Culture Wikia

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1874 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1874
Ab urbe condita2627
Armenian calendar1323
Assyrian calendar6624
Bahá'í calendar30–31
Balinese saka calendar1795–1796
Bengali calendar1281
Berber calendar2824
British Regnal year37 Vict. 1 – 38 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2418
Burmese calendar1236
Byzantine calendar7382–7383
Chinese calendar癸酉(Water Rooster)
4570 or 4510
    — to —
甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4571 or 4511
Coptic calendar1590–1591
Discordian calendar3040
Ethiopian calendar1866–1867
Hebrew calendar5634–5635
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1930–1931
 - Shaka Samvat1795–1796
 - Kali Yuga4974–4975
Holocene calendar11874
Igbo calendar874–875
Iranian calendar1252–1253
Islamic calendar1290–1291
Japanese calendarMeiji 7
Javanese calendar1802–1803
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4207
Minguo calendar38 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar406
Thai solar calendar2416–2417
Tibetan calendar阴水鸡年
(female Water-Rooster)
2000 or 1619 or 847
    — to —
(male Wood-Dog)
2001 or 1620 or 848

1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1874th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 874th year of the , the 74th year of the , and the 5th year of the decade. As of the start of 1874, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • January – The Pangkor Treaty (also known as the Pangkor Engagement), by which the British extended their control over, first the Sultanate of Perak and later the other independent Malay States, is signed.
  • January 1 – New York City annexes The Bronx.
  • January 2Ignacio María González becomes head of state of the Dominican Republic for the first time.
  • January 3Battle of Caspe (Third Carlist War): Campaigning on the Ebro in Aragon for the Spanish Republican Government, Colonel Eulogio Despujol surprised a Carlist force under Manuel Marco de Bello at Caspe, northeast of Alcañiz. In a brilliant action the Carlists were routed, losing 200 prisoners and 80 horses, while Despujol was promoted to Brigadier and became Conde de Caspe.
  • January 23
    • Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, marries Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Tsar Alexander III of Russia.
    • Camille Saint-Saëns' composition Danse macabre receives its première.
  • February 21 – The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first issue.
  • February 23Walter Clopton Wingfield patents a game called "sphairistike" which is more commonly called lawn tennis.
  • February 24-February 25 –First Battle of Somorrostro (Third Carlist War): Determined to raise the siege of Bilbao by the Pretender Don Carlos VII, Republican commander Marshal Francisco Serrano sent General Domingo Moriones with a relief force of 14,000 men. Carlists, under General Nicolás Ollo, entrenched at Somorrostro outside Bilbao drive back a courageous assault by General Fernando Primo de Rivera and then the entire Republican army. The republicans lose 1,200 men, and Moriones loses his nerve demanding reinforcements and a replacement for himself. Moriones men entrenched and waited.
  • March 14Battle of Castellfollit de la Roca (Third Carlist War): Appointed to command the Spanish Republican army in the north, General Ramón Nouvilas attempted to relieve the Carlist siege of Olot in Girona. But at Castellfollit de la Roca, in one of the Government’s worst defeats, Nouvilas was routed by Carlist General Francesc Savalls, and captured along with about 2,000 of his men. Olot capitulated two days later.
  • March 18
    • Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.
    • The Dresden English Football Club is founded, first soccer club on European mainland.
  • March 2527Second Battle of Somorrostro (Third Carlist War): In a renewed attempt to raise the siege of Bilbao by Don Carlos VII, Republican commander Marshal Francisco Serrano himself arrived with 27,000 men and 70 cannon. However, in three days of fierce fighting, the Carlist General Joaquín Elío, with just 17,000 men, once again drove off the attack at nearby Somorrostro, and it was another six weeks before Serrano managed to relieve Bilbao.
  • March – The Young Men's Hebrew Association in Manhattan (which still operates today as the 92nd Street Y) is founded.


  • April 15May 15 – First exhibition of the group of young painters, Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs, at the studio of the photographer Nadar in Paris. Louis Leroy's critical review of it published on 25 April gives rise to the term Impressionism for the movement, with reference to Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise.
  • May 2Siege of Bilbao (Third Carlist War): The siege is lifted.
  • May 9 – The first commercial horse-drawn carriage debuts in the city of Bombay, plying two routes.
  • May 20Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a U.S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets. The price is $13.50 per dozen.
  • May 27 – The first group of the Dorsland Trek, a series of expeditions undertaken by Trekboere in search of political independence and better farming conditions, departs from South Africa under the leadership of Gert Alberts to settle in Angola.
  • June 4 – The flag of Estonia is adopted as the flag of the Estonian Students Society in Otepää.
  • June 14Michel Domingue becomes head of state of Haiti.
  • June 22Andrew Taylor Still starts the movement for osteopathic medicine in the United States at Kirksville, Missouri.
  • June 25June 27Battle of Monte Muro (Third Carlist War): Carlist forces entrenched around Abárzuza, on the approach to Estella in Navarre, repel an attack by Isabelino/Liberal (supporters of Queen Isabella II) troops led by General Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués del Duero, who is killed on the third day of fighting.


  • July 1
    • Universal Postal Union is established.
    • Philadelphia Zoo opens, the first public zoo in the United States.
    • Sholes and Glidden typewriter, with cylindrical platen and QWERTY keyboard, first marketed, in the United States.
    • The Bank of Spain emits the first peseta banknotes.[1]
  • July 14 – The Chicago Fire of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20, and resulting in the fire insurance industry demanding municipal reforms from Chicago's city council.
  • July 23Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos is appointed the Archbishop of the Portuguese colonial enclave of Goa.
  • July 24Mathew Evans and Henry Woodward patent the first incandescent lamp with an electric light bulb.
  • July 24Sack of Cuenca (Third Carlist War): After Carlist forces successfully defended Estella, Don Alfonso de Bourbon, brother of the Don Carlos VII, led 14,000 Catalan Carlists south to attack Cuenca 136 km from Madrid, held by Republicans under Don Hilario Lozano. After two days the outnumbered garrison capitulated but Don Alfonso permitted a terrible slaughter. The city is sacked. Subsequently another republican force defeats the disorderly Catalans who flee back to the Ebro.
  • July 31 –July 31, 1874 - Patrick Francis Healy, S.J., first Black man to receive a PhD, inaugurated as president of Georgetown University, the oldest Catholic University in America, and became the first Black to head a predominantly white university
  • August 11Battle of Oteiza (Third Carlist War): Two months after Government forces were repulsed from Carlist-held Estella, in Navarre, Republican General Domingo Moriones made a fresh diversionary attack a few miles to the southeast at Oteiza. In heavy fighting Moriones secured a costly tactical victory over Carlist General Torcuato Mendíri, but the war continued another 18 months before Estella finally fell.
  • September 14Battle of Liberty Place: In New Orleans, former Confederate Army members of the White League temporarily drive Republican Governor William P. Kellogg from office, replacing him with former Democratic Governor John McEnery. U.S. Army troops restore Kellogg to office five days later.[2]
  • September 28Texas–Indian wars: U.S. Army Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie leads his force of 600 men on the successful raid of the last sanctuary of the Kiowa, Comanche and Cheyenne Indian tribes, a village inside the Palo Duro Canyon in Texas, and carries out their removal to the designated Indian reservations in Oklahoma.[3]


  • October 9Treaty of Bern establishes the General Postal Union to coordinate the exchange of international mail.
  • October 19 – The modern University of Zagreb is founded in Zagreb.
  • November 4Democrats gain control of the United States House of Representatives for the first time since 1860.
  • November 7Harper's Weekly publishes a cartoon by Thomas Nast which is the first use of an elephant as a symbol for the Republican Party in the United States.[4]
  • November 9 – New York Zoo hoax, a supposed breakout of animals from the Central Park Zoo.
  • November 10John Ernst Worrell Keely demonstrates his "induction resonance motion motor", a perpetual motion machine which eventually turns out to be a fraud.
  • November 11 – The Gamma Phi Beta sorority is founded at Syracuse University. This is the first women's Greek letter organization to be called a sorority.
  • November 25 – The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party, made primarily of farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873.
  • December 1Iceland is granted a constitution and limited home rule from Denmark.
  • December 29 – General Martínez and Brigadier General Luís Daban stage a pronunciamento at Sagunto and proclaim Isabel's son Alfonso as King of Spain. Subsequently the Madrid garrison follows suit and the First Spanish Republic comes to an end.

Date unknown[]

  • The Agra Canal opens in India.
  • St. Nicholas' Church, Hamburg, designed by English architect George Gilbert Scott, is completed. Its 147 metres (482 ft)-tall spire makes it (briefly, and by 5m) the world's tallest building (a title held since 1647 by Strasbourg Cathedral).
  • The House of Keys, lower house of the Tynwald, the legislature of the Isle of Man, moves from Castletown to Douglas.[5]
  • Charles Taze Russell and the Bible Student movement claim this year marks the invisible return of Jesus Christ to earth.
  • Gold is discovered in the Black Hills.
  • The San Diego Natural History Museum is founded.
  • The following Association football clubs are founded in Great Britain:
    • Aston Villa.
    • Bolton Wanderers (as Christ Church F.C.)
    • Greenock Morton.
    • Heart of Midlothian.
  • English chemist C. R. Alder Wright synthetizes heroin for the first time.
  • Supreme Council 33° Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada is founded.
  • The medieval Frankish Tower on the Acropolis of Athens is demolished.



File:John D. Rockefeller Jr..jpg

John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

File:Honus Wagner (crop).JPG

Honus Wagner


Harry Houdini

File:Robert Frost NYWTS.jpg

Robert Frost

  • January 1Gustav Albin Weißkopf, German-born aviation pioneer (d. 1927)
  • January 4Josef Suk, Czech composer and violinist (d. 1935)
  • January 5Joseph Erlanger, American physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965)
  • January 13Alexandros Hatzikyriakos, Greek admiral and politician (d. 1958)
  • January 16Robert W. Service, American poet (d. 1958)
  • January 20Steve Bloomer, English footballer, cricketer and baseball player (d. 1938)
  • January 21Frederick Madison Smith, American religious leader and author (d. 1946)
  • January 25William Somerset Maugham, English author (d. 1965)
  • January 28Vsevolod Meyerhold, Russian Theatre Practitioner (d. 1940)
  • January 29John D. Rockefeller, Jr., American entrepreneur (d. 1960)
  • February 1Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian writer (d. 1929)
  • February 2William T. Innes, American writer, ichthyologist, publisher (d. 1969)
  • February 3Gertrude Stein, American writer and patron of the arts (d. 1946)
  • February 6Henry C. Mustin, American naval aviation pioneer (d. 1923)
  • February 9Amy Lowell, American poet (d. 1925)
  • February 11
    • Elsa Beskow, Swedish writer (d. 1953)
    • Fritz Hart, English-born composer (d. 1949)
  • February 15 – Sir Ernest Shackleton, Irish explorer (d. 1922)
  • February 17Thomas J. Watson, American computer pioneer (d. 1956)
  • February 20Mary Garden, American opera soprano of Scots descent (some sources state her birth year as 1877) (d. 1967)
  • February 23Konstantin Päts, Estonian president (d. 1956)
  • February 24Honus Wagner, baseball player (d. 1955)
  • March 4Stephen Victor Graham, United States Navy Rear Admiral and 18th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1955)
  • March 12Charles Weeghman, American restaurateur and owner of Chicago Cubs (d. 1938)
  • March 20Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (d. 1945)
  • March 24Harry Houdini, Hungarian-born magician (d. 1926)
  • March 26Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
  • March 29Lou Henry Hoover, First Lady of the United States (d. 1944)
  • March 30Charles Herbert Lightoller, 2nd Officer of the RMS Titanic (d. 1952)


File:Guglielmo Marconi.jpg

Guglielmo Marconi

File:Howard carter.jpg

Howard Carter

  • April 8Stanisław Taczak, Polish general, commander-in-chief of the Greater Poland Uprising (d. 1960)
  • April 15Johannes Stark, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
  • April 19Ernst Rüdin, Swiss psychiatrist and geneticist (d. 1952)
  • April 25Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1937)
  • April 28Sidney Toler, American actor, playwright and Theatre director (d. 1947)
  • May 3François Coty, French perfume manufacturer (d. 1934)
  • May 7Ilmari Kianto, Finnish poet (d. 1970)
  • May 9Howard Carter, British archaeologist (d. 1939)
  • May 14Polaire, French actress and singer (d. 1939)
  • May 19Gilbert Jessop, English cricketer (d. 1955)
  • May 26Henri Farman, pioneer French pilot and aircraft designer (d. 1958)
  • May 29G. K. Chesterton, English author (d. 1936)
  • June 11Lyman Gilmore, American aviation pioneer (d. 1951)
  • June 16Arthur Meighen, 9th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1960)
  • June 19Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish engineer and physicist (d. 1941)


File:Herbert Hoover.jpg

Herbert Hoover

File:Carl Bosch.jpg

Carl Bosch

  • July 3Richard B. Bennett, 11th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1947)
  • July 14Abbas II, last khedive of Egypt (d. 1944)
  • July 25Alfred Walton Hinds, 17th Naval Governor of Guam (d. 1957)
  • July 26Serge Koussevitzky, Russian conductor (d. 1951)
  • July 27Frank Shannon, American actor (d. 1959)
  • July 29J. S. Woodsworth, Canadian politician (d. 1942)
  • August 6Charles Fort, Dutch-American writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena (d. 1932)
  • August 8Albert Stanley, 1st Baron Ashfield, British-American businessman (d. 1948)
  • August 10
    • Herbert Hoover, 31st President of the United States (d. 1964)
    • Jirō Minami, Japanese general and Governor-General of Korea (1936-1942) (d. 1955)
  • August 27Carl Bosch, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
  • September 12
    • Paul Kuhn, German operatic tenor (d. 1966)
    • Redcliffe N. Salaman, British botanist (d. 1955)
  • September 13
    • Henry Fountain Ashurst, American politician (d. 1962)
    • Arnold Schoenberg, Austrian composer (d. 1951)
  • September 21Gustav Holst, English composer (d. 1934)


File:Sir Winston S Churchill.jpg

Winston Churchill


William Lyon Mackenzie King



File:Hoffmann von Fallersleben.jpg

August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben

File:Moritz Hermann von Jacobi 1856.jpg

Moritz von Jacobi

File:Anders Jonas Ångström - 001.png

Anders Jonas Ångström

  • January 8Abbé Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, French writer and historian (b. 1814)
  • January 14Johann Philipp Reis, German scientist and inventor (b. 1834)
  • January 17Chang and Eng Bunker, Siamese twins and sideshow performers (b. 1811)
  • January 19August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German poet (b. 1798)
  • February 3William Charles Lunalilo, last monarch of the House of Kamehameha (b. 1835)
  • February 8David Friedrich Strauss, German theologian (b. 1808)
  • February 24John Bachman, American Lutheran minister, social activist and naturalist, (b. 1790)
  • March 8Millard Fillmore, 13th President of the United States (b. 1800)
  • March 10Moritz von Jacobi, German engineer and physicist (b. 1801)
  • March 20Hans Christian Lumbye, Danish composer (b. 1810)
  • April 13Etō Shimpei, Japanese statesman (executed) (b. 1834)
  • April 20Alexander H. Bailey, American politician (b. 1817)
  • June 20John Ruggles, American politician (b. 1789)
  • June 21Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (b. 1814)


  • July 8Agnes Strickland, English popular historian (b. 1796)
  • July 12Fritz Reuter, German novelist (b. 1810)
  • July 24Gijsbert Haan, Dutch-American religious leader (b. 1801)
  • August 14Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, African-American minister and politician (b. 1821)
  • October 6Samuel M. Kier, American oil magnate (b. 1813)
  • October 23Abraham Geiger, German rabbi, a founder of European Reform Judaism (b. 1810)
  • October 28William Henry Rinehart, American sculptor (b. 1825)
  • November 29Ioan Manu, Russian politician (b. 1803)
  • December 7Constantin von Tischendorf, German Biblical scholar (b. 1815)
  • December 22Johann Peter Pixis, German pianist and composer (b. 1788)


  1. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money General Issues, 1368 - 1960. 2008. p. 1088. ISSN 1538-2001.
  2. "Chief Justice Edward Douglass White", by William H. Forman, Jr., in ABA Journal (March 1970) p261
  3. Frances H. Kennedy, American Indian Places: A Historical Guidebook (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008) p168
  4. “Attitude of the Easy Boss”.
  5. "Old House of Keys". Isle of Man Guide. Retrieved August 11, 2012.