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1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1878th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 878th year of the , the 78th year of the , and the 9th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

File:Raising the obelisk.jpg

January–September – Cleopatra's Needle erected in London.

  • January 5Battle of Shipka Pass IV: Russian and Bulgarian forces defeat the Ottoman Empire.
  • January 9Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • January 17Battle of Philippopolis: Russian troops defeat the Turks.
  • January 23Benjamin Disraeli orders the British fleet to the Dardanelles.
  • January 24 – The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • January 28The Yale News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
  • January 31 – Turkey agrees to an armistice at Adrianople.
  • February 2 – Greece declares war on TurkeyTemplate:Fix.
  • February 7Pope Pius IX dies after a 31½ year reign (the longest definitely confirmed).
  • February 8 – The British fleet enters Turkish waters and anchors off Istanbul; Russia threatens to occupy Istanbul but does not carry out the threat.
  • February 18 – The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, New Mexico.
  • February 19 – The phonograph is patented by Thomas Edison.
  • February 20Pope Leo XIII succeeds Pope Pius IX as the 256th pope.
  • February 23 - Sadguru Shri Gajanan Maharaj appeared at Shegaon, Dist: Buldhana, Maharashtra.
  • February 24 – Anti-Russian demonstrations occur in Hyde Park, London.
  • February 28Mississippi State University is created by the Mississippi Legislature (under the name The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi).
  • March 3 – The Treaty of San Stefano concludes the Russo-Turkish War; Bulgaria and Romania[1] regain their independence from the Ottoman Empire
File:Eldkvarn 1878.jpg

October 31Eldkvarn burns in Stockholm.

  • March 24 – The British Royal Navy frigate Template:HMS capsizes in the English Channel, killing all but two of the 319 crew.
  • March 25 – Russia rejects a British proposal to lay the San Stefano treaty before a European congress.
  • March 27 – In anticipation of war with Russia, Disraeli mobilizes the reserves and calls up Indian troops to Malta.

April–June

  • April 20 – The Stawell Gift is run for the first time in Australia.
  • May 2 – The Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis explodes, killing 18.
  • May 15 – The Tokyo Stock Exchange is established.
  • May 25Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore debuts in London at the Opera Comique with a first run of 571 performances.
  • June 1 – General Postal Union renamed Universal Postal Union (UPU).
  • June 4Cyprus Convention: The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom but retains the nominal title.
  • June 13July 13 – The Congress of Berlin convenes to discuss the Ottoman Empire.
  • June 15Eadweard Muybridge produces the sequence of stop-motion still photographs Sallie Gardner at a Gallop in California, a predecessor of silent film demonstrating that all four feet of a galloping horse are off the ground at the same time.
  • June 20 – U.S. Coastal Survey renamed U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
  • June 22Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld leaves Karlskrona on a voyage that will make him the first to navigate the Northern Sea Route, a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast.

July–September

  • July 4 – A match race between champion thoroughbred racehorses Ten Broeck and Mollie McCarty draws more than 30,000 fans to Louisville and inspires the folk song, Molly and Tenbrooks.
  • July 13 – The Treaty of Berlin makes Serbia, Montenegro and Romania completely independent, confirms the autonomy of Bulgaria, makes Cyprus a British possession and allows Austria-Hungary to garrison the Bosnia Vilayet.
  • July 26 – In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box is found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • August 7 – The Salvation Army "foundation deed" is signed.[2]
  • August 9 – The Wallingford Tornado of 1878, the deadliest tornado in Connecticut history, destroys the town of Wallingford, killing 34 people and injuring 70 or more.
  • August 26Uyedineniya Island is discovered in the Kara Sea by Norwegian explorer Captain Edvard Holm Johannesen.
  • September 3 – Over 640 die when the crowded pleasure boat Template:SS collides with the Bywell Castle in the River Thames.
  • September 12Cleopatra's Needle is erected in London, having arrived in England on January 21.
  • September 20The Hindu, an Indian newspaper, is founded.
  • September 30 – The ship Priscilla arrives in Hawaii from Funchal, Madeira, marking the beginning of the Portuguese immigration to the Hawaiian Islands (1878–1913).

October–December

  • October 1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) opens as Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College in the United States.
  • October 14 – The world's first recorded floodlit football fixture is played at Bramall Lane in Sheffield, England.
  • October 17John A. Macdonald returns to office as Prime Minister of Canada.
  • October 31 – A fire destroys the Eldkvarn gristmill mill in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • November 17 – The first assassination attempt is made against Umberto I of Italy by anarchist Giovanni Passannante, armed with a dagger. The King survived with a slight wound in one arm. Prime minister Benedetto Cairoli blocks the aggressor, receiving a leg injury.
  • November 21 – The Second Anglo-Afghan War commences when the British attack Ali Masjid in the Khyber Pass.
  • November 26 – American-born artist James McNeill Whistler's libel case against English critic John Ruskin over a review of the painting Nocturne in Black and Gold – The Falling Rocket (in which Whistler is described as "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face")[3] is decided in the High Court of Justice in London. Whistler wins a farthing in nominal damages and only half of the costs, leading to his bankruptcy, and alienates patrons.[4]
  • December 7 — The United States territory of New Mexico is linked to the rest of the nation by railroad for the first time as the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway inaugurates a newly completed line through the Raton Pass.[5]
  • December 25Stella Maris Church in Sliema, Malta becomes a parish - seceding from the Parish of St. Helen's in Birkirkara.

Date unknown

  • U.S. arbitration rejects Argentine claims to Paraguay's part of the Chaco region.
  • Otto von Bismarck abandons his Kulturkampf and forces through legislation outlawing the Social Democrats.
  • 10-year Nauruan Tribal War breaks out.
  • Yellow fever in the Mississippi Valley kills over 13,000.
  • Foundation of:
    • Nainital Cantonment.
    • The Buchan School, Isle of Man.
    • The Johns Hopkins University Press, America's oldest university press.
    • Geiger (corporation), formed as Geiger Brothers.
    • The following English Association football clubs:
  • Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina is published complete in book form in Moscow.
  • Lester Allan Pelton produces the first operational Pelton wheel.
  • Death of last confirmed Cape lion.[6]
  • Remington, in the United States, introduce their No. 2 typewriter, the first with a shift key enabling production of lower as well as upper case characters.

Births

January–June

  • January 4
    • A. E. Coppard, English short story writer and poet (d. 1957)
    • Augustus John, Welsh-born painter (d. 1961)
  • January 6Carl Sandburg, American poet and historian (d. 1967)
  • January 9John B. Watson, American psychologist (d. 1958)
  • January 12Ferenc Molnár, Hungarian-born author (d. 1952)
  • January 20Finlay Currie, Scottish actor (d. 1968)
  • January 22Constance Collier, English stage & screen actress (d. 1955)
  • January 23Rutland Boughton, English composer (d. 1960)
  • January 25Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • February 1Milan Hodža, Slovak politician, champion of regional integration in Europe (d. 1944)
  • February 2Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer and architect (d. 1955)
  • February 5André Citroën, French automobile manufacturer (d. 1935)
  • February 8Martin Buber, Austrian philosopher (d. 1965)
  • February 14Hirota Koki, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1948)
  • February 16
    • Giacomo "James" Colosimo, Italian-born American gangster (d. 1920)
    • Selim Palmgren, Finnish composer (d. 1951)
  • February 21 – The Mother (Mirra Alfassa), multi-origined spiritual leader and founder of Auroville in India (d. 1973)
  • February 26Emmy Destinn, Czech soprano (d. 1930)
  • February 28Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • March 4
    • Egbert Van Alstyne, United States songwriter and pianist (d. 1951)
    • Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
    • Arishima Takeo, Japanese novelist, short-story writer and essayist (d. 1923)
  • March 5P. D. Ouspensky, Russian mathematician (d. 1947)
  • March 16Clemens August Graf von Galen, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1946)
  • March 22Michel Théato, Luxembourg athlete (d. 1919)
  • March 26Henry Gullett, Australian politician (d. 1940)
  • March 31Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
  • April 1C. Ganesha Iyer, Ceylon Tamil Philologist (d. 1958)
  • April 4Stylianos Lykoudis, Greek admiral (d. 1958)
  • April 6Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • April 24Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • April 28
    • Lionel Barrymore, American actor (d. 1954)
    • Willem Mengelberg, Dutch conductor (d. 1951)
File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg

Gustav Stresemann

  • May 3Jean Chiappe, French civil servant (d. 1940)
  • May 10Gustav Stresemann, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1929)
  • May 18 – Dr. Prescott, American doctor, explorer, and philanthropist (d. 1938)
  • May 21Glenn H. Curtiss, American aviation pioneer (d. 1930)
  • May 25Bill Robinson, African American tap dancer (d. 1949)
  • May 27Anna Cervin, Swedish artist (d. 1972)
  • May 28Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • June 1John Masefield, English poet and novelist (d. 1967)
  • June 3Barney Oldfield, American automobile racer and pioneer (d. 1946)
  • June 5Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary (d. 1923)
  • June 12James Oliver Curwood, American writer and conservationist (d. 1927)
  • June 20Will Mastin, American vaudevillian (d. 1975)
  • June 27He Xiangning, Chinese revolutionary, feminist, politician, painter and poet (d. 1972)

July–December

File:Ingeborg of Sweden.jpg

Princess Ingeborg of Denmark

File:Alfred Doeblin 1930a.jpg

Alfred Döblin

File:CroppedStalin1943.jpg

Joseph Stalin

  • July 3George M. Cohan, American singer, dancer, composer, actor, and writer (d. 1942)
  • July 10Otto Freundlich, German painter and sculptor (d. 1943)
  • July 12
    • Claude C. Bloch, American admiral (d. 1967)
    • Peeter Põld, Estonian pedagogical scientist and politician (d. 1930)
  • July 24Edward Plunkett, Baron Dunsany, Irish author (d. 1957)
  • August 2Princess Ingeborg of Denmark, Princess of Sweden (d. 1958)
  • August 4Ernest Lundeen, American lawyer and politician (d. 1940)
  • August 9Eileen Gray, Irish architect and furniture designer (d. 1976)
  • August 10Alfred Döblin, German writer (d. 1957)
  • August 13Harold Clarke Goddard, American professor and Shakespearean scholar (d. 1950)
  • August 19Manuel Luis Quezon, 2nd President of the Philippines (d.1944)
  • August 28George Whipple, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1976)
  • August 31Frank Jarvis, American athlete (d. 1933)
  • September 2Werner von Blomberg, German field marshal (d. 1946)
  • September 5Robert von Lieben, Austrian physicist (d. 1913)
  • September 9Sergio Osmena, 4th President of the Philippines (d. 1961)
  • September 13Matilde Moisant, American pilot (d. 1964)
  • September 14Ion Farris, American politician, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives (d. 1934)
  • September 18James O. Richardson, American admiral (d. 1974)
  • September 20Upton Sinclair, American writer (d. 1968)
  • September 22Yoshida Shigeru, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1967)
  • September 24C. F. Ramuz, Swiss writer (d. 1947)
  • October 1Othmar Spann, Austrian philosopher and economist (d. 1950)
  • October 9Robert Warwick, American stage & screen actor (d. 1964)
  • October 16Maxie Long, American athlete (d. 1959)
  • October 29Alexander von Falkenhausen, German general (d. 1966)
  • November 1Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentine politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1959)
  • November 14
    • Inigo Campioni, Italian admiral (d. 1944)
    • Julie Manet, French painter (d. 1966)
    • Leopold Staff, Polish poet (d. 1957)
  • November 17Grace Abbott, American social worker and activist (d. 1939)
  • November 23
    • Ernest Joseph King, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II (d. 1956)
    • Frank Pick, British transport administrator and designer (d. 1941)
  • December 1Nathaniel Baldwin, American inventor and a supporter of the early Mormon fundamentalist movement (d. 1961)
  • December 10C. Rajagopalachari, Indian politician and freedom-fighter. (d. 1972)
  • December 18Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union (d. 1953)
  • December 25
    • Louis Chevrolet, Swiss-born race driver and automobile builder (d. 1941)
    • Joseph Schenck, Russian-born American film executive (d. 1961)
  • December 28Nikolai Bryukhanov, Soviet statesman and political figure who served as People's Commissar of Finances (d. 1938)
  • December 31
    • Elizabeth Arden, Canadian-born beautician and cosmetics entrepreneur (d. 1966)
    • Horacio Quiroga, Argentine writer (d. 1937)

Deaths

January–June

File:Tranquillo Cremona - Vittorio Emanuele II.jpg

Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

File:Anna Sewell.jpg

Anna Sewell

  • January 8Nikolay Nekrasov, Russian poet (b. 1821)
  • January 9 – King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (b. 1820)
  • January 18Antoine César Becquerel, French scientist (b. 1788)
  • February 7Pope Pius IX (b. 1792)
  • February 11Gideon Welles, American politician (b. 1802)
  • February 19Charles-François Daubigny, French painter (b. 1817)
  • February 26Angelo Secchi, Italian astronomer (b. 1818)
  • March 8Archduke Franz Karl of Austria (b. 1802)
  • March 20Julius von Mayer, German physician and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics (b. 1814)
  • March 27George Gilbert Scott, British architect (b. 1811)
  • April 8Henrietta Treffz, soprano, first wife of Johann Strauss II (b. 1818)
  • April 11Robert Wentworth Little, British occultist (b. 1840)
  • April 12William M. Tweed, American politician (b. 1823)
  • April 25Anna Sewell, English author (b. 1820)
  • May 12Anselme Payen, French chemist (b. 1795)
  • May 13Joseph Henry, American scientist (b. 1797)
  • May 14Ōkubo Toshimichi, Japanese samurai and later leader of the Meiji restoration (b. 1830)
  • May 28John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
  • June 6
    • Robert Stirling, Scottish clergyman and inventor (b. 1790)
    • Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers, Marshal of France (b. 1795)
    • Porter Rockwell, Mormon bodyguard (b. 1815)
  • June 12
    • George V of Hanover (b. 1819)
    • Hendrik Jut, Dutch murderer (b. 1851)
  • June 27Sidney Breese, U.S. senator from Illinois known as the "father of the Illinois Central Railroad" (b. 1800)

July–December

  • July 1Catherine Winkworth, English translator of hymns (b. 1827)
  • July 17Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet (b. 1812)
  • July 23Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian pathologist, philosopher and politician (b. 1804)
  • August 13Henry James Montague, English-born actor (b. 1844)
  • August 16Richard Upjohn, English-American architect (b. 1802)
  • August 26Mariam Baouardy, Syrian Melkite Greek Catholic nun, canonized (b. 1846)
  • August 30James Geiss, English businessman (b. 1820)
  • September 7Mehmed Ali Pasha, Prussian-born Ottoman military leader (b. 1827)
  • October 20Hiram Paulding, American admiral (b. 1797)
  • November 20William Thomas (Islwyn), Welsh poet (b. 1832)
  • November 28Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • December 10Henry Wells, American businessman (b. 1805)
  • December 14Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine (b. 1843)
  • December 25Henry K. Hoff, American admiral (b. 1809)

In fiction

  • The Doctor Who novel Imperial Moon takes place in this year.

References

  1. "Romania | history - geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  2. "1878 Foundation Deed Of The Salvation Army". Salvation Army International Heritage Centre. 2003. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  3. Ruskin, John (1877-07-02). Fors Clavigera.
  4. Whistler, J. McNeill (1890). The Gentle Art of Making Enemies.
  5. Borneman, Walter R. (2010). Rival Rails: The Race to Build America's Greatest Transcontinental Railroad. Random House Digital. p. 168.
  6. "V muzeu Emila Holuba se ukrýval kapský lev". Novinky.cz (in Czech). May 22, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2011.

Further reading


Music

Singles

  1. Metropolitan Elevated Railroad From 40 Feet Away Charles Batchelor
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