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1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1876th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 876th year of the , the 76th year of the , and the 7th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1
    • The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.
    • The Bass Brewery Red Triangle becomes the world's first registered trademark symbol.[1]
  • February 2 – The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs is formed at a meeting in Chicago; it replaced the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. Morgan Bulkeley of the Hartford Dark Blues is selected as the league's first President.
  • February 2Battle of Montejurra (Third Carlist War in Spain) – The new commander General Fernando Primo de Rivera marches on the remaining Carlist stronghold at Estella, where he meets a force of about 1,600 men under General Carlos Calderón at nearby Montejurra. After a courageous and costly defence Calderón is forced to withdraw.
  • February 19Third Carlist War – Government troops under General Primo de Rivera drive through the weak Carlist forces protecting Estella and take the city by storm.
  • February 22Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore.
  • February 24 – Premiere of first stage production of the verse-play Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen with incidental music by Edvard Grieg, in Oslo (then called Christiania), Norway
  • February 28Third Carlist War in Spain – The Carlist forces do not succeed, and the promises are never fulfilled. The Carlist pretender Carlos, Duke of Madrid, goes into exile in France bringing the conflict to an end after four years.
  • February/March – The Harvard Lampoon humor magazine is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Spring – Vast numbers of Native Americans in the United States move north to an encampment of the Sioux chief Sitting Bull in the region of the Little Bighorn River, creating the last great gathering of native peoples on the Great Plains.
  • March – American librarian Melvil Dewey first publishes the Dewey Decimal Classification system.[2]
  • March 7Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent for an invention he calls the telephone (patent #174,466).
  • March 10 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call, saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.."
  • March 20 – Through constitutional reform taking legal effect, Louis De Geer becomes the first Prime Minister of Sweden.

April–June

  • April 16 – The Bulgarian April uprising occurs.
  • April 17Friends Academy is founded by Gideon Frost at Locust Valley, New York.
  • May – Batak massacre refers to the massacre of Bulgarians in Batak by Ottoman troops in 1876 at the beginning of the April Uprising. The number of victims ranges from 3,000 to 5,000, depending on the source.
  • May 1
    • Queen Victoria takes the title Empress of India.
    • The Settle–Carlisle Railway in England is opened to passenger traffic.
  • May 10 – The Centennial Exposition begins in Philadelphia.
  • May 11May 12Berlin Memorandum: Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary propose an armistice between Turkey and its insurgents.
  • May 16 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum.
  • May 17Nikolaus Otto files his patent for the four-stroke cycle internal combustion engine.[3]
  • May 18Wyatt Earp starts work in Dodge City, Kansas, serving under Marshal Larry Deger.
  • June 4 – The Transcontinental Express arrives in San Francisco via the First Transcontinental Railroad, 83 hours and 39 minutes after having left New York City.
  • June 17American Indian WarsBattle of the Rosebud: 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne led by Crazy Horse beat back General George Crook's forces at Rosebud Creek in Montana Territory.
  • June 24 – First published review of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain, in a British magazine; the book's first edition had appeared earlier in June in England. (The book was published in the U.S. in December 1876.)
  • June 25 – American Indian Wars – Battle of the Little Bighorn: 300 men of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer are wiped out by 5,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.

July – September

File:Punch - The Dogs of War.png

Punch cartoon from June 17. Russia preparing to let slip the "Dogs of War", its imminent engagement in the growing Balkan conflict between Slavic states and Turkey, while policeman John Bull (Britain) warns Russia to take care. The Slavic states of Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on Turkey two weeks later.

  • July 1Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
  • July 2Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
  • July 4 – The United States celebrates its centennial.
  • July 8Reichstadt Agreement: Russia and Austria-Hungary agree on partitioning the Balkan Peninsula.
  • July 13 – The prosecution of Arthur Tooth, an Anglican clergyman, for using ritualist practices begins.
  • August 1Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.
  • August 8Thomas Edison receives a patent for his mimeograph.
  • August 13Richard Wagner inaugurates Bayreuth Festival
  • August 31Murad V, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid II.
  • September 5Gladstone publishes his Bulgarian Horrors pamphlet.
  • September 7 – In Northfield, Minnesota, Jesse James and the James–Younger Gang attempt to rob the town's bank but are surrounded by an angry mob and are nearly wiped out.
  • September 12King Leopold II of Belgium hosts the Brussels Geographic Conference on the subject of colonizing and exploring central Africa. By the event's conclusion, a new international body named the International African Association (indirect forerunner of the modern Congo state) is established.

October–December

  • October 4Texas A&M University opens for classes.
  • October 31 – A catastrophic cyclone strikes the coast of present-day Bangladesh, killing 200,000.
  • November 1 – The British Colony of New Zealand dissolves its nine provinces and replaces them with 63 counties.
  • November 2 – A giant squid, 6.1 meters long, washes ashore at Thimble Tickle Bay in Newfoundland.
  • November 4 – The long-awaited First Symphony of Johannes Brahms has its première at Karlsruhe under the baton of Otto Dessoff.
  • November 7U.S. presidential election, 1876: After long and heated disputes, Rutherford Birchard Hayes is eventually declared the winner over Samuel Jones Tilden. A failed grave robbery of the Lincoln Tomb took place on the same night.
  • November 10 – The Centennial Exposition ends in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • November 23 – Corrupt Tammany Hall leader William Marcy Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain.
  • November 25American Indian WarsDull Knife Fight: In retaliation for the dramatic American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops under General Ranald S. Mackenzie sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River (the soldiers destroy all of the villagers' winter food and clothing, and then slash their ponies' throats).
  • November 29Porfirio Díaz becomes President of Mexico.
  • December 5 – The Brooklyn Theatre fire kills at least 278, possibly more than 300.
  • December 6 – The first cremation in the United States takes place in a crematory built by Francis Julius LeMoyne.
  • December 29 – The Ashtabula River Railroad bridge disaster occurs, leaving 92 dead.

Date unknown

  • Japan brings a fleet to Incheon, the port of modern-day Seoul. The Japanese force the Korean government to sign the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, which opened 3 ports to Japanese trade and forced Korea's Joseon dynasty to cease considering itself a tributary of China. On China's urging, Korea also signs treaties with the European powers in effort to counterbalance Japan.
  • The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, which will claim 30 million lives and become the 5th worst famine in recorded history, begins after the droughts of the previous year.
  • Tanzimat ends in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Heinz Tomato Ketchup introduced.
  • Adolphus Busch's brewery, Anheuser-Busch in St. Louis, Missouri, first markets Budweiser, a pale lager, as a nationally sold beer.
  • Charles Wells opens his brewery based in Bedford, England.
  • In Düsseldorf German company Henkel is founded.
  • Lyford House, by Richardson Bay, Tiburon, California, is constructed.
  • Construction of Spandau Prison in Berlin is completed.
  • Samurai are banned from carrying swords in Japan and their stipends are replaced by one-time grant of income-bearing bonds.
  • The Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland is founded.
  • Lars Magnus Ericsson and Carl Johan Andersson start a small mechanical workshop in Stockholm, Sweden, dealing with telegraphy equipment, which grows into the worldwide company Ericsson.
  • Heinrich Schliemann begins excavation at Mycenae.
  • Stockport Lacrosse Club, thought to be the oldest existing lacrosse club in the world, is founded at Cale Green Cricket Club Davenport, Greater Manchester, England, where they will still be playing in the 21st century.

Births

January–March

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078072-0004, Konrad Adenauer.jpg

Konrad Adenauer

File:Otto Paul Hermann Diels.jpg

Otto Diels

File:His Holiness Pope Pius XII.png

Pope Pius XII

  • January 5Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1967)
  • January 12
    • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Italian composer (d. 1948)
    • Jack London, American author (d. 1916)
  • January 20Józef Hofmann, Polish pianist (d. 1967)
  • January 22Bess Houdini, Stage partner and wife of Harry Houdini (d. 1943)
  • January 23Otto Diels, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1954)
  • January 29Havergal Brian, British composer (d. 1972)
  • February 8Paula Modersohn-Becker, German painter (d. 1907)
  • February 12Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama (d. 1933)
  • February 16
    • Mack Swain, American actor (d. 1935)
    • G. M. Trevelyan, British historian (d. 1962)
  • February 19Constantin Brâncuși, Romanian sculptor (d. 1957)
  • March 1Henri de Baillet-Latour, Belgian International Olympic Committee president (d. 1942)
  • March 2Pope Pius XII (d. 1958)
  • March 3Georges Guillain, French neurologist (d. 1961)
  • March 4
    • Léon-Paul Fargue, French poet (d. 1947)
    • Theodore Hardeen, magician and stunt performer, founder of the Magician's Guild (d. 1945)
  • March 10Ernst Tandefelt, Finnish nobleman, assassin of Minister Ritavuori (d. 1948)
  • March 11Carl Ruggles, American composer (d. 1971)
  • March 15Óscar Benavides, 67th and 76th President of Peru (d. 1945)
  • March 21Walter Tewksbury, American athlete (d. 1968)
  • March 26Prince William of Wied, sovereign Prince of Albania (d. 1945)
  • March 31Borisav "Bora" Stanković, Serbian writer (d. 1927)

April–June

  • April 1Peter Strasser, German naval officer and airship commander (d. 1918)
  • April 3Margaret Anglin, Canadian stage actress (d. 1958)
  • April 4Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter and poet (d. 1958)
  • April 9Ettore Bastico, Italian field marshal (d. 1972)
  • April 11Paul Henry, Irish artist (d. 1958)
  • April 14 – Sir Murray Bisset, South African cricketer and Governor of Southern Rhodesia (d. 1931)
  • April 22Róbert Bárány, Hungarian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
  • April 23Mary Ellicott Arnold, American social activist and writer (d. 1968)
  • April 24Erich Raeder, German admiral (d. 1960)
  • May 10
    • Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (d. 1918)
    • Shigeru Honjō, Japanese general (d. 1945)
  • May 18Hermann Müller, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1931)
  • May 27 – Sir William Stanier, English steam locomotive engineer (London, Midland and Scottish Railway) (d. 1965)
  • June 5
    • Tony Jackson, American jazz musician (d. 1920)
    • Isaac Heinemann, German-born Israeli scholar and professor of classical literature (d. 1957)
  • June 13William Sealy Gosset, English chemist (d. 1937)
  • June 19 – Sir Nigel Gresley, English steam locomotive engineer (Flying Scotsman & Mallard) (d. 1941)

July–September

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2002-0625-505, Dr. Wilhelm Cuno.jpg

Wilhelm Cuno

File:Mata Hari 2.jpg

Mata Hari

File:Quaidportrait.jpg

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

File:Windaus.jpg

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

  • July 2Wilhelm Cuno, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1933)
  • July 12
    • Max Jacob, French poet (d. 1944)
    • Alphaeus Philemon Cole, American portrait painter, engraver, and etcher (d. 1988)
  • July 16Alfred Stock, German chemist (d. 1946)
  • July 19Joseph Fielding Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1972)
  • August 7Mata Hari, exotic dancer and spy (d. 1917)
  • August 17
    • Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, British politician (d. 1951)
    • Henri Winkelman, Dutch general (d. 1952)
  • August 25Eglantyne Jebb, English co-founder of the Save the Children Fund and champion of children's human rights (d. 1928)
  • September 1Harriet Shaw Weaver, English political activist (d. 1961)
  • September 5Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb, German field marshal (d. 1956)
  • September 6John James Rickard Macleod, Scottish-born physician and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1935)
  • September 7Francesco Buhagiar, 2nd Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1934)
  • September 13Sherwood Anderson, American writer (d. 1941)
  • September 15Bruno Walter, German conductor (d. 1962)
  • September 16Marvin Hart, American boxer (d. 1931)
  • September 18James Scullin, ninth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1953)
  • September 23
    • Moshe Zvi Segal, Israeli linguist and Talmudic scholar, and Israel Prize recipient (d. 1968)
    • Brudenell White, Australian general (d. 1940)
  • September 26
    • Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang, a poet and a prominent Indian/Pakistani Muslim leader (d. 1952)
    • Edith Abbott, American social worker, educator, and author (d. 1957)
  • September 29Charlie Llewellyn, the first non-white South African Test cricketer (d. 1964)

October–December

Date unknown

  • Alfred S. Alschuler, American architect (d. 1940)

Deaths

January–June

File:Custer Bvt MG Geo A 1865 LC-BH831-365-crop.jpg

General George Armstrong Custer

  • January 10Gordon Granger, American General (b. 1822)
  • January 15Eliza McCardle Johnson, First Lady of the United States (b. 1810)
  • February 18Charlotte Cushman, American actress (b. 1816)
  • March 29Karl Ferdinand Ranke, German educator (b. 1806)
  • April 9Charles Goodyear, American politician (b. 1804)
  • May 7William Buell Sprague, American clergyman and author (b. 1795)
  • May 8Truganini, the last Tasmanian Aboriginal (b. c. 1812)
  • May 24Henry Kingsley, English novelist (b. 1830)
  • May 26František Palacký, Czech historian and politician (b. 1798)
  • June 4Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1830)
  • June 6Auguste Casimir-Perier, French diplomat (b. 1811)
  • June 7Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen of Sweden and Norway (b. 1807)
  • June 8George Sand, French writer (b. 1804)
  • June 21Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico (b. 1794)
  • June 25 – General George Armstrong Custer, U.S. Army officer (in battle) (b. 1839)
  • June 27Harriet Martineau, British social theorist and writer (b. 1802)

July–December

File:Wild Bill Hickok sepia.png

Wild Bill Hickok

  • July 1Mikhail Bakunin, Russian revolutionary and anarchist (b. 1814)
  • August 2Wild Bill Hickok, American gunfighter and entertainer (b. 1837)
  • September 27Braxton Bragg, Confederate Civil War general (b. 1817)
  • October 1James Lick, American land baron (b. 1796)
  • November 16Karl Ernst von Baer, Estonian-German scientist and explorer (b. 1792)
  • November 18Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, French painter (b. 1807)
  • December 29Titus Salt, English woollen manufacturer and philanthropist (b. 1803)
  • December 31Catherine Labouré, French visionary and Saint (b. 1806)
  • UndatedAnna Volkova, Russian chemist (b. 1800)

References

  1. "United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office".
  2. Dewey, Melvil (1876). A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library. OCLC 78870163. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  3. van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century. London: British Library. pp. 104–5. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.
  • Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia ...for 1876 (1885) online edition, comprehensive world coverage
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