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1857 (MDCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1857th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 857th year of the , the 57th year of the , and the 8th year of the decade. As of the start of Template:Year article header/Julian day, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Events

January–March

  • January 1 – The biggest Estonian newspaper Postimees is established by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
  • January 7 – The partly French-owned London General Omnibus Company begins operating.[1]
  • January 9 – The 7.9 Mw Fort Tejon earthquake shakes Central and Southern California with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).
  • January 24 – The University of Calcutta is established in Calcutta as the first multidisciplinary modern university in South Asia. The University of Bombay is also established in Bombay, British India, this year.
  • February 3 – The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, D.C., becoming the first school for the advanced education of the deaf.
  • February 5Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States promulgated.[2]
  • March 3
    • France and the United Kingdom formally declare war on China in the Second Opium War.
    • The largest slave auction in United States history, dubbed as 'The Weeping Time'. Over a 2-day period (starting March 2), Pierce M. Butler sells 436 men, women, children, and infants, all of whom are kept in stalls meant for horses at a racetrack in Savannah, Georgia, for weeks beforehand.[3]
  • March 4James Buchanan is sworn in as President of the United States.
  • March 6Dred Scott v. Sandford: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Blacks are not citizens and slaves can not sue for freedom, driving the country further towards the American Civil War (the ruling is not overturned until the 14th Amendment in 1868).
  • March 12Elizabeth Blackwell opens a hospital, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children.
  • March 14Youssef Bey Karam was assigned by the people of Ehden and Bsharri to be the region's ruler.
  • March 23Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed (at 488 Broadway, New York City).

April–June

  • April 4 – End of the Anglo-Persian War.
  • April 18The Spirits' Book (Le Livre des Esprits), one of the Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism, is published by French educator Allan Kardec.
  • May 5October 17The Art Treasures of Great Britain exhibition is held in Manchester, one of the largest such displays of all time.[4]
  • May 10Indian Rebellion of 1857: The 3rd Light Cavalry of the British East India Company's army rebels against its British officers, thus beginning the rebellion.
  • May 11Indian Rebellion of 1857: Indian combatants capture Delhi from the British East India Company.
  • June 6Sophia of Nassau marries the future King Oscar II of Sweden–Norway.
  • June 12 – American mercenary William Walker is overthrown as ruler of Nicaragua by Honduran general Florencio Xatruch.
  • June 22 – The Victoria and Albert Museum in London is officially opened by Queen Victoria.
  • June 26 – At a ceremony in London, Queen Victoria awards the first sixty-six Victoria Crosses to British troops, for actions during the Crimean War.[1]

July–September

  • July 1November 19Indian Rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow.
  • July 15Indian Rebellion of 1857: The second massacre at Kanpur takes place.
  • July 18
    • The Utah Expedition leaves Fort Leavenworth, effectively beginning the Utah War.
    • Last use of prison hulks in the United Kingdom.[5]
  • August 20 – The Dunbar wrecked near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with the loss of 121 lives.
  • August 28Matrimonial Causes Act makes divorce without parliamentary approval legally possible in the United Kingdom.[6]
  • September – Panic of 1857 begins: Speculation in U.S. railroad shares and collapse on August 24 of the New York City branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company following widespread embezzlement trigger a financial crisis which will extend to Europe.
  • September 11Mountain Meadows massacre in Utah.
  • September 12 – The Template:SS sinks off the coast of North Carolina, killing 425 people.
  • September 20 – In India, British forces recapture Delhi,[6] compelling the surrender of Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor.

October–December

  • October 13 – Panic of 1857: New York banks close and do not reopen until December 12.
  • October 24Sheffield F.C., the world's first association football team, is founded in Sheffield, England.
  • November 30President of Mexico Ignacio Comonfort is succeeded by Félix María Zuloaga.
  • December – Reform War in Mexico begins.
  • December 16 – The 7.0 Mw Basilicata earthquake shakes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing about 10,000 people.
  • December 20 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria issues a decree, Es ist Mein Wille, which leads to the demolition of the city walls of Vienna, allowing the construction of the Ringstraße.
  • December 31Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, as the capital of Canada.

Date unknown

  • The Mormons abandon Las Vegas.
  • Kuala Lumpur, the future capital of Malaysia, is founded as a tin mining settlement.
  • La Tène culture artifacts are discovered in Switzerland by Hansli Kopp.
  • Illinois State University, the first public university in Illinois, is established in Normal, Illinois
  • American politician William Daniel proposes the Local Option for Prohibition.
  • 1857–1924 – 7 out of 10 people who land in Argentina are single males between 13 and 40 years old.

Births

January–June

File:Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.jpg

Heinrich Hertz

File:Papst Pius XI. 1JS.jpg

Pope Pius XI

  • January 2Uryū Sotokichi, Japanese admiral (d. 1937)
  • January 4Émile Courtet, French caricaturist and animator (d. 1938)
  • January 11William Gentles, US army private, known for killing Crazy Horse (d. 1932)
  • January 12
    • Knut Ångström, Swedish physicist (d. 1910)
    • Léon de Witte de Haelen, Belgian general (d. 1933)
  • January 13Anastasios Papoulas, Greek general (d. 1935)
  • January 26 – the 12th Dalai Lama (d. 1875)
  • January 31George Jackson Churchward, GWR Chief mechanical engineer (d. 1933)
  • February 13Almanzo James Wilder, American writer (d. 1949)
  • February 22
    • Robert Baden-Powell, English founder of the Scouting movement (d. 1941)
    • Heinrich Hertz, German physicist (d. 1894)
  • March 6George Dayton, American businessman and founder of Target Corporation (d. 1938)
  • March 7Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austrian neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1940)
  • March 13
    • Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, British general (d. 1932)
    • Hilda Sachs, Swedish journalist and women's rights activist (d. 1935)
  • March 21Hunter Liggett, American general (d. 1935)
  • March 27Karl Pearson, English statistician (d. 1936)
  • March 30Léon Charles Thévenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
  • April 5Alexander of Battenberg, first Prince of Bulgaria (d. 1893)
  • April 14
    • Princess Beatrice, youngest child of Queen Victoria (d. 1944)
    • Victor Horsley, English physician and surgeon (d. 1916)
  • April 22Paul Dresser, American songwriter (d. 1906)
  • April 23Ruggero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
  • April 30Walter Simon, German philanthropist (d. 1920)
  • May 7William A. MacCorkle, Governor of West Virginia (d. 1930)
  • May 13Ronald Ross, English physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1932)
  • May 15Williamina Fleming, Scottish astronomer (d. 1911)
  • May 19John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist (d. 1938)
  • May 24Richard Mansfield, Anglo-American stage actor (d. 1907)
  • May 28Robert C. Hilliard, American stage actor (d. 1927)
  • May 31Pope Pius XI (d. 1939)
  • June 2
    • Edward Elgar, English composer (d. 1934)
    • Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1919)
  • June 10 – Caroline Louise Dudley(later Mrs. Leslie Carter) American stage actress (d. 1937)
  • June 12Kate Lester, English stage & silent screen actress (d. 1924)
  • June 30Friedrich von Ingenohl, German admiral (d. 1933)

July–December

  • July 11Alfred Binet, French psychologist (Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales) (d. 1911)
  • July 19Eugen Bamberger, German chemist (d. 1932)
  • July 22Shams-ul-haq Azeemabadi, Islamic scholar (d. 1911)
  • July 23Carl Meinhof, German linguist (d. 1944)
  • July 24
    • Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1943)
    • Juan Vicente Gómez, former President of Venezuela (d. 1935)
  • July 25Nat C. Goodwin, American actor (d. 1919)
  • July 28Ballington Booth, Salvation Army Officer and co-founder of Volunteers of America (d. 1940)
  • July 30
    • Lucy Bacon, Californian Impressionist painter (d. 1932)
    • Thorstein Veblen, American economist (d. 1929)
  • August 8Henry Fairfield Osborn, American geologist, paleontologist, and eugenist (d. 1935)
  • August 12Ernestine von Kirchsberg, Austrian painter (d. 1924)
  • August 14Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
  • August 15Albert Ballin, German shipping magnate owner of the Hamburg America Line (d. 1918)
  • August 27Oskar von Hutier, German general (d. 1934)
  • August 30Alexandra Gripenberg, Finnish women's rights activist and politician (d. 1913)
  • September 5Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Russian scientist and inventor (d. 1935)
  • September 8Georg Michaelis, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1936)
  • September 13
    • Michał Drzymała, Polish peasant and revolutionary (d. 1937)
    • Milton S. Hershey, American chocolate manufacturer (d. 1945)
  • September 15William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States (d. 1930)
  • September 18John Hessin Clarke, American Supreme Court Justice (d. 1945)
  • September 20Antoine de Mitry, French general (d. 1924)
  • September 28Lewis Bayly, British admiral (d. 1938)
  • October 2
    • Martinus Theunis Steyn, Boer lawyer, politician, and statesman, sixth and last President of the Orange Free State (1896-1902) (d. 1916)
    • A. E. Waite, British occultist (d. 1942)
  • October 5Peadar Mac Fhionnlaoich, Irish language writer (d. 1942)
  • October 24Ned Williamson, American baseball player (d. 1894)
  • November 3Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (d. 1918)
  • November 5
    • Joseph Tabrar, British songwriter (d. 1931)
    • Ida Tarbell, American journalist (d. 1944)
  • November 14Mihail Savov, Bulgarian general (d. 1928)
  • November 17George Marchant, English-born inventor, manufacturer, and philanthropist (d. 1941)
  • November 24Miklós Kovács Hungarian Slovene writer (d. 1937)
  • November 26Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist (d. 1913)
  • November 27Charles Scott Sherrington, English physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1952)
  • November 28 – King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
  • December 3Joseph Conrad, Polish-British novelist (d. 1924)

Date unknown

  • Zübeyde Hanım, mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (d. 1923)

Deaths

January–June

  • January 27Dorothea Lieven, Latvian diplomat and politically active princess (b. 1785)
  • February 10David Thompson, British-Canadian explorer (b. 1770)
  • February 15Mikhail Glinka, Russian composer (b. 1804)
  • February 16Elisha Kane, American explorer of the Arctic regions (b. 1820)
  • March 11Manuel José Quintana, poet (b. 1772)
  • May 2Alfred de Musset, French poet (b. 1810)
  • May 11Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal and private detective (b. 1775)
  • May 13Parley P. Pratt, early Latter Day Saint movement leader (murdered) (b. 1807)
  • May 23Augustin-Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (b. 1789)
  • May 29Agustina de Aragón, Spanish heroine (b. 1786)
  • April 8Mangal Pandey, Indian soldier (b. 1827)
  • June 30Alcide d'Orbigny, naturalist (b. 1802)

July–December

File:Joseph Eichendorff.jpg

Joseph Eichendorff

  • July 4Henry Montgomery Lawrence, soldier and statesman (b. 1806)
  • July 15Carl Czerny, Austrian composer (b. 1791)
  • July 19Stefano Franscini, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1796)
  • July 29Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist and ornithologist (b. 1803)
  • August 3Eugène Sue, French novelist (b. 1804)
  • August 29Stephen Cassin, United States Navy officer (b. 1783)
  • September 3John McLoughlin, Canadian trapper (b. 1784)
  • September 5Auguste Comte, French philosopher (b. 1798)
  • November 12Maximilian Spinola, entomologist (b. 1780)
  • November 26Joseph von Eichendorff, German poet (b. 1788)
  • December 3Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (b. 1777)
  • December 15Sir George Cayley, English aviation pioneer (b. 1773)
  • December 27Lucien Baudens, French military surgeon (b. 1804)
  • date unknown - Elizabeth Philpot, British paleontologist (b. 1780)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  2. "Día de la Constitución Mexicana (5 de Febrero)". Guia de San Miguel. 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2011.Template:FixTemplate:Cbignore
  3. "The Weeping Time". Africans in America. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  4. Exhibition of art treasures of the United Kingdom, held at Manchester in 1857: report of the Executive Committee. 1859. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  5. Gossett, William Patrick (1986). The lost ships of the Royal Navy, 1793-1900. Mansell. p. 114. ISBN 0-7201-1816-6.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 277–278. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.

Music

Singles

  1. Jeune jouvencelle Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
  2. Êtude Sur Le Timbre De La Voix Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
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