Culture Wikia

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1892 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1892
Ab urbe condita2645
Armenian calendar1341
Assyrian calendar6642
Bahá'í calendar48–49
Balinese saka calendar1813–1814
Bengali calendar1299
Berber calendar2842
British Regnal year55 Vict. 1 – 56 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2436
Burmese calendar1254
Byzantine calendar7400–7401
Chinese calendar辛卯(Metal Rabbit)
4588 or 4528
    — to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
4589 or 4529
Coptic calendar1608–1609
Discordian calendar3058
Ethiopian calendar1884–1885
Hebrew calendar5652–5653
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1948–1949
 - Shaka Samvat1813–1814
 - Kali Yuga4992–4993
Holocene calendar11892
Igbo calendar892–893
Iranian calendar1270–1271
Islamic calendar1309–1310
Japanese calendarMeiji 25
Javanese calendar1821–1822
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4225
Minguo calendar20 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar424
Thai solar calendar2434–2435
Tibetan calendar阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
2018 or 1637 or 865
    — to —
(male Water-Dragon)
2019 or 1638 or 866

1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1892nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 892nd year of the , the 92nd year of the , and the 3rd year of the decade. As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • January 1Ellis Island begins accommodating immigrants to the United States.
  • January 15James Naismith's rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training School's newspaper, in an article titled "A New Game".
  • February 18Pennsauken Township, New Jersey is incorporated.
  • February 27Rudolf Diesel applies for a patent on his compression ignition engine (the Diesel engine).
  • February 29St. Petersburg, Florida is incorporated.
  • March 1Theodoros Deligiannis ends his term as Prime Minister of Greece and Konstantinos Konstantopoulos takes office.
  • March 68 – "Exclusive Agreement": Rulers of the Trucial States (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain) sign an agreement by which they become de facto British protectorates.
  • March 11 – First basketball game ever played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA.[1] The final score is 5–1 in favor of the students, with the only goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg.[1] A crowd of 200 spectators watches the game.[1]
  • March 13Ernest Louis, a grandson of Queen Victoria, becomes Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine on the death of his father, Grand Duke Louis IV.
  • March 15 – The Liverpool Football Club is founded by John Houlding, the owner of Anfield. Houlding decides to form his own team after Everton leaves Anfield in an argument over rent.
  • March 18 – Sir Frederick Stanley announces his intention to donate the Stanley Cup.
  • March 20 – The first ever French rugby championship final takes place in Paris. Pierre de Coubertin referees the match, which Racing Club de France wins 4–3 over Stade Français.
  • March 31 – The world's first fingerprinting bureau is formally opened by the Buenos Aires Chief of Police; it has been operating unofficially since the previous year.
File:Lumbar patent dieselengine.jpg

February 27: Rudolf Diesel's patent.


  • April – The Johnson County War breaks out between small farmers and large ranchers in Wyoming.
  • April 15 – The General Electric Company is established through the merger of the Thomson-Houston Company and the Edison General Electric Company.
  • April 29Redondo Beach, California, USA is founded.
  • May 7 – The Cook Islands issue their first postage stamps.
  • May 19 – Battle of Yemoja River: British troops defeat Ijebu infantry in modern-day Nigeria, using a maxim gun.
  • May 20 – Last broad gauge "Down" train from Paddington on Great Western Railway.
  • May 22 – The British conquest of Ijebu Ode marks a major extension of colonial power into the Nigerian interior.
  • May 24 – Prince George (later George V) becomes Duke of York.
  • May 28 – In San Francisco, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club.
  • June 4Abercrombie & Fitch is established by David T. Abercrombie.
  • June 5 – An oil fire in Oil City, Pennsylvania, kills 130 people.
  • June 7Homer Plessy (who is black) is arrested for sitting on the whites-only car in Louisiana, leading to the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson court case.
  • June 11 – The Limelight Department, later one of the world's first film studios, is officially established in Melbourne, Australia.
  • June 30 – The Homestead Strike begins in Homestead, Pennsylvania, culminating in a battle between striking workers and private security agents on July 6.


  • July 4Samoa changes its time zone to being 3 hours behind California, such that it crosses the international date line and July 4 occurs twice.
  • July 4July 18British general election: The Unionist government loses its majority.
  • July 6
    • Dr. José Rizal, Filipino writer, philosopher, and political activist is arrested by Spanish authorities in connection with La Liga Filipina.
    • Homestead Strike: The arrival of a force of 300 Pinkerton detectives from New York and Chicago results in a fight in which about 10 men are killed.
  • July 8 – The Great Fire of 1892 devastates the city of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • July 12 – A hidden lake bursts out of a glacier on the side of Mont Blanc, flooding the valley below and killing around 200 villagers and holidaymakers in Saint-Gervais-les-Bains.
  • July 13 – United International Bureau for the Protection of Intellectual Property (UIBPIP or BIRPI).
  • August – The first electric light bulb in Bulgaria is used at the Plovdiv Fair.
  • August 4 – The father and stepmother of Lizzie Borden are found murdered in their Fall River, Massachusetts home.
  • August 4Franklin Park, Illinois is incorporated as a village.
  • August 9Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph.
  • August 18William Ewart Gladstone assumes British premiership at head of Liberal government, with Irish Nationalist Party support.
  • September 3 – The Nottingham Forest Football Club plays their first league match, a 2–2 draw with Everton FC.
  • September 15Sergei Witte replaces Ivan Vyshnegradsky as Russian finance minister.
  • September – Women first admitted to Yale University's graduate school


  • October 1 – The University of Chicago holds its first classes.

October 5: Dalton Gang.

File:Holmes by Paget.jpg

Oct.31: "Sherlock Holmes"

  • October 5
    • The Dalton Gang, attempting to rob 2 banks in Coffeyville, Kansas, is shot by the townspeople; only Emmett Dalton, with 23 wounds, survives, to spend 14 years in prison.
    • Master criminal Adam Worth is captured in Liège, Belgium during an attempted robbery of a money delivery cart.
  • October 12 – To mark the 400th anniversary Columbus Day holiday, the "Pledge of Allegiance" is first recited in unison by students in U.S. public schools.
  • October 31 – The first collection of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories from The Strand Magazine, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, is published in London.
  • November 8
    • U.S. presidential election, 1892: Grover Cleveland is elected over Benjamin Harrison and James B. Weaver to win the second of his non-consecutive terms.
    • An anarchist bomb kills six in a police station in Avenue de l'Opéra, Paris.
    • The four-day New Orleans General Strike begins.
  • November 17 – French troops occupy Abomey, capital of the kingdom of Dahomey.
  • November 24 The Hotel Zinzendorf catches fire in the city of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 45 people die.
  • December 5John Thompson becomes Canada's fourth prime minister.
  • December 18The Nutcracker ballet with music by Tchaikovsky is premiered at the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia.
  • December 22 – The Newcastle East End F.C. is renamed Newcastle United F.C., following the demise of the Newcastle West End F.C. and East End's move to St James' Park, formerly West End's home, in the north east of England.

Stanley Cup.

Date unknown[]

  • Andrew Carnegie combines all of his separate businesses into the Carnegie Steel Company, allowing him to gain a monopoly in the steel industry.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Bureau for Permanent Arbitration
  • The first Canadian National Rugby-Football Championship game is played (Osgoode Hall defeats Montreal 45–5).
  • A cholera outbreak occurs in Hamburg, Germany.
  • A tortoise called Timothy is brought to the estate of Powderham Castle in England, where she lives until her death in 2004.
  • Abu Dhabi becomes a British protectorate.
  • The Cadet Band (current day Highty-Tighties) of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (current day Virginia Tech) is established in the Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets.
  • The Community of the Resurrection, an Anglican religious community for men, is founded by Charles Gore and Walter Frere.
  • Viruses are discovered by the RussianUkrainian biologist Dimitri Ivanovski.
  • Worthington, Ontario, Canada is incorporated as a mining community.
  • Construction of Trans-Siberian Railway begins.
  • Unione Sportiva Pro Vercelli football club is founded in Piedmont, Italy.


File:Tolkien 1916.jpg

J. R. R. Tolkien


File:A Day at School.jpg

Oliver Hardy

File:Ernst Lubitsch 01.jpg

Ernst Lubitsch

  • January 1
    • Artur Rodziński, Polish conductor (d. 1958)
    • Manuel Roxas, President of the Philippines (d. 1948)
  • January 3J. R. R. Tolkien, professor and author of The Lord of the Rings (d. 1973)
  • January 10Vladimir Littauer, Equestrian trainer and coach (d. 1989)
  • January 12Mikhail Kirponos, Soviet general (d. 1941)
  • January 14
    • Hal Roach, American film and television producer (d. 1992)
    • Martin Niemöller, prisoner in the Nazi Holocaust (d. 1984)
  • January 15Rex Ingram, Irish film director (d. 1950)
  • January 16Charles W. Ryder, American general (d. 1960)
  • January 18
    • Oliver Hardy, American comedian and actor (d. 1957)
    • Paul Rostock, German surgeon (d. 1956)
  • January 19Ólafur Thors, Icelandic politician and five times prime minister (d. 1964)
  • January 22Marcel Dassault, French aircraft industrialist (d. 1986)
  • January 25Takeo Takagi, Japanese admiral (d. 1944)
  • January 26Zara Cully, American actress (d. 1978)
  • January 28Ernst Lubitsch, German-born film director (d. 1947)
  • January 31Eddie Cantor, American actor, singer (d. 1964)
  • February 3Juan Negrín, Spanish physician and politician, 67th Prime Minister of Spain (d. 1956)
  • February 4Yrjö Kilpinen, Finnish composer (d. 1959)
  • February 5Shunji Isaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1943)
  • February 6
  • February 10Alan Hale, Sr., American actor (d. 1950)
  • February 13Robert H. Jackson, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials (d. 1954)
  • February 14Radola Gajda, Czech commander and politician (d. 1948)
  • February 15James Forrestal, first United States Secretary of Defense (d. 1949)
  • February 18Wendell Willkie, U.S. Republican presidential candidate (d. 1944)
  • February 21Harry Stack Sullivan, American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst (d. 1949)
  • February 22Edna St. Vincent Millay, American writer (d. 1950)
  • February 23Kathleen Harrison, English actress (d. 1995)
  • February 24Konstantin Fedin, Russian writer (d. 1977)
  • February 27William Demarest, American actor (d. 1983)
  • February 29
    • Ed Appleton, American baseball player (d. 1932)
    • Augusta Savage, American sculptor (d. 1962)


  • March 9Vita Sackville-West, English writer, and gardener (d. 1962)
  • March 10
    • Arthur Honegger, French-born Swiss composer (d. 1955)
    • Gregory La Cava, American director, producer, and writer (d. 1952)
  • March 15Charles Nungesser, French aviator and World War I fighter ace (d. 1927)
  • March 16César Vallejo, Peruvian poet (d. 1938)
  • March 25Andy Clyde, Scottish actor (d. 1967)
  • March 27Ferde Grofé, American pianist and composer (d. 1972)
  • March 28
    • Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
    • Tom Maguire, Irish Republican (d. 1993)
  • March 30
    • Stefan Banach, Polish mathematician (d. 1945)
    • Erhard Milch, German field marshal and Luftwaffe officer (d. 1972)
  • April 4Italo Mus, Italian painter (d. 1967)
File:Mary Pickford photograph.jpg

Mary Pickford

  • April 6
    • Donald Wills Douglas, American industrialist (d. 1981)
    • Lowell Thomas, American journalist (d. 1981)
  • April 8Mary Pickford, Canadian actress and studio founder (d. 1979)
  • April 12Johnny Dodds, American jazz clarinettist (d. 1940)
  • April 12Henry Darger, reclusive American outsider artist (d. 1973)
  • April 13
    • Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, British World War II Royal Air Force commander (d. 1984)
    • Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, British (Scottish) inventor of radar (d. 1973)
  • April 19Germaine Tailleferre, French composer (d. 1983)
  • April 26Richard L. Conolly, American admiral (d. 1962)
  • April 27Raizō Tanaka, Japanese admiral (d. 1969)
  • April 28Joseph Dunninger, American mentalist (d. 1975)


File:Pearl Buck (Nobel).jpg

Pearl S. Buck

  • May 2Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron), German World War I fighter pilot (d. 1918)
  • May 3
    • George Paget Thomson, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)
    • Jacob Viner, Canadian economist (d. 1970)
  • May 5Rajarsi Janakananda, A leading disciple of Paramahansa Yogananda. (d. 1955)
  • May 7Archibald MacLeish, American poet (d. 1982)
  • May 9Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Empress of Austria-Hungary (d. 1989)
  • May 11Margaret Rutherford, English actress (d. 1972)
  • May 12Fritz Kortner, Austrian-born director (d. 1970)
  • May 16Manton S. Eddy, U.S. general (d. 1962)
  • May 18Ezio Pinza, Italian bass (d. 1957)
  • May 23Rafael Moreno Aranzadi, Spanish footballer (d. 1922)
  • May 25Josip Broz Tito, President of Yugoslavia (d. 1980)
  • May 26Maxwell Bodenheim, American poet and novelist (d. 1954)
  • May 30Fernando Amorsolo, Filipino painter (d. 1972)
  • May 31
    • Michel Kikoine, Belarusian painter (d. 1968)
    • Gregor Strasser, German Nazi politician (d. 1934)
  • June 1Amānullāh Khān, ruler of Afghanistan (d. 1960)
  • June 13Basil Rathbone, British actor (d. 1967)
  • June 15Wallace Wade, American football coach, University of Alabama, Duke University (d. 1986)
  • June 21Reinhold Niebuhr, American theologian (d. 1971)
  • June 22Robert Ritter von Greim, German field marshal (d. 1945)
  • June 25
    • Shirō Ishii, Japanese microbiologist and lieutenant general of Unit 731 (d. 1959)
    • Katherine K. Davis, American composer (d. 1980)
  • June 26Pearl S. Buck, American writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • June 30Oswald Pohl, German S.S. officer (d. 1951)


  • July 1James M. Cain, American author and journalist (d. 1977)
  • July 3Thomas White, English cricketer (d. 1979)
  • July 4Henry M. Mullinnix, American admiral (d. 1943)
  • July 6Willy Coppens, Belgian World War I flying ace (d. 1986)
  • July 8
    • Richard Aldington, English poet (d. 1962)
    • Dean O'Banion, American gangster (d. 1924)
  • July 11
    • Trafford Leigh-Mallory, British aviator and Royal Air Force Air Chief Marshal (d. 1944)
    • Thomas Mitchell, American actor (d. 1962)
  • July 12Bruno Schulz, Polish writer and painter (d. 1942)
  • July 16Michel Coiffard, French World War I fighter ace (d. 1918)
  • July 17Edwin Harris Dunning, British aviator (d. 1917)
  • July 22Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian Nazi politician (d. 1946)
  • July 23Haile Selassie I, Ethiopian emperor (d. 1975)
  • July 26Sad Sam Jones, baseball player (d. 1966)
File:William Powell smoking a pipe.jpg

William Powell

  • July 28
    • Joe E. Brown, American actor and comedian (d. 1973)
    • K. Kanagaratnam, Ceylon Tamil civil servant and politician (d. 1952)
  • July 29William Powell, American actor (d. 1984)
  • August 2Jack L. Warner, Canadian film producer (d. 1978)
  • August 11
    • Władysław Anders, Polish general and politician (d. 1970)
    • Hugh MacDiarmid, Scottish poet (d. 1978)
  • August 12Alfred Lunt, American actor and stage director (d. 1977)
  • August 15Walther Nehring, German general (d. 1983)
  • August 16Louis de Broglie, French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1987)
  • August 17Tamon Yamaguchi, Japanese admiral (d. 1942)
  • August 19Elizabeth Kozlova, Russian ornithologist (d. 1975)
  • August 25Gabriel Guérin, French World War I fighter ace (d. 1918)


File:Arthur Compton 1927.jpg

Arthur Compton


Gummo Marx

  • September 4Darius Milhaud, French composer (d. 1974)
  • September 5Joseph Szigeti, Hungarian violinist (d. 1973)
  • September 6Edward Victor Appleton, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965)
  • September 10Arthur Compton, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1962)
  • September 11Pinto Colvig, American vaudeville actor, radio actor, newspaper cartoonist, prolific movie voice actor, and circus performer (original voice of Goofy) (d. 1967)
  • September 12Alfred A. Knopf, American publisher (d. 1984)
  • September 15Louis Favre, French painter (d. 1956)
  • October 3Sentarō Ōmori, Japanese admiral (d. 1974)
  • October 4
    • Engelbert Dollfuss, Austrian statesman and chancellor (d. 1934)
    • Luis Trenker, South Tyrolean film producer, director, writer, actor, architect, and alpinist.(d. 1990)
  • October 6Jackie Saunders, silent movie actress (d. 1954)
  • October 8Marina Tsvetaeva, Russian poet (d. 1941)
  • October 9Ivo Andrić, Serbo-Croatian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)
  • October 13Malcolm McGregor, American actor in silent films (d. 1945)
  • October 14Andrei Yeremenko, Soviet military leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1970)
  • October 16
    • Kiyonao Ichiki, Japanese army officer (d. 1942)
    • Józef Kustroń, Polish general (d. 1939)
  • October 17R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, Indian Jurist and Economist (d. 1953)
  • October 23Gummo Marx, American actor and comedian (d. 1977)
  • October 27Graciliano Ramos, Brazilian writer (d. 1953)
  • October 28Dink Johnson, American jazz musician (d. 1954)
  • October 29Stanisław Ostrowski, former President of Poland (d. 1982)
  • October 30Charles Atlas, Italian-American strongman and sideshow performer (d. 1972)
  • October 31Alexander Alekhine, Russian chess champion (d. 1946)


  • November 5J. B. S. Haldane, British geneticist (d. 1964)
  • November 9Erich Auerbach, German philologist (d. 1957)
  • November 11Isidor Achron, Polish-American Pianist, composer; brother of Joseph Achron. (d. 1948)
  • November 12Guo Moruo, Chinese author and poet (d. 1978)
  • November 14Dieudonné Costes, French aviator (d. 1973)
  • November 16
    • Richard Hale, American singer and actor (d. 1981)
    • Tazio Nuvolari, Italian racing driver (d. 1953)
  • November 22Emma Tillman, briefly the world's oldest living person and last verified person born in 1892 (d. 2007)

Francisco Franco

  • November 24Daniel McVey, Australian public servant (d. 1972)
  • December 2Leo Ornstein, Russian-born composer and pianist (d. 2002)
  • December 4Francisco Franco, Spanish dictator (d. 1975)
  • December 5Cyril Ring, American film actor (d. 1967)
  • December 6Osbert Sitwell, English writer (d. 1969)
  • December 7Max Ehrlich, German actor, screenwriter, and humor writer (d. 1944). One of the casualties of Auschwitz concentration camp.
  • December 8Bert Hinkler, Australian pioneer aviator (d. 1933)
  • December 12
    • Edward Almond, American general (d. 1979)
    • Herman Potočnik Noordung, Slovenian rocket engineer (d. 1929)
  • December 21Amy Key Clarke, English mystical poet (d. 1980)
  • December 27Alfred Edwin McKay, Canadian World War I flying ace (d. 1917)
  • December 29Emory Parnell, American actor (d. 1979)
  • December 31Stanley Price, American film and television actor (d. 1955)

Date unknown[]

  • Gerald Haxton, secretary and lover of W. Somerset Maugham (d. 1944)
  • V. Veerasingam, Ceylon Tamil teacher and politician (d. 1964)




Louis Vuitton

File:Walt Whitman photograph.jpg

Walt Whitman

File:Alexander McKenzie3.jpg

Alexander Mackenzie

  • January 8Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers, American admiral (b. 1819)
  • January 12William Reeves, Irish antiquarian (b. 1815)
  • January 14Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, second in line for the throne of the United Kingdom (b. 1864)
  • January 21John Couch Adams, English astronomer (b. 1819)
  • January 31Charles Spurgeon, English preacher (b. 1834)
  • February 2 Darinka Petrovic, Princess consort of Montenegro (d. 1838)
  • February 5Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Swedish novelist (b. 1807)
  • February 7Andrew Bryson, American admiral (b. 1822)
  • February 27Louis Vuitton, world-renowned French fashion designer (b. 1821)
  • March 13Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (b. 1837)
  • March 16Samuel F. Miller, American politician (b. 1827)
  • March 26Walt Whitman, American poet (b. 1819)
  • April 4José María Castro Madriz, President of Costa Rica (b. 1818)
  • April 12Ogarita Booth Henderson, American stage actress, daughter of John Wilkes Booth (b.1859)
  • April 17Alexander Mackenzie, 2nd Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1822)
  • April 19Fr. Thomas Pelham Dale SSC, Anglo-Catholic clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s (b. 1821)
  • April 22Édouard Lalo, French composer (b. 1823)
  • April 25William Backhouse Astor, Jr., American businessman (b. 1830)
  • April 26 – Sir Provo William Perry Wallis, British admiral and naval hero (b. 1791)
  • May 5August Wilhelm von Hofmann, German chemist (b. 1818)
  • May 22Alexander Campbell, Canadian politician (b. 1822)
  • May 29Bahá'u'lláh, Persian founder of the Bahá'í Faith (b. 1817)
  • June 8Robert Ford, assassin of Jesse James (b. 1862)
  • June 9William Grant Stairs, Canadian explorer (b. 1863)


File:Alfred Tennyson with book, by Julia Margaret Cameron.jpg

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

File:Ernst Werner von Siemens.jpg

Werner von Siemens

  • July 30Count Joseph Alexander Hübner, Austrian diplomat (b. 1811)
  • September 7John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet and abolitionist (b. 1807)
  • September 12John Cummings Howell, United States Navy admiral (b. 1819)
  • October 6Alfred, Lord Tennyson, British poet (b. 1809)
  • October 12Ernest Renan, French philologist and historian (b. 1823)
  • October 23Emin Pasha, German doctor and Governor of Equatoria (b. 1840)
  • October 24Mir-Fatah-Agha, Shiite cleric
  • October 25Caroline Harrison, First Lady of the United States (b. 1832)
  • December 2Jay Gould, American financier (b. 1836)
  • December 6Werner von Siemens, German inventor and industrialist (b. 1816)
  • December 11William Milligan, Scottish theologian (b. 1821)

Date unknown[]

  • Katherine Fox, American medium (b. 1837)
  • Charles Lafontaine, Swiss mesmerist (b. 1803)
  • Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Tibetan teacher (b. 1820)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Basket Football Game". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Massachusetts. March 12, 1892. Retrieved June 9, 2014.