
  • February 23Rudolf Diesel receives a patent for the diesel engine.
  • February 24American University is established by an Act of Congress in Washington, D.C.
  • February 28USS Indiana, the first battleship in the United States Navy comparable to other nation's battleships of this time, is launched.
  • March 4Grover Cleveland is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 10Ivory Coast becomes a French colony.
  • March 20 – In Belgium, Adam Worth is sentenced to 7 years for robbery (he is released in 1897).

April–June

File:Court of Honor and Grand Basin.jpg

May 1: World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago

  • April 1 – The rank of Chief Petty Officer is established in the United States Navy.
  • April 6 – The iconic Salt Lake City Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is dedicated after 40 years of construction.[1]
  • April 8 – The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania between the Geneva College Covenanters and the New Brighton YMCA.
  • April 17 – Riots of Mons during the Belgian general strike of 1893, The day after, Belgian parliament approves Universal suffrage.
  • April 17 – The sorority Alpha Xi Delta is founded at Lombard College in Galesburg, Illinois.
  • May – The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland is formed.
  • May 1 – The 1893 World's Fair, also known as the World's Columbian Exposition, opens to the public in Chicago, USA. The first United States commemorative postage stamps are issued for the Exposition.
  • May 5Panic of 1893: A crash on the New York Stock Exchange starts a depression.
  • May 9 – Edison's 1½ inch system of Kinetoscope is first demonstrated in public at the Brooklyn Institute.
  • May 10 – The United States Supreme Court legally declares the tomato to be a vegetable.
File:Mh kleine scheidegg sommer.jpeg

June 20: Wengernalpbahn railway.

  • May 23Gandhi arrives in South Africa where he will live until 1914, lead non-violent protests on behalf of Indian immigrants in the South African Republic (Transvaal) and generally have a deeper experience of such activities during these years.
  • June 6 – Prince George, Duke of York (later George V) marries Mary of Teck.
  • June 7Gandhi commits his first act of civil disobedience in India.
  • June 17 – Gold is found in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.
  • June 20 – The Wengernalpbahn railway in Wengen, Switzerland (Canton of Bern) is opened.
  • June 20Lizzie Borden acquitted of murdering her parents in Fall River, Massachusetts in 1892.
  • June 22 – The flagship Template:HMS of the British Mediterranean Fleet collides with Template:HMS and sinks in 10 minutes; Vice-admiral Sir George Tryon goes down with his ship.

July–September

File:British warships, Malta 1902.jpg

June 22: British Mediterranean Fleet flagship Victoria sinks.

  • July 1 – U.S. President Grover Cleveland is operated on in secret.
  • July 6 – The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado; 71 people are killed and 200 injured.
  • July 11
    • A revolution led by liberal general and politician José Santos Zelaya takes over power in Nicaragua.
    • Kokichi Mikimoto, in Japan, develops the method to seed and grow cultured pearls.
  • July 12
    • Frederick Jackson Turner gives a lecture titled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" before the American Historical Association in Chicago.
    • Dundee F.C., a Scottish football club, is formed.
  • July 25 – Completion of the Corinth Canal in Greece.
  • August 15Ibadan area becomes a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos, George C. Denton.
  • August 27 – The Sea Islands hurricane hits Savannah, Charleston, and the Sea Islands, killing 1,000–2,000.
File:Strand-of-akoya-pearls.jpg

July 11: Mikimoto develops cultured pearls.

  • September 1William Ewart Gladstone's Government of Ireland Bill 1893, intended to give Ireland self-government, is rejected by the British Parliament.
  • September 7
    • Under the pressure of a general strike, the Belgian Federal Parliament accepts a proposal to accept general multiple suffrage.
    • Russian monitor Rusalka sinks in the Gulf of Finland with the loss of all 177 crew.
    • Genoa Cricket & Athletic Club, the oldest Italian football club, is formed.
  • September 11
    • The World Parliament of Religions in Chicago opens its first meeting.
    • Standing ovation to Hindu monk Swami Vivekanda for his address in response to the welcome at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago.
  • September 19
    • Swami Vivekananda delivers an inspiring speech on his paper at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago.
    • New Zealand becomes the first country in the world to grant women the right to vote.
    • The Russian ironclad Rusalka disappears in a storm en route from Tallinn to Helsinki; her hulk is eventually discovered in July 2003, off Helsinki.
  • September 21 – Brothers Charles and Frank Duryea drive the first gasoline-powered motorcar in America on public roads in Springfield, Massachusetts.
  • September 23 – The Bahá'í Faith is first publicly mentioned in the United States at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago.
  • September 27 – The World Parliament of Religions holds its closing meeting in Chicago.
  • September 28 – The Portuguese sports club Futebol Clube do Porto is founded.

October–December

  • October 10 – The first car number plates appear in Paris, France.
  • October 13 – First students enter St Hilda's College, Oxford, England, founded for women by Dorothea Beale.
  • October 23 – The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) is founded by Bulgarians in the town of Thessaloniki. Its aim is to liberate the region of Macedonia from the Ottoman Turks.
  • October 28 (October 16 O.S.) – In Saint Petersburg (Russia), Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducts the first performance of his Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Pathétique nine days before his death.
  • October 30 – The 1893 World's Fair, also known as the World's Columbian Exposition, closes.
  • November 7Colorado women are granted the right to vote.
  • November 12 – The Durand Line is established as the boundary between British India and Afghanistan by a memorandum of understanding signed by Sir Mortimer Durand, Foreign Secretary of British India, and Abdur Rahman Khan, Amir of Afghanistan.
  • November 15FC Basel football club is founded in Switzerland.
  • November 16 – The athletic club Královské Vinohrady, later Sparta Prague, is founded.
  • December 4First Matabele War: The Shangani Patrol of British South Africa Company soldiers is ambushed and annihilated by more than 3,000 Matabele warriors.
  • December 5 – Plural voting is abolished in New South Wales.
  • December 16Antonín Dvořák's Symphony No. 9 "From the New World" receives its premiere at Carnegie Hall, New York City.
  • December 20Evergreen Park, Illinois, is incorporated.
  • December
    • Carl Anton Larsen becomes the first man to ski in Antarctica.
    • Arthur Conan Doyle surprises the reading public by revealing in the story The Adventure of the Final Problem, published in this month's Strand Magazine, that his character Sherlock Holmes had apparently died at the Reichenbach Falls on May 4, 1891.

Date unknown

File:LocationLaos.png

France conquers Laos.

  • Siam concedes Laos to France.
  • The American Council on Alcohol Problems is established, along with the Anti-Saloon League and the Committee of Fifty for the Study of the Liquor Problem.
  • American Temperance University is opened.
  • American sisters Patty and Mildred J. Hill publish Song Stories for the Kindergarten including "Good Morning to All", which later becomes known as "Happy Birthday to You".
  • Physicist Wilhelm Wien formulates Wien's displacement law.
  • Millbank Prison in London is demolished.
  • In the U.S., the National Sculpture Society (NSS) is founded.
  • The football club Dulwich Hamlet is founded.
  • TMI — The Episcopal School of Texas is founded.
  • The National Education Association in the United States releases final report from the Committee of Ten recommending standardization of the high school curriculum.
  • Colored High becomes the first African-American high school in Houston, Texas; its name is later changed to Booker T. Washington High School.
  • The Ardabil Carpet is brought to London.
  • Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, is incorporated as a town.
  • Small anti-Semitic parties secure 2.9% of votes in Germany.
  • Before 1893 – 8,000 Chinese arrive in Cuba.
  • 71.2% of the working population of São Paulo is foreign-born.

Births

January–March

File:Jimmy durante 1964.JPG

Jimmy Durante

  • January 1Minoru Sasaki, Japanese general (d. 1961)
  • January 4Yone Minagawa, Japanese supercentenarian (d. 2007)
  • January 5Paramahansa Yogananda, Indian guru (d. 1952)
  • January 10Vicente Huidobro, Chilean poet (d. 1948)
  • January 11Anthony M. Rud, American writer (d. 1942)
  • January 12
    • Edward Selzer, American film producer (d. 1970)
    • Hermann Göring, German Nazi official (d. 1946)
    • Alfred Rosenberg, German Nazi official (d. 1946)
  • January 15Ivor Novello, Welsh actor and musician (d. 1951)
  • January 22
    • Arthur Smith, Australian public servant (d. 1971)
    • Conrad Veidt, German actor (d. 1943)
    • Frankie Yale, American gangster (d. 1928)
  • January 27Soong Ching-ling, one of the Soong sisters, wife of Chinese president Sun Yat-sen (d. 1981)
  • February 3Gaston Julia, French mathematician (d. 1978)
  • February 10Jimmy Durante, American actor, singer, and comedian (d. 1980)
  • February 12Omar Bradley, American general (d. 1981)
  • February 13
    • Ana Pauker, Romanian communist politician (d. 1960)
    • Zénon Bernard, Luxembourgish communist politician (d. 1942)
  • February 16
    • Katharine Cornell, American actress (d. 1974)
    • Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Soviet Army officer (d. 1937)
  • February 19 – Sir Cedric Hardwicke, English actor (d. 1964)
  • February 21Andrés Segovia, Spanish guitarist (d. 1987)
  • February 24Tokushichi Mishima, Japanese inventor, engineer (d. 1975)
  • February 28Ivan Vasilyov, Bulgarian architect (d. 1979)
  • March 1Mercedes de Acosta, American poet, playwright, costume designer, and socialite (d. 1968)
  • March 3
    • Beatrice Wood, American artist and ceramicist (d. 1998)
    • Ivon Hitchens, English painter (d. 1979)
  • March 11Wanda Gág, American children's author and artist (d. 1946)
  • March 14Arthur C. Davis, American admiral (d. 1965)
  • March 18Wilfred Owen, English soldier and poet (d. 1918)
  • March 19José María Velasco Ibarra, former President of Ecuador (d. 1979)
  • March 22Kleber Claux, French-born Australian anarchist and nudist (d. 1971)
  • March 24
    • Walter Baade, German astronomer (d. 1960)
    • Emmy Sonnemann, German actress, second wife of Hermann Göring (d. 1973)
  • March 26Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader (d. 1964)
  • March 31Herbert Meinhard Mühlpfordt, German historian (d. 1982)

April–June

File:Portrait of Joan Miro, Barcelona 1935 June 13.jpg

Joan Miró

  • April 1Cicely Courtneidge, British actress (d. 1980)
  • April 3Leslie Howard, English actor (d. 1943)
  • April 6Alfred Gerstenberg, German Luftwaffe general (d. 1959)
  • April 9
    • Victor Gollancz, British publisher (d. 1967)
    • Rahul Sankrityayan, Indian historian, writer, scholar (d. 1963)
  • April 12Robert Harron, American actor (d. 1920)
  • April 15Maximilian Ritter von Pohl, German army and air-force officer (d. 1951)
  • April 18Georges Boulanger, Romanian violinist (d. 1958)
  • April 20
    • Harold Lloyd, American actor (d. 1971)
    • Joan Miró, Spanish painter and sculptor (d. 1983)
    • Edna Parker, American supercentenarian (d. 2008)
  • April 21Matsuji Ijuin, Japanese admiral (d. 1944)
  • April 23Allen Dulles, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1969)
  • April 29Harold C. Urey, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1981)
  • April 30Harold Breen, Australian public servant (d. 1966)
  • May 3Konstantine Gamsakhurdia, Georgian writer and public benefactor (d. 1975)
  • May 8
    • Teddy Wakelam, English sports broadcaster and rugby union player (d. 1963)
    • Francis Ouimet, American golfer and businessman (d. 1967)
  • May 16Clement Martyn Doke, South African linguist (d. 1980)
  • May 21Giles Chippindall, Australian public servant (d. 1969)
  • May 23Ulysses S. Grant IV, American geologist and paleontologist (d. 1977)
  • June 7Gillis Grafström, Swedish figure skater (d. 1938)
  • June 12John R. Hodge, United States Army general (d. 1963)
  • June 13Dorothy L. Sayers, British crime writer, poet, playwright and essayist (d. 1957)
  • June 14Siggie Nordstrom, American model, actress, entertainer, socialite and singer (d. 1980)
  • June 24
    • Roy Oliver Disney, brother and business partner of Walter Elias Disney (d. 1971)
    • Suzanne La Follette, libertarian feminist (d. 1983)
  • June 26Big Bill Broonzy, American blues singer and composer (d. 1958)
  • June 29Aarre Merikanto, Finnish composer (d. 1958)
  • June 30
    • Harold Laski, British political theorist and economist (d. 1950)
    • Walter Ulbricht, German Communist politician (d. 1973)

July–September

File:Mae West - 1936.jpg

Mae West

  • July 1Mario de Bernardi, Italian aviator (d. 1959)
  • July 3Mississippi John Hurt, American musician (d. 1966)
  • July 4Norman Manley, Jamaican statesman (d. 1969)
  • July 9George Geary, English cricketer (d. 1981)
  • July 12John Gould Moyer, American naval officer, 31st Governor of American Samoa (d. 1976)
  • July 18Richard Dix, American actor (d. 1949)
  • July 20George Llewelyn Davies, inspiration for Peter Pan (d. 1915)
  • July 25Dorothy Dickson, American-born actress and socialite (d. 1995)
  • July 28Rued Langgaard, Danish composer and organist (d. 1952)
  • July 30Fatima Jinnah, Pakistani Mother of the Nation (d. 1967)
  • August 4Fritz Gause, German historian (d. 1973)
  • August 6Wright Patman, American politician (d. 1976)
  • August 14
    • Francis Dvornik, Czech historian (d. 1975)
    • Carl Benton Reid, American actor (d. 1973)
  • August 15Leslie Comrie, New Zealand astronomer and computing pioneer (d. 1950)
  • August 17Mae West, American actress, playwright, screenwriter, and sex symbol (d. 1980)
  • August 18Frank Linke-Crawford, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (d. 1918)
  • August 22
  • August 24Haim Ernst Wertheimer German-born Israeli biochemist, recipient of the Israel Prize (d. 1978)
  • August 25Henry Trendley Dean, American dental researcher (d. 1962)
  • August 30Huey Long, Louisiana governor and senator (d. 1935)
  • September 6Claire Lee Chennault, American aviator and general, leader of the Flying Tigers (d. 1958)
  • September 10
    • Juana Bormann, German Nazi war criminal (d. 1945)
    • Maria de Jesus, Portuguese supercentenarian (d. 2009)
  • September 12Frederick William Franz, President of Jehovah's Witnesses (d. 1992)
  • September 13Larry Shields, American musician (d. 1953)
  • September 16Albert Szent-Györgyi, Hungarian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1986)
  • September 18
    • Arthur Benjamin, Australian composer (d. 1960)
    • William March, American writer and soldier (d. 1954)
    • Reidar Rye Haugan, American newspaper editor and publisher (d. 1972)
  • September 30Lansdale Sasscer, U.S. Congressman (d. 1964)

October–December

File:Lillian Gish.jpg

Lillian Gish

File:Mao.jpg

Mao Zedong

Date unknown

  • Otto Eppers, American cartoonist (d. 1955)
  • Henry Matthew Talintyre, British artist (d. 1962)
  • Russell Johnson, cartoonist (d. 1995)

Deaths

January–June

File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg

Rutherford B. Hayes

  • January 2John Obadiah Westwood, British entomologist (b. 1805)
  • January 7Jožef Stefan, Slovenian physicist, mathematician, and poet (b. 1835)
  • January 11Benjamin Butler, American lawyer, politician, and general (b. 1818)
  • January 17Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States (b. 1822)
  • January 23Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar, U.S. Supreme Court justice (b. 1825)
  • January 27James G. Blaine, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, US Senator, and US Secretary of State
  • February 1George Henry Sanderson, Mayor of San Francisco (b. 1824)
  • February 4Concepción Arenal, Spanish feminist writer and activist (b. 1820)
  • February 10Henry Churchill de Mille, American dramatist and playwright; father of Cecil B. DeMille (b. 1853)
  • February 18
    • King George Tupou I of Tonga (b. 1797)
    • Serranus Clinton Hastings, American politician (b. 1814)
  • February 20P. G. T. Beauregard, American Confederate general (b. 1818)
  • March 16William H. Illingworth, American photographer (b. 1844)
  • March 17
    • Jules Ferry, French premier (b. 1832)
    • Lucy Isabella Buckstone, English actress (b. 1857)
  • March 18
    • Bandō Kakitsu I, Japanese kabuki actor (b. 1847)
    • George Alexander Baird, called Squire Abington, wealthy English horse breeder (b. 1861)
  • March 30Jane Sym-Mackenzie, second wife of Canada's second prime minister (b. 1825)
  • April 8August Czartoryski, Polish prince (b. 1858)
  • April 19John Addington Symonds, English poet and literary critic (b. 1840)
  • April 22Edward Fitzgerald Beale, American adventurer and businessman (b.1822)
  • June 7Edwin Booth, American actor (b. 1833)
  • June 14Jakob Frohschammer, theologian and philosopher (b. 1821)
  • June 19William Rosecrans, California congressman and Register of the U.S. Treasury (b. 1819)
  • June 21Leland Stanford, Governor of California (b. 1824)
  • June 22George Tryon, British admiral (b. 1832)
  • June 23 – Sir Theophilus Shepstone, South African statesman (b. 1817)

July–December

File:SirJohnAbbott1.jpg

John Abbott

File:Porträt des Komponisten Pjotr I. Tschaikowski (1840-1893).jpg

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

  • July 2Georgiana Drew Barrymore, American actress-comedian (b. 1856)
  • July 6Guy de Maupassant, French writer (b. 1850)
  • July 16Antonio Ghislanzoni, Italian politician and journalist (b. 1833)
  • August 6Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
  • August 7Alfredo Catalani, Italian composer (b. 1854)
  • August 20 – Baron Alexander Wassilko von Serecki, Governor of the Duchy of Bucovina and member of the Herrenhaus (b. 1827)
  • October 6Ford Madox Brown, English painter (b. 1821)
  • October 8John Willis Menard, African-American politician (b. 1838)
  • October 10Lip Pike, American baseball player (b. 1845)
  • October 17Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, French general and politician, first president of the Third Republic (1875-1879) (b. 1808)
  • October 18Charles Gounod, French composer (b. 1818)
  • October 22Duleep Singh, ruler of Punjab (b. 1838)
  • October 23Alexander of Battenberg, first prince of Bulgaria (b. 1857)
  • October 30John Abbott, 3rd Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1821)
  • November 6Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1840)
  • November 8Annie Pixley, American actress (b. 1848)
  • November 22James Calder, 5th President of Pennsylvania State University (b. 1826)
  • December 20George C. Magoun, American railroad executive (b. 1840)

Date unknown

  • Julius Dresser, American writer (b. 1838)
  • Margaret Fox, American medium (b. 1833)
  • Marie Durocher, Brazilian obstetrician and physician (b. 1809)

References

Further reading

  • The Year-book of the Imperial Institute of the United Kingdom, the colonies and India: a statistical record of the resources and trade of the colonial and Indian possessions of the British Empire (2nd. ed. 1893) 880pp; online edition
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