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1866 (MDCCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1866th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 866th year of the , the 66th year of the , and the 7th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1
    • Fisk University, a historically black university, is established in Nashville, Tennessee.
    • The last issue of the abolitionist magazine The Liberator is published.
  • January 6Ottoman troops clash with men of a Maronite leader Youssef Bey Karam at St. Doumit in Lebanon; the Ottomans are defeated.
  • January 12
    • Royal Aeronautical Society is formed as 'The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain' in London, the world's oldest such society.
    • British auxiliary steamer Template:SS sinks in a storm in the Bay of Biscay on passage from the Thames to Australia with the loss of 244 people and only 19 survivors.
  • January 18Wesley College, Melbourne is established.
  • February 7Battle of Abtao: A Spanish naval squadron fights a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet, at the island of Abtao in the Chiloé Archipelago of central Chile.
  • February 13 – The first daylight bank robbery in United States history during peacetime takes place in Liberty, Missouri. This is considered to be the first robbery committed by Jesse James and his gang, although James's role is disputed.
  • February 26 – The Calaveras Skull is discovered in California. Purported to be evidence of humans in North America during the Pliocene epoch, it turns out to be a hoax.
  • February 28 – The month concludes without having a full moon.
  • March 13 – The United States Congress overwhelmingly passes the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the first federal legislation to protect the rights of African-Americans; U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoes the bill on March 27, and Congress overrides the veto on April 9.[1]

April–June

  • April 4Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of St Petersburg.
  • April 8 – The kingdoms of Italy and Prussia form an alliance against the Austrian Empire.
  • April 10 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
  • May 2Battle of Callao: Peruvian defenders fight the Spanish fleet.
  • May 7 – Student Ferdinand Cohen-Blind makes a failed attempt to assassinate Otto von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin.
File:ShieldNickel.jpeg

May 16: U.S. nickel coin approved.

  • May 10 – London bank Overend, Gurney and Company collapses, precipitating Panic of 1866.
  • May 16 – The United States Congress approves the minting of a nickel 5-cent coin (nickel), eliminating its predecessor, the half dime.
  • May 24Battle of Tuyutí: 32,000 soldiers of the Triple Alliance defeat 24,000 Paraguayan soldiers few miles north of the Paraná, Argentina in the Paraguayan War, with 16,000 casualties.
  • May 26 – First production of the comic opera Cox and Box by F. C. Burnand and Arthur Sullivan at Moray Lodge, Kensington
  • June 2Fenian forces skirmish with Canadian militia at the battles of Ridgeway and Fort Erie.
  • June 5 – Calculations indicate Pluto (not known at this time) reaches its only aphelion (furthest point from the Sun) between 1618 and August 2113.
  • June 8 – The Canadian Parliament meets for the first time in Ottawa.
  • June 11 – The Agra High Court is established (later shifted to the Allahabad High Court).
  • June 14 – The Austro-Prussian War begins, when the Austrians and most of the medium German states declare war on Prussia.
  • June 20 – The Kingdom of Italy declares war on Austria.
  • June 22 – In Sweden, the Riksdag of the Estates votes to replace itself by an elected 2-chamber Riksdag.
  • June 27June 29Battle of Langensalza: The Prussians defeat the Hanoverian army.

July–September

  • July 1 – The first Constitution of Romania is issued.
  • July 3Battle of Königgrätz: the Prussian army under King Wilhelm and Helmuth von Moltke defeats the Austrian army of Ludwig von Benedek, leading to a decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War.
  • July 5Princess Helena, third daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein.
  • July 20 – Naval Battle of Lissa: The Austrian fleet under Wilhelm von Tegetthoff defeats the Italian fleet of Carlo di Persano.
  • July 24Reconstruction: Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union following the American Civil War.
  • July 25 – The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (now called "5-star general"); Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to have this rank.
File:Atlantic cable Map.jpg

July 27: Atlantic Cable.

  • July 27 – The Template:SS successfully completes laying the transatlantic telegraph cable between Valentia Island, Ireland and Heart's Content, Newfoundland, permanently restoring a communications link.
  • July 28 – The Metric Act of 1866 becomes law and legalizes the standardization of weights and measures in the United States.
  • August 23 – The Treaty of Prague ends the Austro-Prussian War. The Duchy of Limburg leaves the German Confederation.
  • September – The Great Tea Race of 1866 ends in London, narrowly won by the clipper ship Taeping.
  • September 22Paraguay successfully defends Curupayty against the Triple Alliance in the Paraguayan War, killing more than 5,000 with just about 50 casualties.

October–December

File:AlfredNobel2.jpg

Alfred Nobel

  • October 12 – The Treaty of Vienna ends the war between Austria and Italy; it formalizes the annexation of Venetia by Italy.
  • October 14 – French troops under the command of Rear Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze land at Ganghwa Island, Korea as part of a punitive expedition against that kingdom for the execution of French Jesuit priests. It is the first military contact between Korea and a Western force.
  • November 7 – The Ruse–Varna railway line (the first railway in Bulgaria) officially opens.
  • December 18 – The College of Wooster is founded in Ohio.[2]

Date unknown

  • Federalist revolts occur in Argentina.
  • Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Germany.
  • Foundation of the predecessors of Nestlé S.A., the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé.
  • The Minneapolis Milling Company, predecessor of General Mills, builds its own mills.
  • Marcus Jastrow arrives in the United States to become rabbi of Congregation Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia.
  • The recommendations of the state Girl School Committee of 1866 result in a series of progressive reforms in women's rights in Sweden.
  • The Famine of 1866–68 begin in Finland.

Births

January–March

  • January 5William B. Hanna, American sportswriter (d. 1930)
  • January 13
    • Emilia Broomé, Swedish politician, feminist and pacifist (d. 1925)
    • George Gurdjieff, Russian spiritual teacher (d. 1949)
    • Vasily Kalinnikov, Russian composer (d. 1901)
  • January 15
    • Nathan Söderblom, Swedish archbishop, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1931)
    • Horatio Dresser, American New Thought religious leader and writer (d. 1954)
  • January 16Percy Pilcher, English inventor and pioneer aviator (d. 1899)
  • January 29Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
  • February 2Enrique Simonet, Spanish painter (d. 1927)
  • February 9George Ade, American writer, newspaper columnist, and playwright (d. 1944)
  • February 18Janko Vukotić, Montenegrin general (d. 1927)
  • February 19Louis-Henri Foreau, French painter (d. 1938)
  • February 26Herbert Henry Dow, Canadian chemical industrialist (d. 1930)
  • March 5Arthur Leopold Busch, English-born American submarine pioneer (d. 1956)
  • March 7Hans Fruhstorfer, German lepidopterist (d. 1922)
  • March 17Pierce Butler, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1939)
  • March 19Emilio de Bono, Italian general and fascist activist (d. 1944)
  • March 30George Van Haltren, American baseball player (d. 1945)

April–June

  • April 1
    • William Blomfield, New Zealand cartoonist (d. 1938)
    • Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist and composer (d. 1924)
  • April 13Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (k. 1909)
  • April 14Anne Sullivan, American tutor of Helen Keller (d. 1936)
  • April 17Ernest Starling, English physiologist (d. 1927)
  • April 22Hans von Seeckt, German general (d. 1936)
  • April 24Ishii Kikujirō, Japanese diplomat (d. 1945)
  • May 5Thomas B. Thrige, Danish industrialist (d. 1938)
  • May 17Erik Satie, French composer (d. 1925)
  • May 22Charles F. Haanel, American New Thought author and businessman (d. 1949)
  • June 4Miina Sillanpää, Finnish politician (d. 1952)
  • June 26George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier of Egyptian excavations (d. 1923)
  • June 29Bartholomeus Roodenburch, Dutch swimmer (d. 1939)

July–September

File:H.G. Wells by Beresford.jpg

H. G. Wells

File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg

Thomas Hunt Morgan

File:Vassily-Kandinsky.jpeg

Wassily Kandinsky

October–December

Deaths

January–June

  • January (date unknown) – Thomas Baldwin Marsh, American religious leader (b. 1799)
  • January 16Phineas Quimby, American physician (b. 1802)
  • January 19Harriet Ludlow Clarke, British artist
  • January 23Thomas Love Peacock, English satirist (b. 1785)
  • January 31Friedrich Rückert, German poet, translator and professor of Oriental languages (b. 1788)
  • February 25Sarah Ann Gill, Barbadian national heroine (b. 1795)
  • March 4Alexander Campbell, Irish/U.S. founder of the Disciples of Christ (b. 1788)
  • March 6William Whewell, English scientist, philosopher and historian of science (b. 1794)
  • March 20Rikard Nordraak, Norwegian composer (b. 1842)
  • March 21Nadezhda Durova, first female Russian military officer (b. 1783)
  • March 28Solomon Foot, American politician (b. 1802)
  • March 29John Keble, British churchman (b. 1792)
  • April 1Elizabeth Jesser Reid, English social reformer, founder of Bedford College (b. 1789)
  • April 4William Dick, founder of Edinburgh Veterinary College (b. 1793)
  • April 5Thomas Hodgkin, British physician (b. 1798)
  • April 12Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood, English Member of Parliament and developer (b. 1801)
  • May 13Nikolai Brashman, Russian mathematician of Czech origin (b.1796)
  • May 29Winfield Scott, American general and presidential candidate (b. 1786)
  • June 7Chief Sealth, Native American for whom Seattle is named (b. c. 1786)

July–December

File:Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann.jpeg

Bernhard Riemann

  • July 20Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician (b. 1826)
  • July 25Floride Calhoun, Second Lady of the United States (b. 1792)
  • August 6Christian Eric Fahlcrantz, Swedish writer (b. 1790)
  • August 20Maria De Mattias, Catholic saint (b. 1805)
  • August 29Tokugawa Iemochi, 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan (b. 1846)
  • October 13Celadon Leeds Daboll, American merchant and inventor (b. 1818)
  • November 11Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte, Prince Imperial of Mexico (b. 1807)
  • November 14 – King Miguel I of Portugal (b. 1802)
  • November 26Jean-Jacques Willmar, Luxembourg politician (b. 1792)
  • December 1George Everest, Welsh geodesist (b. 1790)
  • September 21Mercedes Marín del Solar, international Chilean poet and reform educator (b. 1804)

Date unknown

  • Du Bois Agett, early settler of Western Australia (b. 1796)

References

  1. "Civil Rights Act of 1866", in Encyclopedia of African American History, Volume 1, Leslie Alexander, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p699.
  2. "Fast Facts". The College of Wooster. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
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