Culture Wikia

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1860 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1860
Ab urbe condita2613
Armenian calendar1309
Assyrian calendar6610
Bahá'í calendar16–17
Balinese saka calendar1781–1782
Bengali calendar1267
Berber calendar2810
British Regnal year23 Vict. 1 – 24 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2404
Burmese calendar1222
Byzantine calendar7368–7369
Chinese calendar己未(Earth Goat)
4556 or 4496
    — to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4557 or 4497
Coptic calendar1576–1577
Discordian calendar3026
Ethiopian calendar1852–1853
Hebrew calendar5620–5621
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1916–1917
 - Shaka Samvat1781–1782
 - Kali Yuga4960–4961
Holocene calendar11860
Igbo calendar860–861
Iranian calendar1238–1239
Islamic calendar1276–1277
Japanese calendarAnsei 7 / Man'en 1
Javanese calendar1788–1789
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4193
Minguo calendar52 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar392
Thai solar calendar2402–2403
Tibetan calendar阴土羊年
(female Earth-Goat)
1986 or 1605 or 833
    — to —
(male Iron-Monkey)
1987 or 1606 or 834

1860 (MDCCCLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1860th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 860th year of the , the 60th year of the , and the 1st year of the decade. As of the start of 1860, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • January 10 – The Pemberton Mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts, USA, collapses, killing 146 workers.
  • January 13 – Spanish victory (under General Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuanat) at the Battle of Tétouan, Morocco.
  • January 20Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour is recalled as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia.
  • February 22 – Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Massachusetts, strike successfully for higher wages. The strike spreads throughout New England and eventually involves 20,000 workers.
  • February 26 – White settlers massacre a band of Wiyot Indians on Indian Island near Eureka, California. At least 60 women, children and elders are killed. Bret Harte, newspaper reporter in Arcata, reports the news to newspapers in San Francisco.
  • February 28 – The Artists Rifles is established, as the 38th Middlesex (Artists) Rifle Volunteer Corps, with headquarters at Burlington House in London.[1]
  • March 6 – While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln makes a speech defending the right to strike.
  • March 9 – The first Japanese embassy to the United States arrive in San Francisco.
  • March 17 – The First Taranaki War begins at Waitara, New Zealand when Māori refuse to sell land to British settlers.
  • March 22 – The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is annexed to the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
  • March 24Sakuradamon Incident: Rōnin samurai of the Mito Domain in Japan assassinate tairō (Chief Minister) Ii Naosuke outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle, dissafected with his role in the opening of Japan to foreign powers.
  • March–August – The second rout of the Jiangnan Daying destroys the Qing dynasty's army of 180,000.


  • April 2 – The first Italian Parliament meet at Turin.
  • April 3 – The Pony Express begins its first run from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California with riders carrying a small bible.
  • April 4 – A new uprising erupts in Palermo.
  • April 9 – French typesetter Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville sings the French folk song "Au clair de la lune" to his phonautograph; producing the world's earliest known sound recording (however, it is not rediscovered until 2008).
  • May 1 – A Chondrite-type meteorite falls to earth in Muskingum County, Ohio near the town of New Concord.
  • May 6Giuseppe Garibaldi and his troops depart from Quarto on the Expedition of the Thousand.
  • May 8 – In New Granada (modern-day Colombia) the southern state of Cauca secedes from the central government in protest at the suggestion of increase of presidential powers; Magdalena and Bolívar join it, civil war erupts.
  • May 9 – The U.S. Constitutional Union Party holds its convention and nominates John Bell for President of the United States.
  • May 15Battle of Calatafimi: Troops under Giuseppe Garibaldi defeat the army of Naples in Sicily, during the Expedition of the Thousand.
  • May 17 – The German association football club TSV 1860 München is founded.
  • May 18Abraham Lincoln is selected as the U.S. presidential candidate for the Republican Party.
  • May 27 – Garibaldi's forces take Palermo, the capital of Sicily.
  • May 28 – One of the worst storms ever experienced in the region hits the east coast of England, sinking more than 100 ships and killing at least 40 people.[2]
  • 12 June [O.S. 31 May] 1860 – The State Bank of the Russian Empire is established.
  • June 30 – The historic debate about evolution is held at the Oxford University Museum.


File:Giuseppe Garibaldi 1870 Nadar.jpg

July 20: Garibaldi.

  • July 2Vladivostok is founded in Russia.
  • July 9 – The Nightingale Training School and Home for Nurses, the first nursing school based on the ideas of Florence Nightingale, is opened at St Thomas' Hospital in London.
  • July 11 – Mutsuhito (the future Emperor Meiji) becomes Crown Prince of Japan.
  • July 20Battle of Milazzo: The forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi defeat royal Neapolitan forces near Messina, bringing nearly all of Sicily under Garibaldi's control.
  • August 22 – Assisted by the British navy, the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi cross from Sicily to the Italian mainland.
  • September 3September 5 – The First International Chemistry Congress is held in Karlsruhe, Baden.
  • September 7
    • The Template:PS is accidentally rammed and sunk in Lake Michigan; hundreds drown.
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi's forces capture Naples.
  • September 10 – Piedmontese forces invade the Papal States, hoping to link up with Garibaldi in Naples.
  • September 18Battle of Castelfidardo: The Piedmontese decisively defeat the Papal forces, allowing them to continue their march into Neapolitan territory, and effectively reducing the Papal States to the territory around Rome.
  • September 24Battle of Guayaquil: Ecuadorian forces led by Juan José Flores and Gabriel García Moreno take the port of Guayaquil from Supreme Chief Guillermo Franco, who is backed by Peruvian forces.


  • October – John Hanning Speke and James Augustus Grant leave Zanzibar to search for the source of the Nile River.
  • October 1Battle of Volturnus: Garibaldi defeats the last organized army of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
  • October 5 – Austria, Britain, France, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire form a commission to investigate the causes of the massacres of Maronite Christians, committed by Druzes in Lebanon earlier in the year.
  • October 17The Open Championship, also known as the British Open, is played for the first time at Prestwick Golf Club in Ayrshire, Scotland. The event is won by Willie Park Sr
  • October 18 – The first Convention of Peking formally ends the Second Opium War.
  • October 1821 – Beijing's Old Summer Palace is burned to the ground by orders of British general Lord Elgin in retaliation for mistreatment of several prisoners of war during the Second Opium War.
  • October 19 – A new Māori revolt begins in New Zealand.
  • October 26
    • Garibaldi again defeats the Neapolitan forces, advancing on Gaeta, the last remaining Neapolitan strong-point.
    • Meeting at Teano: Giuseppe Garibaldi gives Naples to the king Victor Emmanuel II, recognizing him as King of Italy.
  • November 3 – The combined forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel II besiege King Francis II of the Two Sicilies in Gaeta, his last remaining stronghold.
  • November 6U.S. presidential election: Abraham Lincoln beats John C. Breckinridge, Stephen A. Douglas, and John Bell and is elected as the 16th President of the United States, the first Republican to hold that office.
  • December 1Charles Dickens publishes the first installment of Great Expectations in his magazine All the Year Round.
  • December 7 – After a fiercely contested campaign, Monier Monier-Williams is elected as the new Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University.
  • December 20South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States Union.
File:Hms warrior.jpg

December 29: HMS Warrior (restored).

Date unknown[]

  • Christians and Druzes clash in Damascus, Syria.
  • In Buenos Aires, leader Bartolomé Mitre subverts the Argentine Confederation and begins to establish a new centralist government with the help of Uruguayan Colorado party leader Venancio Flores.
  • China agrees in an unequal treaty imposed on it to allow missionaries to proselytize throughout the country.
  • Discovery of the chemical elements: Robert Bunsen discovers caesium and rubidium.
  • German chemist Albert Niemann makes a detailed analysis of the coca leaf, isolating and purifying the alkaloid which he calls cocaine.[3]
  • Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, and Empress Eugénie visit Algiers and stay at the Casbah of Algiers.[4]
  • Augustana College is founded in Chicago, United States by Scandinavian immigrants.[5]
  • Britain produces 20% of the entire world's output of industrial goods.
  • The Russian Empire has c. 1,250 miles (2,010 km) of railroads.
  • The American South has c. 4 million slaves.
  • 1860–1900 – 14 million immigrants come to the USA.



File:Takaaki Kato suit.jpg

Takaaki Kato

File:Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg

Charles Curtis


File:Lizzie borden.jpg

Lizzie Borden

File:Annie Oakley by Baker's Art Gallery c1880s-crop.jpg

Annie Oakley

  • July 3Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American feminist (d. 1935)
  • July 7Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer (d. 1911)
  • July 16Otto Jespersen, Danish linguist, creator of Ido and Novial languages (d.1943)
  • July 19Lizzie Borden, American murder suspect (d. 1927)
  • July 31Sir George Warrender, 7th Baronet, British admiral (d. 1917)
  • August 3W. K. Dickson, Scottish inventor (d. 1935)
  • August 7Alan Leo, British astrologer (d. 1917)
  • August 10Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Indian musician (d. 1936)
  • August 16Jules Laforgue, French poet (d. 1887)
  • August 13Annie Oakley, American west show performer (d. 1926)
  • August 15
    • Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist, dramatist, and impersonator (d. 1941)
    • Florence Harding, First Lady of the United States (d. 1924)
  • August 20Raymond Poincaré, French president (d. 1934)
  • September 5Andrew Volstead, American politician (d. 1947)
  • September 6Jane Addams, American social worker, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1935)
  • September 7 – Anna Mary Robertson Moses aka Grandma Moses, painter & centoginerean (d. 1961)
  • September 13John J. Pershing, American general (d. 1948)
  • September 15Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, Indian engineer and statesman (d. 1962)
  • October 31Juliette Gordon Low, the founder of Girl Scouts (d. 1927)
  • November 1Boies Penrose, United States Senator from Pennsylvania (d. 1921)
  • November 6Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Polish pianist and composer (d. 1941)
  • November 16John Henry Kirby, Texas legislator and American businessman (d. 1940)
  • November 23Hjalmar Branting, Prime Minister of Sweden, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1925)
  • December 4Charles de Broqueville, Belgian Prime Minister (d. 1940)
  • December 7Joseph Cook, sixth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1947)
  • December 15
  • December 25Manuel Dimech, Maltese philosopher and social reformer (d. 1921)
  • December 31
    • Joseph S. Cullinan, American oil industrialist, founder of Texaco (d. 1937)
    • John T. Thompson, United States Army officer and inventor of the Thompson gun (d. 1940)

Date unknown[]

  • Lancelot Speed, British illustrator and silent film director (d. 1931)



  • January 1Thomas Hobbes Scott, English clergyman (b. 1783)
  • January 5John Neumann, Saint and Roman Catholic Bishop of Philadelphia (b. 1811)
  • January 10Ezequiel Zamora, leader of the Federalist Army in Venezuela (b. 1817)
  • January 13William Mason, American politician (b. 1786)
  • January 27
    • János Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1802)
    • Thomas Brisbane, Scottish astronomer (b. 1773)
  • January 29
    • Ernst Moritz Arndt, German writer and poet (b. 1769)
    • Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Grand Duchess of Baden (b. 1789)
  • February 29George Bridgetower, Afro-Polish violinist (b. 1778)
  • March 6Justus Johann Friedrich Dotzauer, German cellist and composer (b. 1783)
  • March 14Carl Ritter von Ghega, Venetian road engineer of Albanian origine (b. 1802)
  • March 17Anna Jameson, British author
  • March 25James Braid, Scottish surgeon (b. 1795)
  • May 10Theodore Parker, American preacher, Transcendentalist, and abolitionist (b. 1810)
  • May 12 – Sir Charles Barry, English architect (b. 1795)
  • May 16Anne Isabella Milbanke, wife of Lord Byron (b. 1792)
  • May 21Phineas Gage, improbable head injury survivor (b. 1823)
  • June 30Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert, German naturalist (b. 1780)


File:Charles Goodyear.png

Charles Goodyear

File:Schopenhauer 1852.jpg

Arthur Schopenhauer

  • July 1Charles Goodyear, American inventor (b. 1800)
  • September 12William Walker, American filibuster who was briefly President of Nicaragua (executed)
  • September 21Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher (b. 1788)
  • October 12Sir Harry Smith, English soldier and military commander (b. 1787)
  • October 22Wanda Malecka, Polish publisher (b. 1800)
  • October 31Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, British admiral (b. 1775)
  • November 1Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia), the Empress Consort of Russian Emperor Nicholas I (b. 1798)
  • December 14George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1784)

Date unknown[]

  • Dai Xi, Chinese painter (b. 1801)


  1. See
  2. Among those rescued at sea is the crew of the brig Hannah, captained by George Jezzard, the great-great-great-grandfather of the actor David Suchet.
  3. Niemann, Albert (1860). On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves ("Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern", published version of Ph.D. dissertation).
  4. "Interior of Governors Palace, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  5. The college moves to Paxton, Illinois, in 1862 and eventually splits into a Swedish college in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1875 and a Norwegian college in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in 1918.



  1. Au clair de la lune Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  2. Gamme de la voix Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  3. Othello Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  4. Vole, petite abeille (Live) Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  5. Vole, petite abeille (Live) Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  6. Aminta Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville