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Template:C19 year in topic

1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1870th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 870th year of the , the 70th year of the , and the 1st year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1
    • The first edition of The Northern Echo newspaper is published in Priestgate, Darlington, England.
    • Plans for the Brooklyn Bridge are completed.
  • January 3 – Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
  • January 6 – The Musikverein, Vienna, is inaugurated in Austria-Hungary.
  • January 10John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.
  • January 15 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly).
  • January 20Template:SS vanishes at sea with all 177 aboard.
  • January 23 – U.S soldiers attack a peaceful camp of Piegan Blackfoot Indians led by chief Heavy Runner in the Marias Massacre.
  • January 26Reconstruction Era (United States): Virginia rejoins the Union.
  • February – Denis Vrain-Lucas is sentenced to 2 years in prison for multiple forgery in Paris.
  • February 1Goodna State School in Goodna, Queensland, Australia is founded.
  • February 2 – It is revealed that the famed Cardiff Giant is just carved gypsum and not the petrified remains of a human.
  • February 3 – The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing African-Americans the right to vote, is passed.
  • February 9 – The Army Weather Bureau (within the Army Signal Corps) is created.
  • February 10
  • February 12 – Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory.
  • February 23 – Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
  • February 25Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress.
  • February 26 – In New York City, the first pneumatic subway is opened, Beach Pneumatic Transit.
  • February 26 – The German Commerzbank is founded in Hamburg.
  • February 27 – The "circle of the sun" flag of Japan is adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships by proclamation of the Daijō-kan.
  • February 28 – The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire.
  • March 1 – Marshal Francisco Solano López's last troops are cornered by those of the Triple Alliance at the Battle of Cerro Corá. López refuses to surrender and is killed. Fighting ends in Paraguay – the Paraguayan War is over.
  • March 4Thomas Scott is executed by Louis Riel's provisional government during the Red River Rebellion in modern-day Manitoba, Canada.
  • March 5 – First ever international Association football match, England v Scotland, takes place under the auspices of the Football Association at The Oval, London.
  • March 10 – The Deutsche Bank is founded in Berlin.
  • March 19 – The Ohio Legislature passes the Cannon Act, thereby establishing the Ohio Agriculture and Mechanical College, later Ohio State University.
  • March 24Syracuse University is established and officially opens.
  • March 30
    • The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, giving blacks the right to vote, is ratified.
    • Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction.
  • March 31Thomas Mundy Peterson is the first African-American to vote in an election.

April–June

  • April 27Antonio Guzmán Blanco begins his first term as President of Venezuela.
  • April 29 – The Chicago Base Ball Club, later to be known as the Chicago White Stockings and ultimately the Chicago Cubs, play their first game against the St. Louis Unions of the National Association of Base Ball Players, an amateur league.
  • May 12 – The Canadian province of Manitoba is created in response to Louis Riel's Red River Rebellion.
  • May 14 – The first rugby match is played in New Zealand, between the Nelson Football Club and Nelson College.
  • May 24 – The Port Adelaide Football Club plays their first match of Australian rules football at Buck's Flat, Glanville, South Australia. The first meeting of the club was May 12.
  • June 9 – Death of English novelist Charles Dickens at Gads Hill Place in Kent, leaving his last book The Mystery of Edwin Drood, unfinished.
  • June 22
    • The office of the Solicitor General of the United States is set up to supervise and conduct government litigation in the United States Supreme Court.
    • The U.S. Congress creates the United States Department of Justice.
  • June 26
    • Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the United States.
    • Richard Wagner's opera Die Walküre is first performed at Munich's National Theatre.

July–September

  • July 13 – The Ems Dispatch serves as a reason for a war between Prussia and France.
  • July 15
    • Reconstruction Era: Georgia becomes the last former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.
    • The British government admits the former Hudson's Bay Company territory of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the Dominion of Canada.
  • July 18Pastor aeternus: Pope Pius IX declares papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals.
  • July 19Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.
  • August 2 – Official opening of the Tower Subway beneath the River Thames in London, the world's first underground passenger "tube" railway.[1] Although this lasts as a railway operation only until November, it demonstrates the technologically successful first use of the cylindrical wrought iron tunnelling shield devised by Peter W. Barlow and James Henry Greathead[2] and of a permanent tunnel lining of cast iron segments.[3]
  • August 8 – The Republic of Ploiești, an uprising against Domnitor Carol of Romania, fails.
  • August 24 – The Red River Rebellion ends with the arrival of the Wolseley Expedition and the fleeing of Louis Riel.
  • September 2Franco-Prussian WarBattle of Sedan: Prussian forces defeat the French armies and take emperor Napoleon III and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan.
  • September 4 – Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared. Empress Eugénie flees to England with her children.
  • September 6 – Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming, becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally since 1807.
  • September 18Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition to Yellowstone.
  • September 19 – The Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War begins.
  • September 20 – With Bersaglieri soldiers entering Rome at Porta Pia, the unification of Italy is completed, ending the last remnant of the Papal States and the Papal temporal power.

October–December

  • October 2 – A plebiscite held in Rome supports, by 133,681 votes to 1,507, the annexation of the city by Italy.
  • October 6 – Rome becomes the capital of unified Italy.
  • October 8Léon Gambetta escapes the besieged Paris in a hot-air balloon.
  • October 20First Vatican Council adjourned.
  • October 27Franco-Prussian War: Marshal François Achille Bazaine, commanding the French left wing, is forced by starvation to surrender the fortifications of Metz, ending the Siege of Metz.
  • November 1 – In the United States, the newly created Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast: "High winds at Chicago and Milwaukee... and along the Lakes".
  • November 12 – German company Dresdner Bank is founded.
  • November 16 – The Spanish Cortes Generales proclaims Amadeo de Saboya as King Amadeus I of Spain.
  • December 30Juan Prim, prime minister of Spain, is assassinated.
  • December 31 – The 12.8-km Fréjus Rail Tunnel through the Alps is completed.

Date unknown

  • Infanticide is banned in India.
  • Just one of the 916 members of the Indian Civil Service is Indian.
  • David Kenyon invents the fireman's pole in Chicago.
  • Graeter's ice cream is originated in Cincinnati.

Births

January–June

File:ErnstBarlachYoung.jpg

Ernst Barlach

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J0113-0500-001, Gustav Bauer.jpg

Gustav Bauer

File:Bain News Service - Franz Lehár.jpg

Franz Lehár

  • January 1Hermann Theodor Simon, German physicist (d. 1918)
  • January 2Ernst Barlach, German sculptor, graphic artist and poet (d. 1938)
  • January 6Gustav Bauer, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1944)
  • January 8Miguel Primo de Rivera, dictator of Spain (d. 1930)
  • January 11Alexander Stirling Calder, American sculptor (d. 1945)
  • January 20Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta, Thai Buddhist monk (d. 1949)
  • January 22John B. Sheridan, Irish American sports journalist (d. 1930)
  • January 23William G. Morgan, inventor of volleyball (d. 1942)
  • February 7
    • Alfred Adler, Austrian psychologist (d. 1937)
    • Marie Cahill, American actress and vocalist (d. 1933)
  • February 12
    • Marie Lloyd, English singer (d. 1922)
    • Hugo Stinnes, German industrialist and politician (d. 1924)
  • February 20Jay Johnson Morrow, American military engineer and politician, 3rd Governor of the Panama Canal Zone (d. 1937)
  • February 25Jelica Belović-Bernardzikowska, Croatian writer (d. 1946)
  • March 4Thomas Sturge Moore, English poet, author and artist (d. 1944)
  • March 5Frank Norris, American writer (d. 1902)
  • March 13Seale Harris, American physician (d. 1957)
  • March 17Horace Donisthorpe, English entomologist (d. 1951)
  • March 20Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, German general (d. 1964)
  • April 1Hamaguchi Osachi, 27th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1931)
  • April 3Agda Östlund, Swedish politician (d. 1942)
  • April 4George Albert Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1951)
  • April 7Anna Lindhagen, Swedish politician (d. 1941)
  • April 17Ray Stannard Baker, American journalist and author (d. 1946)
  • April 22Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary and first Premier of the Soviet Union (d. 1924)
  • April 30Franz Lehár, Austrian composer (d. 1948)
  • May 4Antonius van den Broek, Dutch physicist (d. 1926)
  • May 9Harry Vardon, English golf professional (d. 1937)
  • May 19Albert Fish, American serial killer (d. 1936)
  • May 24Benjamin N. Cardozo, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1938)
  • May 27Anna Stecksén, Swedish scientist, physician and pathologist (d. 1904)
  • June 13Jules Bordet, Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1961)
  • June 20Georges Dufrénoy, French post-impressionnist painter (d. 1943)

July–December

File:Maria Montessori1913.jpg

Maria Montessori

File:Georges Claude 1926.jpg

Georges Claude

Date unknown

  • Joseph "Sport" Sullivan, gambler
  • Curtis Hidden Page, New Hampshire politician (d. 1946)

Deaths

January–June

File:Dickens Gurney head.jpg

Charles Dickens

  • January 29Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1797)
  • February 7Sylvain Salnave a Haitian president (b. 1827)
  • February 19Nathaniel de Rothschild, French wine grower (b. 1812)
  • March 1Francisco Solano López, president of Paraguay (killed in action) (b. 1827)
  • March 4Thomas Scott, Orangeman and surveyor of the Red River Rebellion (shot by Louis Riel and the Métis) (b. c.1842)
  • March 11Moshoeshoe I of Lesotho (b. 1786?)
  • March 28George Henry Thomas, American general (b. 1816)
  • April 16Domnița Rallou Caragea, Greek princess and independence activist (b. 1799)
  • May 6 – Sir James Young Simpson, Scottish physician and researcher (b. 1811)
  • June 6Ferdinand von Wrangel, Baltic German explorer (b. 1796/1797)
  • June 7Friedrich Hohe, German lithographer and painter (b. 1802)
  • June 9Charles Dickens, British novelist (b. 1812)
  • June 20Jules de Goncourt, French writer and publisher (b. 1830)
  • June 24Adam Lindsay Gordon, Australian poet (b. 1833)

July–December

File:Nadar - Alexander Dumas père (1802-1870) - Google Art Project 2.jpg

Alexandre Dumas, père

  • July 10Pelaghia Roșu, Romanian heroine (b. 1800)
  • August 14David Farragut, American admiral (b. 1801)
  • August 17Pedro Figueredo, Cuban poet, musician and freedom fighter (b. 1818)
  • September 12Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author and explorer (b. 1836)
  • September 23Prosper Mérimée, French writer (b. 1803)
  • October 12
    • Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch, American minister and hymn writer (b. 1809)
    • Robert E. Lee, Confederate general (b. 1807)
  • November 23Giuseppina Bozzacchi, Milanese-born ballerina (b. 1853) (result of deprivation during Siege of Paris)
  • November 24Comte de Lautréamont, French poet and writer (b. 1846)
  • November 26Franz Graf von Wimpffen, Austrian general and admiral (b. 1797)
  • November 28Frédéric Bazille, French painter (b. 1841)
  • December 5Alexandre Dumas, père, French author (b. 1802)
  • December 9Patrick MacDowell, Northern Irish sculptor (b. 1799)
  • December 27General Prim, Spanish dictator (b. 1814)

References

  1. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  2. Smith, Denis (2001). Civil Engineering Heritage: London and the Thames Valley. Thomas Telford. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-7277-2876-8.
  3. West, Graham (2005). Innovation and the Rise of the Tunnelling Industry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN 0-521-33512-4.

External links

  • "1870". Timeline. USA: Digital Public Library of America.
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