Culture Wikia

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1869 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1869
Ab urbe condita2622
Armenian calendar1318
Assyrian calendar6619
Bahá'í calendar25–26
Balinese saka calendar1790–1791
Bengali calendar1276
Berber calendar2819
British Regnal year32 Vict. 1 – 33 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2413
Burmese calendar1231
Byzantine calendar7377–7378
Chinese calendar戊辰(Earth Dragon)
4565 or 4505
    — to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4566 or 4506
Coptic calendar1585–1586
Discordian calendar3035
Ethiopian calendar1861–1862
Hebrew calendar5629–5630
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1925–1926
 - Shaka Samvat1790–1791
 - Kali Yuga4969–4970
Holocene calendar11869
Igbo calendar869–870
Iranian calendar1247–1248
Islamic calendar1285–1286
Japanese calendarMeiji 2
Javanese calendar1797–1798
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4202
Minguo calendar43 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar401
Thai solar calendar2411–2412
Tibetan calendar阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1995 or 1614 or 842
    — to —
(female Earth-Snake)
1996 or 1615 or 843

1869 (MDCCCLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1869th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 869th year of the , the 69th year of the , and the 10th and last year of the decade. As of the start of 1869, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • January 3Abdur Rahman Khan is defeated at Tinah Khan and exiled from Afghanistan.
  • January 5 – Scotland's oldest professional football team, Kilmarnock F.C., is founded.
  • January 20Elizabeth Cady Stanton is the first woman to testify before the United States Congress.
  • January 21 – The P.E.O. Sisterhood, a philanthropic educational organization for women, is founded at Iowa Wesleyan College in Mount Pleasant, Iowa.
  • January 27 – The Republic of Ezo is proclaimed on the northern Japanese island of Ezo (which will be renamed Hokkaidō on September 20) by remaining adherents to the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • February 5 – Prospectors in Moliagul, Victoria, Australia, discover the largest alluvial gold nugget ever found, known as the "Welcome Stranger".
  • February 20Ranavalona II, the Merina Queen of Madagascar, is baptized.
  • February 26 – The 2½-year-old Mahbub Ali Khan begins a 42-year reign as Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • March – In Japan, the daimyo of the Tosa, Hizen, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains are persuaded to 'return their domains' to the Emperor Meiji, leading to creation of a fully centralized government in the country.[1]
  • March 1North German Confederation issues 10gr and 30gr value stamps, printed on goldbeater's skin.
  • March 4Ulysses S. Grant is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 6Dmitri Mendeleev makes a formal presentation of his periodic table to the Russian Chemical Society.
  • March 9Southern Illinois University Carbondale is founded.
  • March 24Titokowaru's War ends with surrender of the last Māori troops at large in the South Taranaki District of New Zealand's North Island.


  • April 6 – The American Museum of Natural History is founded in New York.
  • May – In France, the opposition, consisting of republicans, monarchists and liberals, polls almost 45% of the vote in national elections.
  • May 410Naval Battle of Hakodate: The Imperial Japanese navy defeats adherents of the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • May 6Purdue University is founded in West Lafayette, Indiana.
  • May 10 – The First Transcontinental Railroad in North America is completed at Promontory, Utah, by driving of the "golden spike".[2]
  • May 15Women's suffrage: In New York, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the National Woman Suffrage Association.
  • May 18 – One day after surrendering at the land Battle of Hakodate (begun 4 December 1868), Enomoto Takeaki turns over Goryōkaku to Japanese forces, signaling the collapse of the Republic of Ezo.
  • May 22Sainsbury's first store, in Drury Lane, London, is opened.[3]
  • May 26Boston University is chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
File:East and West Shaking hands at the laying of last rail Union Pacific Railroad - Restoration.jpg

May 10First Transcontinental Railroad in North America completed

  • June 1 – The Cincinnati Red Stockings open the baseball season as the first fully professional team.
  • June 2Sherwood College is founded in Nainital, India.
  • June 15John Wesley Hyatt patents celluloid, in Albany, New York.
  • June 27 – The fortress of Goryōkaku is turned over to Imperial Japanese forces, bringing an end to the Republic of Ezo, the Battle of Hakodate and the Boshin War.
  • June 30-July 2 – The first Estonian Song Festival takes place in Tartu.


  • July 10 – The Swedish town Gävle is destroyed in a city fire. 8,000 people became homeless.
  • August 9August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht found the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP).
  • August 27 – The University of Oxford win the first international boat race held on the River Thames against Harvard University.[4]
  • August 31 – Irish scientist Mary Ward is killed by a steam car, probably the world's first victim of a mechanically-propelled road vehicle.
  • September 5 – The foundation stone is laid for Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria (southern Germany).
  • September 11 – Work on the Wallace Monument is completed in Stirling, Scotland.
  • September 1213 – The P&O's SS Carnatic runs aground and sinks in the Red Sea; 31 drowned.
  • September 24 – "Black Friday": The Fisk–Gould Scandal causes a financial panic in the United States.


  • October 8Austria-Hungary sends reinforcements to battle the uprising in Krivošije
  • October 11Red River Rebellion against British forces in Canada.[5]
  • October 16 – England's first residential university-level women's college, the College for Women, predecessor of Girton College, Cambridge, is founded at Hitchin by Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon.
  • November 4 – The first issue of the scientific journal Nature is published in London, edited by Norman Lockyer.
  • November 6The first game of American football between two American colleges is played. Rutgers University defeats Princeton University 6–4 in a forerunner to American football and College football.
  • November 17 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated in an elaborate ceremony.
  • November 19 – The Hudson's Bay Company surrenders its claim to Rupert's Land in Canada under its letters patent back to the British Crown.[5]
  • November 23 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper ship Cutty Sark is launched (it is one of the last clippers built, and the only one to survive into the 21st century).[4]
  • December – Publication of Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace complete in book form concludes in Russia.
  • December 7 – American outlaw Jesse James commits his first confirmed bank robbery in Gallatin, Missouri.
  • December 8First Vatican Council opens.
  • December 10 – The first American chapter of Kappa Sigma is founded at the University of Virginia.
  • December 10 – The Wyoming territorial legislature gives women the right to vote, the first such law in the world.
  • December 31 – Triple Alliance forces take Asunción in the Paraguayan War.

Date unknown[]

  • Basutoland becomes a British protectorate (abolished in 1966).
  • The capital of the Isle of Man moves from Castletown to Douglas.
  • Arabella Mansfield became the first woman in the United States awarded a license to practice law, at Mount Pleasant, Iowa.
  • James Gordon Bennett, Jr. of the New York Herald asks Henry Morton Stanley to find Dr. David Livingstone.
  • The Co-operative Central Board (later Co-operatives UK) is founded in Manchester, England.
  • Friedrich Miescher discovers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  • French missionary and naturalist Père Armand David receives the skin of a giant panda from a hunter, the first time this species becomes known to a Westerner;[6] he also first describes a specimen of the "pocket handkerchief tree", which will be named in his honor as Davidia involucrata.
  • In France Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès patents margarine.
  • The University of Otago is founded, making it New Zealand's oldest University.
  • Glasgow University Rugby Football Club is founded in Scotland.



File:Else Lasker-Schüler 1875.jpg

Else Lasker-Schüler

File:Neville chamberlain1921.jpg

Neville Chamberlain

File:Hans Spemann nobel.jpg

Hans Spemann

  • January 4Tommy Corcoran, American baseball player (d. 1960)
  • January 10Grigori Rasputin, Russian mystic (d. 1916)
  • January 11Carl Theodore Vogelgesang, American admiral (d. 1927)
  • January 15Stanisław Wyspiański, Polish dramatist, poet, painter and architect (d. 1907)
  • January 25Max Hoffmann, German general (d. 1927)
  • February 11
    • Helene Kröller-Müller, Dutch museum founder and patron of the arts (d. 1939)
    • Else Lasker-Schüler, German-born poet and author (d. 1945)
  • February 14Charles Wilson, Scottish physicist and Nobel laureate (d. 1959)
  • February 26Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya, Russian Marxist revolutionary and Vladimir Lenin's wife (d.1939)
  • February 28William V. Pratt, American admiral (d. 1957)
  • March 3
    • Michael von Faulhaber, German cardinal and archbishop (d. 1952)
    • Henry Wood, British conductor (d. 1944)
  • March 12George Forbes, New Zealand Prime Minister and first leader of the New Zealand National Party (d. 1947)
  • March 14Algernon Blackwood, English writer (d. 1951)
  • March 18Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1940)
  • March 22Emilio Aguinaldo, first President of the Philippines (d. 1964)
  • March 23Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian businessman and philanthropist (d. 1955)
  • March 29Edwin Lutyens, British architect (d. 1944)


  • April 2Hughie Jennings, American baseball player (d. 1928)
  • April 4Mary Colter, American architect (d. 1958)
  • April 8Harvey Cushing, American neurosurgeon (d. 1939)
  • April 10Signe Bergman, Swedish suffragist (d. 1960)
  • April 11Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor (d. 1943)
  • April 12Henri Désiré Landru, French serial killer (d. 1922)
  • April 27May Moss, Australian women's rights activist (d. 1948)
  • May 3Warren Terhune, United States Navy Commander and 13th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1920)
  • May 5Hans Pfitzner, German composer (d. 1949)
  • May 12Carl Schuhmann, German athlete (d. 1946)
  • May 18Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Bavarian military leader and last Bavarian crown prince (d. 1955)
  • May 20John Stone Stone, American physicist and inventor (d. 1943)
  • May 30Giulio Douhet, Italian general and air power theorist (d. 1930)
  • June 7Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich of Russia (d. 1870)
  • June 17Flora Finch, English-born comedian (d. 1940)
  • June 27Hans Spemann, German embryologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1941)
  • June 28Lydia Wahlström, Swedish historian and women's rights activist (d. 1954)



Mohandas Gandhi


Victor Emmanuel III

File:André Gide.jpg

André Gide

File:Henri Matisse, 1913, photograph by Alvin Langdon Coburn.jpg

Henri Matisse


Date unknown[]

  • Harry Grant Dart, American cartoonist (d. 1938)



File:Hector Berlioz Crop.jpg

Hector Berlioz

File:Hermann von Meyer.jpg

Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer

  • January 1
    • Martin W. Bates, American senator (b. 1786)
    • James B. Longacre, fourth Chief Engraver of the U.S. Mint (b. 1794)
  • January 19Carl Reichenbach, German chemist (b. 1788)
  • January 30William Carleton, Irish novelist (b. 1794)
  • February 15Ghalib, Indian poet (b. 1796)
  • March 8Hector Berlioz, French composer (b. 1803)
  • March 20John Pascoe Grenfell, British admiral of the Brazilian Navy (b. 1800)
  • March 24Antoine-Henri Jomini, French general (b. 1779)
  • April 2Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer, German palaeontologist (b, 1801)
  • April 20Carl Loewe, German composer (b. 1796)
  • June 16Charles Sturt, Australian explorer (b. 1795)
  • June 20Hijikata Toshizō, Japanese military commander (b. 1835)


  • July 18Laurent Clerc, American advocate for the deaf (b. 1785)
  • July 22John A. Roebling, American bridge engineer (b. 1806)
  • July 28Carl Gustav Carus, German physiologist (b. 1789)
  • August 31Mary Ward, Irish scientist and the first car crash victim (b. 1827)
  • September 4John Pascoe Fawkner, Australian pioneer, settler and politician, Melbourne, Victoria (b. 1792)
  • September 12Peter Mark Roget, British lexicographer (b. 1779)
  • October 8Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States (b. 1804)
  • October 13Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, French literary critic (b. 1804)
  • October 16Joseph Ritner, American politician (b. 1780)
  • October 23Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1799)
  • October 31Charles A. Wickliffe, American politician, 14th Governor of Kentucky (b. 1788)
  • November 8Christodoulos Hatzipetros, Greek military leader (b. 1798)
  • December 8Narcisa de Jesús Martillo, an Ecuadorian saint (b. 1832)
  • December 18Louis Moreau Gottschalk, American composer and pianist (b. 1829)

In fiction[]

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Main article: List of works of fiction set in 1869


  1. 天下
  2. "Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, Utah". World Digital Library. May 10, 1869. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  3. Baren, Maurice (1996). How it All Began Up the High Street. London: Michael O'Mara Books. ISBN 1-85479-667-4.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 290–291. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  6. "Giant Panda". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
  • American Annual Cyclopedia...for 1869 (1870), large compendium of facts, worldwide coverage online edition
  • The American year-book and national register for 1869 (1869). focus on U.S. online edition