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Template:C19 year in topic

1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1875th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 875th year of the , the 75th year of the , and the 6th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1 – The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category leaving First Class and Third Class. Other British railway companies follow Midland's lead during the rest of the year (Third Class is renamed Second Class in 1956).
  • January 12Guangxu becomes 11th Qing dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 4 in succession to his cousin.
  • January 14 – The newly proclaimed King Alfonso XII of Spain (Queen Isabella II's son) arrives in Spain to restore the monarchy during the Third Carlist War.
  • February 3Battle of Lácar (Third Carlist War in Spain) – Carlist commander Torcuato Mendíri secures a brilliant victory when he surprises and routs a Government force under General Enrique Bargés at Lácar, east of Estella, nearly capturing newly crowned King Alfonso XII. The Carlists take several pieces of artillery, more than 2,000 rifles, and 300 prisoners. 800 men of both sides are killed - mostly government troops.
  • February 18 – The Mason County War begins as a German-American mob breaks into a prison and lynches cattle rustlers in central Texas.
  • February 21Jeanne Calment is born in Arles, France. She would go on to become the world's oldest verified person to have ever lived, reaching an age of 122 years and 164 days, before passing away on August 4, 1997 of natural causes.
  • February 24 – The Template:SS sinks off Australia's east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of high-profile civil servants and dignitaries.
  • February 25 – The majority of the Yavapai (Wipukyipai) and Tonto Apache (Dil Zhéé) tribes are forced by the United States Cavalry under command of Brigadier General George Crook to walk at gunpoint from the Arizona's Verde Valley, to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, 180 miles to the southeast. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900.
  • February 27Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California, resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor. He is later replaced by elected governor William Irwin.
  • March 1 – The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits racial discrimination in public accommodations and jury duty.
  • March 3
    • Bizet’s Carmen is first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, France.
    • The first indoor ice hockey game is played at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • March 15Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States.

April–June

  • April 10 – The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
  • April 25 – Ten sophomores from Rutgers College (modern-day Rutgers University) steal a one-ton cannon from the campus of the College of New Jersey (modern-day Princeton University) and start the Rutgers–Princeton Cannon War in the United States.
  • May 7 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between Japan and Russia.
  • May 7 – German liner Template:SS wrecks on the rocks off the Isles of Scilly with the loss of 335 lives.
  • May 17Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby.
  • May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France.
  • June – The record-setting American clipper Flying Cloud of 1851 is burned for scrap metal.
  • June 4 – Two American colleges play each other in arguably the first game of college football:[1] Tufts University and Harvard University at Jarvis Field in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

July–September

  • Summer – Third Carlist War in Spain: Two government armies under General Quesada and Martínez Campos start encroaching on Carlist territory. Both they and their Carlist opponent (Mendiri) drive opposing sympathisers from their homes and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals (Dorregaray, Savalls, and others) are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty. Mendiri is also removed from his command, and is replaced by the Count of Caserta. Despite having 48 infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two engineer battalions, and 100 pieces of artillery at his disposal, Caserta is heavily outnumbered by the government forces opposing him.
  • July 1General Postal Union established.
  • July 1July 7Battle of Treviño (Third Carlist War in Spain) at Treviño – Advancing on the key city of Vitoria, in Navarre, the Spanish Republican commander General Jenardo de Quesada sends General Tello to attack the Carlist lines just to the southwest at Treviño. The newly appointed Carlist commander General José Pérula is heavily defeated and withdraws and soon afterwards Quesada enters Vitoria in triumph.
  • July 24 – The legendary Mohican Base Ball Club was established in Kennett Square, PA.
  • August 6Hibernian F.C. founded by Irishmen in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland.[2]
  • August 25 – Captain Matthew Webb becomes the first person to swim the English Channel.
  • September 1 – A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", to disband.
  • September 7 – Battle of Agurdat: An Egyptian invasion of Ethiopia fails when Emperor Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.
  • September – English Association football team Birmingham City F.C. is founded as Small Heath Alliance in Birmingham by a group of cricketers from Holy Trinity Church, Bordesley, playing its first match in November.[3]

October–December

  • October – The Ottoman state declares partial bankruptcy and places its finances in the hands of European creditors.
  • October 15 – Chief Lone Horn of the Minneconjou dies at the Cheyenne River, leaving his son Big Foot as the new chief.
  • October 16Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
  • October 25 – The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
  • October 30 – The Theosophical Society is founded in New York by Helena Blavatsky, H. S. Olcott, W. Q. Judge, and others.
  • November 9American Indian Wars: In Washington, D.C., Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins issues a report stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States (the Battle of the Little Bighorn is fought in Montana the next year).
  • November 16 – Battle of Gundat: Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV defeats another Egyptian army.
  • November 26The Times newspaper in London reveals that Isma'il Pasha has sold Egypt's 44% share in the Suez Canal to Britain in a deal secured by Benjamin Disraeli without the prior sanction of the British Parliament.
  • December 4 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then to Spain.
  • December 56 – German emigrant ship SS Deutschland runs aground in the English Channel resulting in the death of 157 passengers and crew.[4]
  • December 9 – The Massachusetts Rifle Association, "America's Oldest Active Gun Club", is formed.
  • December 20ICRM renamed International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
  • December 25 – The first Edinburgh derby in Association football is played: Heart of Midlothian F.C. win 1–0 against Hibernian F.C.

Date unknown

  • Asia's first stock exchange is established: "The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association", the modern-day Bombay Stock Exchange.
  • Wimbledon: Henry Cavendish Jones convinces the "All England Croquet Club" to replace a croquet court with a lawn tennis court.
  • The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875 is passed in the United Kingdom to permit slum clearance.
  • Widespread nationalist rebellion in the Ottoman Empire results in Turkish repression, Russian intervention and Great Power tensions.
  • Convent Scandal: During the winter in Montreal, typhoid fever strikes at a convent school. The corpses of the victims are filched by body-snatchers before relatives arrive from America, causing much furor.[5] Eventually the Anatomy Act of Quebec is changed over it.[6]
  • The opening of Flushing High School, the oldest public high school in New York City.

Births

January–June

File:1904 Thomas J Hicks.jpg

Thomas Hicks

File:Maurice Ravel 1912.jpg

Maurice Ravel

File:Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya.jpg

Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya

File:Thomas Mann 1937.jpg

Thomas Mann

  • January 5James Stuart Blackton, American film producer (d. 1941)
  • January 6Leslie Green, British architect (d. 1908)
  • January 7Thomas Hicks, American runner (d. 1963)
  • January 9Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, American sculptor and socialite (d. 1942)
  • January 11Reinhold Glière, Russian composer (d. 1956)
  • January 14Albert Schweitzer, Alsatian philosopher, and musician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1965)
  • January 15Thomas Burke, American sprinter (d. 1929)
  • January 22D. W. Griffith, American film director (The Birth Of A Nation) (d. 1948)
  • January 31Arthur Andrew Cipriani, Trinidad and Tobago labour leader (d. 1945)
  • February 2Fritz Kreisler, Austrian violinist (d. 1962)
  • February 4Ludwig Prandtl, German physicist (d. ]]1953]])
  • February 7Erkki Melartin, Finnish composer (d. 1937)
  • February 8Valentine O'Hara, Irish author and authority on Russia and the Baltic states (d. 1945)
  • February 21Jeanne Calment, world's longest lived person (d. 1997)
  • February 15Grigore Constantinescu, Romanian priest and journalist (d. 1932)
  • March 4Mihály Károlyi, former Prime Minister of Hungary and President of Hungary (d. 1955)
  • March 7Maurice Ravel, French composer (d. 1937)
  • March 26Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (d. 1965)
  • March 28Helen Westley, American stage and film actress (d. 1942)
  • April 1Edgar Wallace, English writer (d. 1932)
  • April 2Walter Chrysler, American automobile pioneer (d. 1940)
  • April 4
    • Samuel S. Hinds, American actor (d. 1948)
    • Pierre Monteux, French conductor (d. 1964)
  • April 5Mistinguett, French singer (d. 1956)
  • April 8 – King Albert I of Belgium (d. 1934)
  • April 15James J. Jeffries, American boxer (d. 1953)
  • April 18Oskar Ernst Bernhardt (Abdruschin), German author (d. 1941)
  • May 2Owen Roberts, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1955)
  • May 6William D. Leahy, American admiral (d. 1959)
  • May 7Ernst Friedberger, German immunologist and hygienist (d. 1932)
  • May 11Harriet Quimby, American pilot (d. 1912)
  • May 12
    • Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, Indian philosopher (d. 1949)
    • Charles Holden, British architect (d. 1960)
  • May 23Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr., American automobile industrialist (d. 1966)
  • June 6Thomas Mann, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)
  • June 12Sam De Grasse, Canadian actor (d. 1953)
  • June 24Diedrich Westermann, German linguist (d. 1956)
  • June 28Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (d. 1941)

July–December

File:Jung 1910-crop.jpg

Carl Jung

File:National Women's Suffrage Association.jpg

Katharine McCormick

File:Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis photo portrait.jpg

Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis

File:PH nhi gregorio del pilar.jpg

Gregorio del Pilar

File:Theodor Kardinal Innitzer -001-.jpg

Theodor Innitzer

  • July 3Ferdinand Sauerbruch, German surgeon (d. 1951)
  • July 7Vincent Tancred, South African cricketer (d. 1904)
  • July 10Mary McLeod Bethune, American educator (d. 1955)
  • July 25Jim Corbett, Anglo-Indian hunter, conservationist and author (d. 1955)
  • July 26
    • Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist (d. 1961)
    • Antonio Machado, Spanish poet (d. 1939)
  • August 15Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, English composer (d. 1912)
  • August 16Juho Sunila, Prime Minister of Finland (d. 1936)
  • August 21Winnifred Eaton, Canadian author (d. 1954)
  • August 27Katharine McCormick, American suffragist (d. 1967)
  • August 29Leonardo De Lorenzo, Italian flautist (d. 1962)
  • September 1Edgar Rice Burroughs, American author (d. 1950)
  • September 3Ferdinand Porsche, Austrian automotive engineer (d. 1951)
  • September 16James Cash Penney, American businessman and founder of J. C. Penney (d. 1971)
  • September 18
    • Tomás Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (d. 1945)
    • Arthur Henry Knighton-Hammond, British water-colourist (d. 1970)
  • September 22Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Lithuanian composer (d. 1911)
  • October – George Ranetti, Romanian poet and publicist (d. 1928)
  • October 1Eugeen Van Mieghem, Belgian painter (d. 1930)
  • October 12Aleister Crowley, British occultist (d. 1947)
  • October 23Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (d. 1946)
  • October 26H. B. Warner, English stage & screen actor (d. 1958)
  • October 31 – Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian political leader (Iron Man of India) (d. 1950)
  • November 8Qiu Jin, Chinese revolutionary, writer and feminist (d. 1907)
  • November 14Gregorio del Pilar, Filipino general (d. 1899)
  • November 30Myron Grimshaw, American baseball player (d. 1936)
  • December 4Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet (d. 1926)
  • December 5Arthur Currie, Canadian general (d. 1933)
  • December 6Evelyn Underhill, British writer (d. 1941)
  • December 11Yehuda Leib Maimon, Bassarabian-born Israeli rabbi and government minister (d. 1962)
  • December 12Gerd von Rundstedt, German field marshal (d. 1953)
  • December 15Emilio Jacinto, Filipino poet and revolutionary (d. 1899)
  • December 19Mileva Marić, Albert Einstein's first wife (d. 1948)
  • December 25Theodor Innitzer, Austrian Catholic cardinal (d. 1955)

Deaths

January–June

File:Jean-FrancoisMillet(Nadar).jpg

Jean-François Millet

File:Georges bizet.jpg

Georges Bizet

  • January 20Jean-François Millet, French painter (b. 1814)
  • January 23Charles Kingsley, English writer (b. 1819)
  • February 22
    • Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French painter (b. 1796)
    • Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist (b. 1797)
  • March 1Tristan Corbière, French poet (b. 1845)
  • April 4Karl Mauch, German explorer (b. 1837)
  • April 25 – the 12th Dalai Lama (b. 1857)
  • May 17John C. Breckinridge, 14th Vice President of the United States, Confederate Secretary of State (b. 1821)
  • May 31Eliphas Lévi, French occult author and magician (b. 1810)
  • June 2Józef Kremer, Polish philosopher (b. 1806)
  • June 3Georges Bizet, French composer (b. 1838)
  • June 4Eduard Mörike, German poet (b. 1804)
  • June 25Antoine-Louis Barye, French sculptor (b. 1796)
  • June 29Ferdinand I of Austria, Emperor of Austria (b. 1793)

July–December

File:Brullov AKTolstoy.jpg

Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy

  • July 29Paschal Beverly Randolph, American occultist (b. 1825)
  • July 30George Pickett, American Confederate General (b. 1825)
  • July 31Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (b. 1808)
  • August 4Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer (b. 1805)
  • August 6Gabriel García Moreno, former President of Ecuador (b. 1821)
  • August 10Karl Andree, German geographer (b. 1808)
  • August 12János Kardos, Hungarian Slovenes evangelic priest, teacher, and writer (b. 1801)
  • August 17Wilhelm Bleek, German linguist (b. 1827)
  • September 22Charles Bianconi, Italian-Irish entrepreneur (b. 1786)
  • October 10Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Russian writer (b. 1817)
  • October 15 – Chief Lone Horn, Native American Chief (b. 1790)
  • October 12Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, French sculptor and painter (b. 1827)
  • October 24Jacques Paul Migne, French priest, theologian, and publisher (b. 1800)
  • November 7Werner Munzinger, Swiss adventurer (b. 1832)
  • November 22Henry Wilson, 18th Vice President of the United States (b. 1812)
  • November 24William Backhouse Astor, Sr., American businessman (b. 1792)
  • December 25Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (b. 1851)

References

  1. Smith, Ronald A. (1988). Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  2. "The Origins of Hibernian - Part 1". Hibernian FC: The Official Website. August 11, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  3. "The Early Years 1875-1904" (PDF). When Football Was Football. Haynes. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  4. This inspires Gerard Manley Hopkins' poem The Wreck of the Deutschland, not published until 1918.
  5. Gordon, Richard (1994). The Alarming History of Medicine. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-312-10411-1.
  6. History of Medicine Days, p. 132.
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