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1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1877th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 877th year of the , the 77th year of the , and the 8th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1Queen Victoria is proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act 1876, introduced by Benjamin Disraeli, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom .
  • January 8American Indian WarsBattle of Wolf Mountain: Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry in Montana.
  • January 20 – The Conference of Constantinople ends with Ottoman Turkey rejecting proposals of internal reform and Balkan provisions.
  • January 29 – The Satsuma Rebellion, a revolt of disaffected samurai in Japan against the new imperial government. The Rebellion lasts until September of that year when it is crushed by a professionally led army of draftees.[1]
  • March – The Nineteenth Century magazine is founded in London.
  • March 2 – In the Compromise of 1877, the U.S. presidential election, 1876 is resolved with the selection of Rutherford B. Hayes as the winner, even though Samuel J. Tilden won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.
  • March 3 – Rutherford B. Hayes is privately sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 4
    • Emile Berliner invents the microphone.
    • Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake debuts.
    • Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President of the United States, as a result of the Compromise of 1877.
  • March 5 – President Rutherford B. Hayes is publicly sworn in.
  • March 15 – 1877 Australia v. England series: The first Test cricket match is held between England and Australia.
  • March 24 – For the only time in history, The Boat Race between the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford is declared a "dead heat" (i.e. a draw).

April–June

  • April 12 – The United Kingdom annexes the South African Republic, violating the Sand River Convention of 1852, causing a new Xhosa War.[2]
  • April 24Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
  • May 5American Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.
  • May 6 – Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.
  • May 811 – At Gilmore's Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is held.
  • May 9 (May 10 0:59 UTC) – Iquique earthquake and tsunami: An earthquake of at least magnitude 8.5 Ms occurs on the west coast of South America, killing 2,541 around the Pacific Rim.
  • May 16 – The 16 May 1877 crisis occurs in France.
  • May 21 (May 9 O.S.) – By a speech in the Parliament of Romania by Mihail Kogălniceanu, the country declares itself independent from the Ottoman Empire (recognized in 1878 after the end of the Romanian independence war).
  • June 15Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
  • June 17American Indian WarsBattle of White Bird Canyon: The Nez Perce defeat the U.S. Cavalry at White Bird Canyon in the Idaho Territory.
  • June 20 - Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
  • June 21 – The Molly Maguires are hanged at Carbon County Prison in Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania.
  • June 26 – The eruption of the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000.
  • June 30 – The British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay.

July–September

  • July – Conclusion of serial publication of Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina in The Russian Messenger.[3]
  • July 9 – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon.
  • July 16Great Railroad Strike of 1877: Riots by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad railroad workers in Baltimore lead to a sympathy strike and rioting in Pittsburgh, and a full-scale worker's rebellion in St. Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government before U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces.[4]
  • July 19Russo-Turkish War: The first battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
  • July 30 – The second battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
  • July 30Russo-Turkish War: The Turkish army and its allies destroy the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora and massacre the inhabitants.
  • August 9American Indian WarsBattle of the Big Hole: Near Big Hole River in Montana, a small band of Nez Perce people who refuse government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army loses 29 soldiers and the Indians lose 89 warriors in an Army victory.
  • August 12American astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the outer moon of Mars.
  • August 18Asaph Hall discovers Phobos, the inner moon of Mars.
  • September 1 – The Battle of Lovcha, third battle in the Siege of Plevna, is fought. Russian forces successfully reduce the Ottoman fortress at Lovcha.
  • September 5American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier, after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
  • September 22Treaty 7 is concluded between several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes and the Canadian Confederation at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River, settling the Blackfoot on Indian reserves in what will become southern Alberta.
  • September 24Battle of Shiroyama in Kagoshima, Japan: The Imperial Japanese Army annihilates heavily outnumbered rebel samurai under Saigō Takamori (who is killed), ending the Satsuma Rebellion.

October–December

  • October 22 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.
  • November 14Henrik Ibsen's first contemporary realist drama The Pillars of Society is premièred at the Odense Teater.[5]
  • November 21Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound, considered Edison's first great invention. Edison demonstrates the device for the first time on November 29.
  • November 22 – The first college lacrosse game is played between New York University and Manhattan College.
  • December 9 – The fourth battle of the Russo-Turkish War is fought, concluding the Siege of Plevna.
  • December 14Serbia restates its previous declaration of war against Turkey.

Births

January–June

  • January 2Slava Raškaj, Croatian painter (d. 1906)
  • January 22Hjalmar Schacht, German economist, politician and banker (d. 1970)
  • January 26Kees van Dongen, Dutch-French painter (d. 1968)
  • February 4Eddie Cochems, Father of the forward pass in American football (d. 1953)
  • February 7
    • G. H. Hardy, British mathematician (d. 1947)
    • Alfred Williams, British poet (d. 1930)
  • February 12Louis Renault, French industrialist, founder of Renault (d. 1944)
  • February 14Edmund Landau, German mathematician (d. 1938)
  • February 17
    • Isabelle Eberhardt, Swiss explorer and writer (d. 1904)
    • André Maginot, French politician (d. 1932)
  • February 19Gabriele Münter, German painter (d. 1962)
  • February 25Erich von Hornbostel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1935)
  • March 2Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough (d. 1964)
  • March 4
    • Alexander Fyodorovich Gedike, Russian composer (d. 1957)
    • Fritz Graebner, German ethnologist (d. 1934)
    • Garrett Morgan, American inventor (d. 1963)
  • March 9Albert Leo Stevens, pioneering American balloonist (d. 1944)
  • March 12Wilhelm Frick, German Nazi politician (d. 1946)
  • March 16Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1944)
  • March 18Edgar Cayce, American psychic (d. 1945)
  • March 21Maurice Farman, French pilot and aircraft designer (d. 1964)
  • March 25Walter Little, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
  • March 29Alois Kayser, German missionary (d. 1944)
  • April 15Georg Kolbe, German sculptor (d. 1947)
  • April 17Lionel Pape, English actor (d. 1944)
  • April 23Charles D. Herron, general in the United States Army (d. 1977)
  • April 30Alice B. Toklas, American writer (d. 1967)
  • May 3Karl Abraham, German psychoanalyst (d. 1925)
  • May 5Halfdan Egedius, Norwegian painter and illustrator (d. 1899)
  • May 23Grace Ingalls, youngest sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1941)
  • May 24Samuel W. Bryant, American admiral (d. 1938)
  • May 27Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
  • June 4Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
  • June 7Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
  • June 11Renée Vivien, British poet who wrote in French (d. 1909)
  • June 12Thomas C. Hart, American admiral and politician (d. 1971)
  • June 14Jane Bathori, French opera singer (d. 1970)

July–December

File:Hermann Hesse 2.jpg

Hermann Hesse

File:Georg Hackenschmidt.jpg

George Hackenschmidt

File:Frederick Soddy.jpg

Frederick Soddy

  • July 2
    • Rinaldo Cuneo, American artist ("the painter of San Francisco") (d. 1939)
    • Hermann Hesse, German-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1962)
  • July 3Shafiqah Shasha (شفيقة شعشع), Lebanese-Australian matriarch (d. 1953)
  • July 6Arnaud Massy, French golfer (d. 1950)
  • July 13Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1962)
  • July 17Ernst von Dohnányi, Hungarian conductor (d. 1960)
  • July 19Arthur Fielder, English cricketer (d. 1949)
  • August 1
    • George Hackenschmidt, Estonian strongman and professional wrestler (d. 1968)
    • Charlotte Hughes (née Milburn), the longest-lived person ever documented in the United Kingdom (d. 1993)
  • August 6Wallace H. White, Jr., U.S. Senator from Maine (d. 1952)
  • August 7Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater (d. 1949)
  • August 15Stanley Vestal, American writer, poet, historian (d. 1957)
  • August 16Roque Ruaño, Spanish priest-civil engineer (d. 1935)
  • August 22Ananda Coomaraswamy, philosopher (d. 1947)
  • August 27
    • Lloyd C. Douglas, American minister and author (d. 1951)
    • Charles Rolls, co-founder of the Rolls-Royce car firm, pioneer aviator (d. 1910)
    • Ernst Wetter, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1963)
  • August 29Dudley Pound, British admiral (d. 1943)
  • September 1
    • Rex Beach, American novelist, playwright, and Olympic water polo player (d. 1949)
    • Francis William Aston, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1945)
  • September 2Frederick Soddy, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1956)
  • September 6Buddy Bolden, American jazz musician (d. 1930)
  • September 26Alfred Cortot, Swiss pianist (d. 1962)
  • October 4Razor Smith, English cricketer (d. 1946)
  • October 10William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, British businessman and philanthropist (d. 1963)
  • October 15Helen Ware, American stage & film actress (d. 1939)
  • October 21Oswald Avery, Canadian-American physician and medical researcher (d. 1955)
  • October 22Frederick Twort, English bacteriologist (d. 1950)
  • October 24Ernst Mielck, Finnish composer (d. 1899)
  • October 27George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
  • October 29Narcisa de Leon, Filipino film mogul (d. 1966)
  • November 2Claire McDowell, American silent film actress (d. 1966)
  • November 9Allama Iqbal, Indian philosopher, one of the profound founding fathers of the Muslims of India (d. 1938)
  • November 15William Hope Hodgson, English author (d. 1918)
  • November 17Frank Lahm, Brigadier General USAF, airship pilot, early military aviator trained by the Wright brothers (d. 1963)
  • November 22
    • Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (d. 1919)
    • Joan Gamper, Swiss-born businessman and founder of FC Barcelona (d. 1930)
  • November 24
    • Edward C. Kalbfus, American admiral (d. 1954)
    • Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian police commissioner of Bombay (d. 1941)
    • Alben W. Barkley, 35th Vice President of the United States (d. 1956)
  • December 3Richard Pearse, New Zealand airplane pioneer (d. 1953)
  • December 24Sigrid Schauman, Finnish painter (d. 1979)

Deaths

January–June

File:Cornelius Vanderbilt Daguerrotype2.jpg

Cornelius Vanderbilt

  • January 2Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor (b. 1811)
  • January 4Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (b. 1794)
  • January 20Dato Maharajalela Lela, Malay nationalist.
  • February 20Louis M. Goldsborough, United States Navy admiral (b. 1805)
  • March 1Antoni Patek, Polish watchmaker (b. 1811)
  • March 24Walter Bagehot, British businessman, essayist and journalist (b. 1826)
  • May 26Kido Takayoshi, Japanese statesman (b. 1833)
  • June 3
    • Ludwig Ritter von Köchel, Austrian musicologist (b. 1800)
    • Sophie of Württemberg, queen consort of the Netherlands (b. 1818)
  • June 17John Stevens Cabot Abbott, American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer (b. 1805)
  • June 22John R. Goldsborough, United States Navy commodore (b. 1809)

July–December

  • July 16Samuel McLean, American congressman (b. 1826)
  • July 27John Frost, British Chartist leader (b. 1784)
  • August 8William Lovett, British Chartist leader (b. 1800)
  • August 29Brigham Young, American Mormon leader (b. 1801)
  • August 30Raphael Semmes, American and Confederate naval officer (b.1809)
  • September 2Constantine Kanaris, Greek politician (b. 1795)
  • September 3Adolphe Thiers, French historian and politician (b. 1797)
  • September 5Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (b. 1849)
  • September 12Emily Pepys, English child diarist (b. 1833)
  • September 17William Fox Talbot, English photographer (b. 1800)
  • September 24Saigō Takamori, Japanese samurai (b. 1828)
  • October 3James Roosevelt Bayley, first Roman Catholic Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (b. 1814)
  • October 10Johann Georg Baiter, Swiss philologist and textual critic (b. 1801)
  • October 16Théodore Barrière, French dramatist (b. 1823)
  • October 28Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist (b. 1824)
  • October 29Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Confederate Civil War General, first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan (b. 1821)
  • November 2Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (b. 1784)
  • December 12José de Alencar, Brazilian novelist (b. 1829)
  • December 31Gustave Courbet, French painter (b. 1819)

References

  1. Mounsey, Augustus H. (1879). The Satsuma Rebellion: An Episode of Modern Japanese History. London: John Murray.
  2. Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1877". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  3. Stenbock-Fermor, Elizabeth (1975). The Architecture of Anna Karenina. B.R. Grüner. ISBN 1588116751.
  4. Bruce, Robert V. (1959). 1877: Year of Violence. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  5. Hanssen, Jens-Morten (August 10, 2001). "Facts about Pillars of Society". Ibsen.net. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  • Bellesiles, Michael A. (2010). 1877: America's Year of Living Violently. New York: New Press. ISBN 9781595584410.
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